Structure of the intramolecular human telomeric G-quadruplex in potassium solution: a novel adenine triple formation.
ABSTRACT: We report the NMR solution structure of the intramolecular G-quadruplex formed in human telomeric DNA in K(+). The hybrid-type telomeric G-quadruplex consists of three G-tetrads linked with mixed parallel-antiparallel G-strands, with the bottom two G-tetrads having the same G-arrangement (anti:anti:syn:anti) and the top G-tetrad having the reversed G-arrangement (syn:syn:anti:syn). The three TTA loop segments adopt different conformations, with the first TTA assuming a double-chain-reversal loop conformation, and the second and third TTA assuming lateral loop conformations. The NMR structure is very well defined, including the three TTA loops and the two flanking sequences at 5'- and 3'-ends. Our study indicates that the three loop regions interact with the core G-tetrads in a specific way that defines and stabilizes the unique human telomeric G-quadruplex structure in K(+). Significantly, a novel adenine triple platform is formed with three naturally occurring adenine residues, A21, A3 and A9, capping the top tetrad of the hybrid-type telomeric G-quadruplex. This adenine triple is likely to play an important role in the formation of a stable human telomeric G-quadruplex structure in K(+). The unique human telomeric G-quadruplex structure formed in K(+) suggests that it can be specifically targeted for anticancer drug design.
Project description:Previously, it has been reported that human telomeric DNA sequences could adopt in different experimental conditions four different intramolecular G-quadruplexes each involving three G-tetrad layers, namely, Na(+) solution antiparallel-stranded basket form, K(+) crystal parallel-stranded propeller form, K(+) solution (3 + 1) Form 1, and K(+) solution (3 + 1) Form 2. Here we present a new intramolecular G-quadruplex adopted by a four-repeat human telomeric sequence in K(+) solution (Form 3). This structure is a basket-type G-quadruplex with only two G-tetrad layers: loops are successively edgewise, diagonal, and edgewise; glycosidic conformations of guanines are syn x syn x anti x anti around each tetrad. Each strand of the core has both a parallel and an antiparallel adjacent strands; there are one narrow, one wide, and two medium grooves. Despite the presence of only two G-tetrads in the core, this structure is more stable than the three-G-tetrad intramolecular G-quadruplexes previously observed for human telomeric sequences in K(+) solution. Detailed structural elucidation of Form 3 revealed extensive base pairing and stacking in the loops capping both ends of the G-tetrad core, which might explain the high stability of the structure. This novel structure highlights the conformational heterogeneity of human telomeric DNA. It establishes a new folding principle for G-quadruplexes and suggests new loop sequences and structures for targeting in human telomeric DNA.
Project description:Recently, the two-repeat human telomeric d(TAGGGTTAGGGT) sequence has been shown to form interconverting parallel and antiparallel G-quadruplex structures in solution. Here, we examine the structures formed by the two-repeat Tetrahymena telomeric d(TGGGGTTGGGGT) sequence, which differs from the human sequence only by one G-for-A replacement in each repeat. We show by NMR that this sequence forms two novel G-quadruplex structures in Na+-containing solution. Both structures are asymmetric, dimeric G-quadruplexes involving a core of four stacked G-tetrads and two edgewise loops. The adjacent strands of the G-tetrad core are alternately parallel and antiparallel. All G-tetrads adopt syn.syn.anti.anti alignments, which occur with 5'-syn-anti-syn-anti-3' alternations along G-tracks. In the first structure (head-to-head), two loops are at one end of the G-tetrad core; in the second structure (head-to-tail), two loops are located on opposite ends of the G-tetrad core. In contrast to the human telomere counterpart, the proportions of the two forms here are similar for a wide range of temperatures; their unfolding rates are also similar, with an activation enthalpy of 153 kJ/mol.
Project description:Human telomeric guanine-rich DNA, which could adopt different G-quadruplex structures, plays important roles in protecting the cell from recombination and degradation. Although many of these structures were determined, the chair-type G-quadruplex structure remains elusive. Here, we present a crystal structure of the G-quadruplex composed of the human telomeric sequence d[GGGTTAGG8GTTAGGGTTAGG20G] with two dG to 8Br-dG substitutions at positions 8 and 20 with syn conformation in the K+ solution. It forms a novel three-layer chair-type G-quadruplex with two linking trinucleotide loops. Particularly, T5 and T17 are coplanar with two water molecules stacking on the G-tetrad layer in a sandwich-like mode through a coordinating K+ ion and an A6•A18 base pair. While a twisted Hoogsteen A12•T10 base pair caps on the top of G-tetrad core. The three linking TTA loops are edgewise and each DNA strand has two antiparallel adjacent strands. Our findings contribute to a deeper understanding and highlight the unique roles of loop and water molecule in the folding of the G-quadruplex.
Project description:UVB irradiation of human telomeric d(GGGTTA)3 GGG sequences in potassium ion solution crosslinks the first and third TTA segments through anti cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation. The photocrosslinking reaction was first proposed to occur through a form 3 two-tetrad G-quadruplex in which the lateral four-nucleotide GTTA loop can interact with an adjacent TTA loop. Curiously, the reaction does not occur with sodium ion, which was explained by the formation of a basket structure which only has three-nucleotide TTA loops that cannot interact. Sequences known or expected to favor the two-tetrad basket did not show enhanced photocrosslinking, suggesting that some other structure was the reactive intermediate. Herein, we report that anti CPDs form in human telomeric DNA sequences with lithium ion that is known to disfavor G-quadruplex formation, as well as with potassium ion when the bases are modified to interfere with G-quartet formation. We also show that anti CPDs form in sequences containing A's in place of G's that cannot form Hoogsteen hairpins, but can form reverse Hoogsteen hairpins. These results suggest that reverse Hoogsteen hairpins may play a hitherto unrecognized role in the biology and photoreactivity of DNA in telomeres, and possibly in other purine-rich sequences found in regulatory regions.
Project description:Human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex has been considered as an attractive target for cancer therapeutic intervention. The telomeric sequence shows intrinsic structure polymorphism. Here we report a novel intramolecular G-quadruplex structure formed by a variant human telomeric sequence in K(+) solution. This sequence forms a basket-type intramolecular G-quadruplex with only two G-tetrads but multiple-layer capping structures formed by loop residues. While it is shown that this structure can only be detected in the specifically truncated telomeric sequences without any 5'-flanking residues, our results suggest that this two-G-tetrad conformation is likely to be an intermediate form of the interconversion of different telomeric G-quadruplex conformations.
Project description:In this article, we report a structural study, based on NMR and CD spectroscopies, and molecular modelling of all possible d(TG(3)T) and d(TG(4)T) analogues containing two 8-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine residues (M). Particularly, the potential ability of these modified residues to orientate the strands and then to affect the folding topology of tetramolecular quadruplex structures has been investigated. Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) TMMGT (T12) and TMMGGT (F12) form parallel tetramolecular quadruplexes, characterized by an all-syn M-tetrad at the 5'-side stacked to all-anti M- and G-tetrads. ODNs TMGMT (T13) and TMGGMT (F14) form parallel tetramolecular quadruplexes, in which an all-anti G core is sandwiched between two all-syn M-tetrads at the 5'- and the 3'-side. Notably, the quadruplex formed by T13 corresponds to an unprecedented structure in which the syn residues exceed in number the anti ones. Conversely, ODN TGMGMT (F24) adopts a parallel arrangement in which all-anti G-tetrads alternate with all-syn M-tetrads. Most importantly, all data strongly suggest that ODN TMGMGT (F13) forms an unprecedented anti-parallel tetramolecular quadruplex in which G and M residues adopt anti and syn glycosidic conformations, respectively. This article opens up new understandings and perspectives about the intricate relationship between the quadruplex strands orientation and the glycosidic conformation of the residues.
Project description:We report on the solution structure of an unprecedented intramolecular G-quadruplex formed by the guanosine-rich human chl1 intronic d(G(3)-N-G(4)-N(2)-G(4)-N-G(3)-N) 19-mer sequence in K(+)-containing solution. This G-quadruplex, composed of three stacked G-tetrads containing four syn guanines, represents a new folding topology with two unique conformational features. The first guanosine is positioned within the central G-tetrad, in contrast to all previous structures of unimolecular G-quadruplexes, where the first guanosine is part of an outermost G-tetrad. In addition, a V-shaped loop, spanning three G-tetrad planes, contains no bridging nucleotides. The G-quadruplex scaffold is stabilized by a T*G*A triple stacked over the G-tetrad at one end and an unpaired guanosine stacked over the G-tetrad at the other end. Finally, the chl1 intronic DNA G-quadruplex scaffold contains a guanosine base intercalated between an extended G-G step, a feature observed in common with the catalytic site of group I introns. This unique structural scaffold provides a highly specific platform for the future design of ligands specifically targeted to intronic G-quadruplex platforms.
Project description:We present an NMR study on the structure of a DNA fragment of the human telomere containing three guanine-tracts, d(GGGTTAGGGTTAGGGT). This sequence forms in Na(+) solution a unique asymmetric dimeric quadruplex, in which the G-tetrad core involves all three G-tracts of one strand and only the last 3'-end G-tract of the other strand. We show that a three-repeat human telomeric sequence can also associate with a single-repeat human telomeric sequence into a structure with the same topology that we name (3 + 1) quadruplex assembly. In this G-quadruplex assembly, there are one syn.syn.syn.anti and two anti.anti.anti.syn G-tetrads, two edgewise loops, three G-tracts oriented in one direction and the fourth oriented in the opposite direction. We discuss the possible implications of the new folding topology for understanding the structure of telomeric DNA, including t-loop formation, and for targeting G-quadruplexes in the telomeres.
Project description:Uridine tetrads (U-tetrads) are a structural element encountered in RNA G-quadruplexes, for example, in the structures formed by the biologically relevant human telomeric repeat RNA. For these molecules, an unexpectedly strong stabilizing influence of a U-tetrad forming at the 3' terminus of a quadruplex was reported. Here we present the high-resolution solution NMR structure of the r(UGGUGGU)4 quadruplex which, in our opinion, provides an explanation for this stabilization. Our structure features a distinctive, abrupt chain reversal just prior to the 3' uridine tetrad. Similar "reversed U-tetrads" were already observed in the crystalline phase. However, our NMR structure coupled with extensive explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations identifies some key features of this motif that up to now remained overlooked. These include the presence of an exceptionally stable 2'OH to phosphate hydrogen bond, as well as the formation of an additional K+ binding pocket in the quadruplex groove.
Project description:We report on the NMR-based solution structure of the 93del d(GGGGTGGGAGGAGGGT) aptamer, a potent nanomolar inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase. This guanine-rich DNA sequence adopts an unusually stable dimeric quadruplex architecture in K+ solution. Within each 16-nt monomer subunit, which contains one A.(G.G.G.G) pentad sandwiched between two G.G.G.G tetrads, all G-stretches are parallel, and all guanines are anti with the exception of G1, which is syn. Dimer formation is achieved through mutual pairing of G1 of one monomer, with G2, G6, and G13 of the other monomer, to complete G.G.G.G tetrad formation. There are three single-nucleotide double-chain-reversal loops within each monomer fold, such that the first (T5) and third (A12) loops bridge three G-tetrad layers, whereas the second (A9) loop bridges two G-tetrad layers and participates in A.(G.G.G.G) pentad formation. Results of NMR and of integrase inhibition assays on loop-modified sequences allowed us to propose a strategy toward the potential design of improved HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Finally, we propose a model, based on molecular docking approaches, for positioning the 93del dimeric DNA quadruplex within a basic channel/canyon formed between subunits of a dimer of dimers of HIV-1 integrase.