Domain regulation of imprinting cluster in Kip2/Lit1 subdomain on mouse chromosome 7F4/F5: large-scale DNA methylation analysis reveals that DMR-Lit1 is a putative imprinting control region.
ABSTRACT: Mouse chromosome 7F4/F5, where the imprinting domain is located, is syntenic to human 11p15.5, the locus for Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The domain is thought to consist of the two subdomains Kip2 (p57(kip2))/Lit1 and Igf2/H19. Because DNA methylation is believed to be a key factor in genomic imprinting, we performed large-scale DNA methylation analysis to identify the cis-element crucial for the regulation of the Kip2/Lit1 subdomain. Ten CpG islands (CGIs) were found, and these were located at the promoter sites, upstream of genes, and within intergenic regions. Bisulphite sequencing revealed that CGIs 4, 5, 8, and 10 were differentially methylated regions (DMRs). CGIs 4, 5, and 10 were methylated paternally in somatic tissues but not in germ cells. CGI8 was methylated in oocyte and maternally in somatic tissues during development. Parental-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSSs) were found near CGI8. These data indicate that CGI8, called DMR-Lit1, is not only the region for gametic methylation but might also be the imprinting control region (ICR) of the subdomain.
Project description:To clarify the chromatin-based imprinting mechanism of the p57(KIP2)/LIT1 subdomain at chromosome 11p15.5 and the mouse ortholog at chromosome 7F5, we investigated the histone-modification status at a differentially CpG methylated region of Lit1/LIT1 (DMR-Lit1/LIT1), which is an imprinting control region for the subdomain and is demethylated in half of patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Chromatin-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that, in both species, DMR-Lit1/LIT1 with the CpG-methylated, maternally derived inactive allele showed histone H3 Lys9 methylation, whereas the CpG-unmethylated, paternally active allele was acetylated on histone H3/H4 and methylated on H3 Lys4. We have also investigated the relationship between CpG methylation and histone H3 Lys9 methylation at DMR-LIT1 in patients with BWS. In a normal individual and in patients with BWS with normal DMR-LIT1 methylation, histone H3 Lys9 methylation was detected on the maternal allele; however, it disappeared completely in the patients with the DMR-LIT1 imprinting defect. These findings suggest that the histone-modification status at DMR-Lit1/LIT1 plays an important role in imprinting control within the subdomain and that loss of histone H3 Lys9 methylation, together with CpG demethylation on the maternal allele, may lead to the BWS phenotype.
Project description:Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), which causes prenatal overgrowth, midline abdominal wall defects, macroglossia, and embryonal tumors, is a model for understanding the relationship between genomic imprinting, human development, and cancer. The causes are heterogeneous, involving multiple genes on 11p15 and including infrequent mutation of p57(KIP2) or loss of imprinting of either of two imprinted gene domains on 11p15: LIT1, which is near p57(KIP2), or H19/IGF2. Unlike Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, no chromosomal deletions have yet been identified. Here we report a microdeletion including the entire LIT1 gene, providing genetic confirmation of the importance of this gene region in BWS. When inherited maternally, the deletion causes BWS with silencing of p57(KIP2), indicating deletion of an element important for the regulation of p57(KIP2) expression. When inherited paternally, there is no phenotype, suggesting that the LIT1 RNA itself is not necessary for normal development in humans.
Project description:Loss of genomic imprinting is involved in a number of developmental abnormalities and cancers. ZAC is an imprinted gene expressed from the paternal allele of chromosome 6q24 within a region known to harbor a tumor suppressor gene for several types of neoplasia. p57(KIP2) (CDKN1C) is a maternally expressed gene located on chromosome 11p15.5 which encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that may also act as a tumor suppressor gene. Mutations in ZAC and p57KIP2 have been implicated in transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDB) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, respectively. Patients with these diseases share many characteristics. Here we show that mouse Zac1 and p57Kip2 have a strikingly similar expression pattern. ZAC, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, binds within the CpG island of LIT1 (KCNQ1OT1), a paternally expressed, anti-sense RNA thought to negatively regulate p57(KIP2) in cis. ZAC induces LIT1 transcription in a methylation-dependent manner. Our data suggest that ZAC may regulate p57(KIP2) through LIT1, forming part of a novel signaling pathway regulating cell growth. Mutations in ZAC may, therefore, contribute to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Furthermore, we find changes in DNA methylation at the LIT1 putative imprinting control region in two patients with TNDB.
Project description:Genomic imprinting plays a fundamental role in cancer and some hereditary diseases, including Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), a disorder of prenatal overgrowth and predisposition to embryonal malignancies such as Wilms tumor. We have previously shown that the KVLQT1 gene on chromosomal band 11p15 is imprinted, with expression of the maternal allele, and that the maternal allele is disrupted in rare BWS patients with balanced germ-line chromosomal rearrangements. We now show that an antisense orientation transcript within KVLQT1, termed LIT1 (long QT intronic transcript 1) is expressed normally from the paternal allele, from which KVLQT1 transcription is silent, and that in the majority of patients with BWS, LIT1 is abnormally expressed from both the paternal and maternal alleles. Eight of sixteen informative BWS patients (50%) showed biallelic expression, i.e., loss of imprinting (LOI) of LIT1. Similarly, 21 of 36 (58%) BWS patients showed loss of maternal allele-specific methylation of a CpG island upstream of LIT1. Surprisingly, LOI of LIT1 was not linked to LOI of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2), which was found in 2 of 10 (20%) BWS patients, even though LOI of IGF2 occurs frequently in Wilms and other tumors, and in some patients with BWS. Thus, LOI of LIT1 is the most common genetic alteration in BWS. We propose that 11p15 harbors two imprinted gene domains-a more centromeric domain including KVLQT1 and p57(KIP2), alterations in which are more common in BWS, and a more telomeric domain including IGF2, alterations in which are more common in cancer.
Project description:In mammals, genomic imprinting governed by DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A and its cofactor DNMT3L is essential for functional gametes. Oocyte-specific methylation imprints are established during oocyte growth concomitant with DNMT3A/DNMT3L expression, although the mechanisms of oocyte-specific imprinting are not fully understood. To determine whether the presence of DNMT3A/DNMT3L in oocytes is sufficient for acquisition of methylation imprints, we produced transgenic mice to induce DNMT3A/DNMT3L expression prematurely in oogenesis and analyzed DNA methylation imprints. The results showed that 2- to 4-fold greater expression of DNMT3A/DNMT3L was achieved in non-growing (ng) oocytes versus fully grown oocytes derived from wild-type mice, but the analyzed imprint domains were not methylated. Thus, the presence of DNMT3A/DNMT3L in ng oocytes is insufficient for methylation imprints, and imprinted regions are resistant to DNMT3A/DNMT3L in ng oocytes. In contrast, excess DNMT3A/DNMT3L accelerated imprint acquisition at Igf2r, Lit1, Zac1 and Impact but not Snrpn and Mest in growing oocytes. Therefore, DNMT3A/DNMT3L quantity is an important factor for imprint acquisition. Transcription at imprinted domains is proposed to be involved in de novo methylation; however, transcription at Lit1, Snrpn and Impact was observed in ng oocytes. Thus, transcription cannot induce DNMT3A catalysis at imprinted regions even if DNMT3A/DNMT3L is present. However, the accelerated methylation imprints in oocytes, with the exception of Igf2r, were erased during embryogenesis. In conclusion, a sufficient amount of DNMT3A/DNMT3L and a shift from the resistant to permissive state are essential to establish oocyte-specific methylation imprints and that maintenance of the acquired DNA methylation imprints is essential for functional imprinting.
Project description:Loss of imprinting (LOI) of the IGF2 gene (which encodes insulin-like growth factor II) is the most common genetic or epigenetic alteration in Wilms tumor; LOI involves aberrant activation of the normally repressed maternally inherited allele. We found previously that LOI of IGF2 occurs in approximately half of all Wilms tumors (i.e., those arising from lineage-committed nephrogenic progenitor cells). We investigated whether LOI of IGF2 is associated with relaxation of imprinting at loci other than IGF2 or with widespread alterations in DNA methylation. We stratified 59 Wilms tumor samples by IGF2 LOI status by use of hot-stop reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and/or methylation analysis of the differentially methylated region of the H19 gene and identified 31 samples with and 28 without LOI. We used quantitative allele-specific expression analysis to determine whether six other imprinted genes (i.e., H19, KCNQ1, LIT1, TSSC5, GRB10, and MEG3) had subtle LOI. No statistically significant difference in allele-specific expression between Wilms tumor with or without LOI was found for LIT1, TSSC5, GRB10, and MEG3. For the KCNQ1 gene there was a slight difference between the groups with (37.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 31.8% to 42.2%) and without (27.7%, 95% CI = 21.8% to 33.5%) LOI (P = .02 for F test of group differences in a mixed-effects model). For H19, we also found a slight difference between the groups with (7.5%, 95% CI = 2.4% to 12.7%) and without (2.2%, 95% CI = -3.2% to 7.6%) LOI of IGF2 (P = .15 for F test). In 27 tumor samples, we also used a microarray technique to analyze methylation of 378 genes, 38 of which were suspected or confirmed imprinted genes. We found that statistically significant alterations in only the differentially methylated region of the H19 gene were associated with LOI of IGF2. Thus, epigenetic alterations in Wilms tumors are not widespread, supporting the gene and lineage specificity of LOI of IGF2.
Project description:Elucidating how and to what extent CpG islands (CGIs) are methylated in germ cells is essential to understand genomic imprinting and epigenetic reprogramming. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first integrated epigenomic analysis of mammalian oocytes, identifying over a thousand CGIs methylated in mature oocytes. We show that these CGIs depend on DNMT3A and DNMT3L but are not distinct at the sequence level, including in CpG periodicity. They are preferentially located within active transcription units and are relatively depleted in H3K4me3, supporting a general transcription-dependent mechanism of methylation. Very few methylated CGIs are fully protected from post-fertilization reprogramming but, notably, the majority show incomplete demethylation in embryonic day (E) 3.5 blastocysts. Our study shows that CGI methylation in gametes is not entirely related to genomic imprinting but is a strong factor in determining methylation status in preimplantation embryos, suggesting a need to reassess mechanisms of post-fertilization demethylation.
Project description:Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process that results in the preferential silencing of one of the two parental copies of a gene. Although the precise mechanisms by which genomic imprinting occurs are unknown, the tendency of imprinted genes to exist in chromosomal clusters suggests long-range regulation through shared regulatory elements. We characterize a 800-kb region on the distal end of mouse chromosome 7 that contains a cluster of four maternally expressed genes, H19, Mash2, Kvlqt1, and p57(Kip2), as well as two paternally expressed genes, Igf2 and Ins2, and assess the expression and imprinting of Mash2, Kvlqt1, and p57(Kip2) during development in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. Unlike Igf2 and Ins2, which depend on H19 for their imprinting, Mash2, p57(Kip2), and Kvlqt1 are unaffected by a deletion of the H19 gene region, suggesting that these more telomeric genes are not regulated by the mechanism that controls H19, Igf2, and Ins2. Mutations in human p57(Kip2) have been implicated in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, a disease that has also been associated with loss of imprinting of IGF2. We find, however, that a deletion of the gene has no effect on imprinting within the cluster. Surprisingly, the three maternally expressed genes are regulated very differently by DNA methylation; p57(Kip2) is activated, Kvlqt1 is silenced, and Mash2 is unaffected in mice lacking DNA methyltransferase. We conclude that H19 is not a global regulator of imprinting on distal chromosome 7 and that the telomeric genes are imprinted by a separate mechanism(s).
Project description:Epigenetic modifications play important roles in plant and animal development. DNA methylation impacts the transposable element (TE) silencing, gene imprinting and expression regulation.Through a genome-wide analysis, DNA methylation peaks were characterized and mapped in maize embryo and endosperm genome, respectively. Distinct methylation level was observed across maize embryo and endosperm. The maize embryo genome contained more DNA methylation than endosperm. Totally, 985,478 CG islands (CGIs) were identified and most of them were unmethylated. More CGI shores were methylated than CGIs in maize suggested that DNA methylation level was not positively correlated with CpG density. The promoter sequence and transcriptional termination region (TTR) were more methylated than the gene body (intron and exon) region based on peak number and methylated depth. Result showed that 99% TEs were methylated in maize embryo, but a large portion of them (34.8%) were not methylated in endosperm. Maize embryo and endosperm exhibit distinct pattern/level of methylation. The most differentially methylated region between embryo and endosperm are CGI shores. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is associated with both gene silencing and gene activation in maize. Many genes involved in embryogenesis and seed development were found differentially methylated in embryo and endosperm. We found 41.5% imprinting genes were similarly methylated and 58.5% imprinting genes were differentially methylated between embryo and endosperm. Methylation level was associated with allelic silencing of only a small number of imprinting genes. The expression of maize DEMETER-like (DME-like) gene and MBD101 gene (MBD4 homolog) were higher in endosperm than in embryo. These two genes may be associated with distinct methylation levels across maize embryo and endosperm.Through MeDIP-seq we systematically analyzed the methylomes of maize embryo and endosperm and results indicated that the global methylation status of embryo was more than that of the endosperm. Differences could be observed at the total number of methylation peaks, DMRs and specific methylated genes which were tightly associated with development of embryo and endosperm. Our results also revealed that many DNA methylation regions didn't affect transcription of the corresponding genes.
Project description:Imprinting of the human RB1 gene is due to the presence of a differentially methylated CpG island (CGI) in intron 2, which is part of a retrocopy derived from the PPP1R26 gene on chromosome 9. The murine Rb1 gene does not have this retrocopy and is not imprinted. We have investigated whether the RB1/Rb1 locus is unique with respect to these differences. For this, we have compared the CGIs from human and mouse by in silico analyses. We have found that the human genome does not only contain more CGIs than the mouse, but the proportion of intronic CGIs is also higher (7.7% vs. 3.5%). At least 2,033 human intronic CGIs are not present in the mouse. Among these CGIs, 104 show sequence similarities elsewhere in the human genome, which suggests that they arose from retrotransposition. We could narrow down the time points when most of these CGIs appeared during evolution. Their methylation status was analyzed in two monocyte methylome data sets from whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and in 18 published methylomes. Four CGIs, which are located in the RB1, ASRGL1, PARP11, and PDXDC1 genes, occur as methylated and unmethylated copies. In contrast to imprinted methylation at the RB1 locus, differential methylation of the ASRGL1 and PDXDC1 CGIs appears to be sequence dependent. Our study supports the notion that the epigenetic fate of the retrotransposed DNA depends on its sequence and selective forces at the integration site.