Acid-base catalysis in Leuconostoc mesenteroides sucrose phosphorylase probed by site-directed mutagenesis and detailed kinetic comparison of wild-type and Glu237-->Gln mutant enzymes.
ABSTRACT: The role of acid-base catalysis in the two-step enzymatic mechanism of alpha-retaining glucosyl transfer by Leuconostoc mesenteroides sucrose phosphorylase has been examined through site-directed replacement of the putative catalytic Glu237 and detailed comparison of purified wild-type and Glu237-->Gln mutant enzymes using steady-state kinetics. Reactions with substrates requiring Brønsted catalytic assistance for glucosylation or deglucosylation were selectively slowed at the respective step, about 10(5)-fold, in E237Q. Azide, acetate and formate but not halides restored catalytic activity up to 300-fold in E237Q under conditions in which the deglucosylation step was rate-determining, and promoted production of the corresponding alpha-glucosides. In situ proton NMR studies of the chemical rescue of E237Q by acetate and formate revealed that enzymatically formed alpha-glucose 1-esters decomposed spontaneously via acyl group migration and hydrolysis. Using pH profiles of kcat/K(m), the pH dependences of kinetically isolated glucosylation and deglucosylation steps were analysed for wild-type and E237Q. Glucosylation of the wild-type proceeded optimally above and below apparent pK(a) values of about 5.6 and 7.2 respectively whereas deglucosylation was dependent on the apparent single ionization of a group of pK(a) approximately 5.8 that must be deprotonated for reaction. Glucosylation of E237Q was slowed below apparent pK(a) approximately 6.0 but had lost the high pH dependence of the wild-type. Deglucosylation of E237Q was pH-independent. The results allow unequivocal assignment of Glu237 as the catalytic acid-base of sucrose phosphorylase. They support a mechanism in which the pK(a) of Glu237 cycles between approximately 7.2 in free enzyme and approximately 5.8 in glucosyl enzyme intermediate, ensuring optimal participation of the glutamate residue side chain at each step in catalysis. Enzyme deglucosylation to an anionic nucleophile took place with Glu237 protonated or unprotonated. The results delineate how conserved active-site groups of retaining glycoside hydrolases can accommodate enzymatic function of a phosphorylase.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a sophisticated protein quality control system for the efficient folding of newly synthesized proteins. In this system, a variety of N-linked oligosaccharides displayed on proteins serve as signals recognized by series of intracellular lectins. Glucosidase II catalyzes two-step hydrolysis at ?1,3-linked glucose-glucose and glucose-mannose residues of high-mannose-type glycans to generate a quality control protein tag that is transiently expressed on glycoproteins and recognized by ER chaperones. Here we determined the crystal structures of the catalytic ? subunit of glucosidase II (GII?) complexed with two different glucosyl ligands containing the scissile bonds of first- and second-step reactions. Our structural data revealed that the nonreducing terminal disaccharide moieties of the two kinds of substrates can be accommodated in a gourd-shaped bilocular pocket, thereby providing a structural basis for substrate-binding specificity in the two-step deglucosylation catalyzed by this enzyme.
Project description:Initial-velocity measurements for the phospholysis and synthesis of alpha,alpha-trehalose catalysed by trehalose phosphorylase from Schizophyllum commune and product and dead-end inhibitor studies show that this enzyme has an ordered Bi Bi kinetic mechanism, in which phosphate binds before alpha,alpha-trehalose, and alpha-D-glucose is released before alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. The free-energy profile for the enzymic reaction at physiological reactant concentrations displays its largest barriers for steps involved in reverse glucosyl transfer to D-glucose, and reveals the direction of phospholysis to be favoured thermodynamically. The pH dependence of kinetic parameters for all substrates and the dissociation constant of D-glucal, a competitive dead-end inhibitor against D-glucose (K(i)=0.3 mM at pH 6.6 and 30 degrees C), were determined. Maximum velocities and catalytic efficiencies for the forward and reverse reactions decrease at high and low pH, giving apparent pK values of 7.2--7.8 and 5.5--6.0 for two groups whose correct protonation state is required for catalysis. The pH dependences of k(cat)/K are interpreted in terms of monoanionic phosphate and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate being the substrates, and of the pK value seen at high pH corresponding to the phosphate group in solution or bound to the enzyme. The K(i) value for the inhibitor decreases outside the optimum pH range for catalysis, indicating that binding of D-glucal is tighter with incorrectly ionized forms of the complex between the enzyme and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. Each molecule of trehalose phosphorylase contains one Mg(2+) that is non-dissociable in the presence of metal chelators. Measurements of the (26)Mg(2+)/(24)Mg(2+) ratio in the solvent and on the enzyme by using inductively coupled plasma MS show that exchange of metal ion between protein and solution does not occur at measurable rates. Tryptic peptide mass mapping reveals close structural similarity between trehalose phosphorylases from basidiomycete fungi.
Project description:Fungal trehalose phosphorylase is classified as a family 4 glucosyltransferase that catalyses the reversible phosphorolysis of alpha,alpha-trehalose with net retention of anomeric configuration. Glucosyl transfer to and from phosphate takes place by the partly rate-limiting interconversion of ternary enzyme-substrate complexes formed from binary enzyme-phosphate and enzyme-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl phosphate adducts respectively. To advance a model of the chemical mechanism of trehalose phosphorylase, we performed a steady-state kinetic study with the purified enzyme from the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune by using alternative substrates, inhibitors and combinations thereof in pairs as specific probes of substrate-binding recognition and transition-state structure. Orthovanadate is a competitive inhibitor against phosphate and alpha-d-glucopyranosyl phosphate, and binds 3 x 10(4)-fold tighter (K(i) approximately 1 microM) than phosphate. Structural alterations of d-glucose at C-2 and O-5 are tolerated by the enzyme at subsite +1. They lead to parallel effects of approximately the same magnitude (slope=1.14; r(2)=0.98) on the reciprocal catalytic efficiency for reverse glucosyl transfer [log (K(m)/k(cat))] and the apparent affinity of orthovanadate determined in the presence of the respective glucosyl acceptor (log K(i)). An adduct of orthovanadate and the nucleophile/leaving group bound at subsite +1 is therefore the true inhibitor and displays partial transition state analogy. Isofagomine binds to subsite -1 in the enzyme-phosphate complex with a dissociation constant of 56 microM and inhibits trehalose phosphorylase at least 20-fold better than 1-deoxynojirimycin. The specificity of the reversible azasugars inhibitors would be explained if a positive charge developed on C-1 rather than O-5 in the proposed glucosyl cation-like transition state of the reaction. The results are discussed in the context of alpha-retaining glucosyltransferase mechanisms that occur with and without a beta-glucosyl enzyme intermediate.
Project description:To define in detail the molecular mechanism of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase, the pH dependences of various kinetic and spectroscopic parameters have been studied: Vmax, Km (NAD+), Km (formate), inhibition constants for structural analogues of substrate (NO3-) and product (CNS-, CNO-, N3-), CD and fluorescence properties. The value of Vmax, rate-limiting hydride transfer, is nearly constant throughout the entire pH range of enzyme stability (6.0-11.2) but decreases below 6. The K(m) values for both substrates remain constant within the pH range 6-10. At pH values below 6 (for the coenzyme) and above 10 (for both substrate and coenzyme) the Km values increase. In the acidic range this change is attributed to the ionization of two carboxy groups (pK approx. 5.5-6.0) located at the NAD+-binding site of the enzyme active centre. The pH transition in the basic region (pK 10.5 +/- 0.2) has a conformational origin and affects the enzyme's affinity for substrates and anion inhibitors. A similar transition has been observed for formate dehydrogenases from yeast Candida boidinii and Hansenula polymorpha. The results complement the conclusions about the catalytic mechanism deduced from the crystal structure of the enzyme.
Project description:Kinetic and molecular docking studies were performed to characterize the binding of ?-d-glucose 1-phosphate (?Glc 1-P) at the catalytic subsite of a family GH-13 sucrose phosphorylase (from L. mesenteroides) in wild-type and mutated form. The best-fit binding mode of ?Glc 1-P dianion had the phosphate group placed anti relative to the glucosyl moiety (adopting a relaxed 4C1 chair conformation) and was stabilized mainly by hydrogen bonds from residues of the enzyme?s catalytic triad (Asp196, Glu237 and Asp295) and from Arg137. Additional feature of the ?Glc 1-P docking pose was an intramolecular hydrogen bond (2.7 Å) between the glucosyl C2-hydroxyl and the phosphate oxygen. An inactive phosphonate analog of ?Glc 1-P did not show binding to sucrose phosphorylase in different experimental assays (saturation transfer difference NMR, steady-state reversible inhibition), consistent with evidence from molecular docking study that also suggested a completely different and strongly disfavored binding mode of the analog as compared to ?Glc 1-P. Molecular docking results also support kinetic data in showing that mutation of Phe52, a key residue at the catalytic subsite involved in transition state stabilization, had little effect on the ground-state binding of ?Glc 1-P by the phosphorylase. However, when combined with a second mutation involving one of the catalytic triad residues, the mutation of Phe52 by Ala caused complete (F52A_D196A; F52A_E237A) or very large (F52A_D295A) disruption of the proposed productive binding mode of ?Glc 1-P with consequent effects on the enzyme activity. Effects of positioning of ?Glc 1-P for efficient glucosyl transfer from phosphate to the catalytic nucleophile of the enzyme (Asp196) are suggested. High similarity between the ?Glc 1-P conformers bound to sucrose phosphorylase (modeled) and the structurally and mechanistically unrelated maltodextrin phosphorylase (experimental) is revealed.
Project description:The regioselective ?-glucosylation of hesperetin was achieved by a transglycosylation reaction catalyzed by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) from <i>Thermoanaerobacter</i> sp. using soluble starch as glucosyl donor. By combining mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF) and 2D-NMR analysis, the main monoglucosylated derivative was fully characterized (hesperetin 7-<i>O</i>-?-d-glucopyranoside). In order to increase the yield of monoglucoside, several reaction parameters were optimized: Nature and percentage of cosolvent, composition of the aqueous phase, glucosyl donor, temperature, and the concentrations of hesperetin and soluble starch. Under the optimal conditions, which included the presence of 30% of bis(2-methoxyethyl) ether as cosolvent, the maximum concentration of monoglucoside was approximately 2 mM, obtained after 24 h of reaction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of direct glucosylation of hesperetin employing free enzymes instead of whole cells.
Project description:The pH-dependence of sulphate-activated phosphorylase b has been studied in the direction of glycogen synthesis. The bell-shaped curve of the pH-dependence of the catalytic constant for the AMP-activated enzyme showed pK values of 6.1 and 7.3, but the curve for the enzyme activated by 0.9 M ammonium sulphate showed a drop of activity on the acid side at much higher pH values. Its bell was centred at pH 7.8 but it was too narrow to be characterized by only two pK values. The narrowness of the curve could be explained by positive co-operativity, but not its unusually steep acid side. We suggest that the fall on the acid side is due to more than one hydronation (addition of H+). The points can be fitted by a curve with two de-activating hydronations and a de-activating dehydronation having identical titration pK values of 7.5, and hence molecular values of 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0. If both 0.9 M ammonium sulphate and 5 mM AMP are added, the bell is as broad as with AMP alone, but is somewhat raised in pH optimum. The results are discussed in the light of new structural data from crystallographic studies on binary complexes of the enzyme.
Project description:A family of iron(ii) carbonyl hydride complexes supported by either a bifunctional PNP ligand containing a secondary amine, or a PNP ligand with a tertiary amine that prevents metal-ligand cooperativity, were found to promote the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to formate in the presence of Brønsted base. In both cases a remarkable enhancement in catalytic activity was observed upon the addition of Lewis acid (LA) co-catalysts. For the secondary amine supported system, turnover numbers of approximately 9000 for formate production were achieved, while for catalysts supported by the tertiary amine ligand, nearly 60?000 turnovers were observed; the highest activity reported for an earth abundant catalyst to date. The LA co-catalysts raise the turnover number by more than an order of magnitude in each case. In the secondary amine system, mechanistic investigations implicated the LA in disrupting an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the PNP ligand N-H moiety and the carbonyl oxygen of a formate ligand in the catalytic resting state. This destabilization of the iron-bound formate accelerates product extrusion, the rate-limiting step in catalysis. In systems supported by ligands with the tertiary amine, it was demonstrated that the LA enhancement originates from cation assisted substitution of formate for dihydrogen during the slow step in catalysis.
Project description:To facilitate plant colonization, some pathogenic fungi produce phytotoxic metabolites that damage tissues; plants may be resistant to a particular pathogen if they produce an enzyme(s) that catalyzes detoxification of this metabolite(s). Alternaria blackspot is one of the most damaging and significant fungal diseases of brassica crops, with no source of resistance known within the Brassica species. Destruxin B is the major phytotoxin produced by the blackspot-causing fungus, Alternaria brassicae (Berkley) Saccardo. We have established that a blackspot-resistant species (Sinapis alba) metabolized (14)C-labeled destruxin B to a less toxic product substantially faster than any of the susceptible species. The first metabolite, hydroxydestruxin B ((14)C-labeled), was further biotransformed to the beta-d-glucosyl derivative at a slower rate. The structures of hydroxydestruxin B and beta-d-glucosyl hydroxydestruxin B were deduced from their spectroscopic data [NMR, high resolution (HR)-MS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)] and confirmed by total chemical synthesis. Although these hydroxylation and glucosylation reactions occurred in both resistant (S. alba) and susceptible (Brassica napus, Brassica juncea, and Brassica rapa) species, hydroxylation was the rate limiting step in the susceptible species, whereas glucosylation was the rate limiting step in the resistant species. Remarkably, it was observed that the hydroxydestruxin B induced the biosynthesis of phytoalexins in blackspot-resistant species but not in susceptible species. This appears to be a unique example of phytotoxin detoxification and simultaneous phytoalexin elicitation by the detoxification product. Our studies suggest that S. alba can overcome the fungal invader through detoxification of destruxin B coupled with production of phytoalexins.
Project description:The synthesis of a novel ?-glucosylated derivative of pterostilbene was performed by a transglycosylation reaction using starch as glucosyl donor, catalyzed by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) from Thermoanaerobacter sp. The reaction was carried out in a buffer containing 20% (v/v) DMSO to enhance the solubility of pterostilbene. Due to the formation of several polyglucosylated products with CGTase, the yield of monoglucoside was increased by the treatment with a recombinant amyloglucosidase (STA1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (var. diastaticus). This enzyme was not able to hydrolyze the linkage between the glucose and pterostilbene. The monoglucoside was isolated and characterized by combining ESI-MS and 2D-NMR methods. Pterostilbene ?-d-glucopyranoside is a novel compound. The ?-glucosylation of pterostilbene enhanced its solubility in water to approximately 0.1 g/L. The ?-glucosylation caused a slight loss of antioxidant activity towards ABTS?? radicals. Pterostilbene ?-d-glucopyranoside was less toxic than pterostilbene for human SH-S5Y5 neurons, MRC5 fibroblasts and HT-29 colon cancer cells, and similar for RAW 264.7 macrophages.