Ethnicity-related polymorphisms and haplotypes in the human ABCB1 gene.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:The human multidrug resistance gene ATP-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) codes for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important membrane-bound efflux transporter known to confer anticancer drug resistance as well as affect the pharmacokinetics of many drugs and xenobiotics. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified throughout the ABCB1 gene that may have an effect on P-gp expression levels and function. Haplotype as well as genotype analysis of SNPs is becoming increasingly important in identifying genetic variants underlying susceptibility to human disease. Three SNPs, 1236C-->T, 2677G-->T and 3435C-->T, have been repeatedly shown to predict changes in the function of P-gp. The frequencies with which these polymorphisms exist in a population have also been shown to be ethnically related. METHODS:In this study, 95 individuals representative of the entire ethnic make-up of the USA were compared with 101 individuals from an Ashkenazi-Jewish population. These individuals were analyzed by genomic sequencing and polymerase chain reaction, using restriction fragment length polymorphisms, to calculate their genotype frequencies. RESULTS:A total of 25 SNPs were located in the exons of the ABCB1 gene. All of the polymorphisms identified were in parts of the ABCB1 gene product predicted to be intracellular, and 16 appear to be novel as compared with those listed by the National Center for Biotechnological Information. Frequencies of the 1236C-->T and 2677G-->T/A/C SNPs were similar for the US and Ashkenazi populations (64.2 and 60.4%, respectively for 1236C-->T [chi2: 0.30; p < or = 1]; 55.8 and 64.4%, respectively for 2677G-->T/A/C [chi2: 1.49; p < or = 1]), but were different for 3435C-->T (24.2% for the US population and 69.3% for the Ashkenazi population [chi2: 39.927; p < or = 0.001]). The 1236T/ 2677T/3435T haplotype occurred in 23.6% (standard error: 0.013) of the Ashkenazi population. CONCLUSION:The SNP at location 3435C-->T plays a significant role in the ABCB1 gene. The haplotype and genotype analysis from these data may be used as a basis for studies on the relationship between ABCB1 genotypes and drug efficacy, drug toxicity, disease susceptibility or other phenotypes.
Project description:Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are substrates for the ABCB1 transporter (also called P-glycoprotein), an active efflux pump. ABCB1 polymorphisms have been previously reported to influence the pharmacokinetics of several drugs such as immunosuppressants and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Recently, in vivo studies have suggested that genetic variants might contribute to the inter-individual variability in DOAC plasma concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the in vitro effect of the most common coding ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), 1236?C?>?T-2677G?>?T-3435C?>?T, and the coding ABCB1 1199?G?>?A SNP on the transport activity towards rivaroxaban. HEK293 cells were transfected to overexpress the ABCB1 wild-type (1236C-2677G-3435C, 1199?G) or variant proteins (1236C-2677G-3435T, 1236T-2677T-3435T or 1199?A). ABCB1 expression decreased the intracellular accumulation of rivaroxaban, when compared to control cells. This confirms the involvement of ABCB1 in the active transport of rivaroxaban. However, the ABCB1 1236?C?>?T-2677G?>?T-3435C?>?T and 1199?G?>?A SNPs had no significant influence on the intracellular accumulation of rivaroxaban when compared to the wild-type protein. These results suggest that the ABCB1 coding SNPs investigated in the present study are unlikely to contribute to the inter-individual variability in rivaroxaban plasma concentrations.
Project description:Bullous pemphigoid (BP) constitutes the most prevalent disease in the group of bullous dermatoses with the autoimmune background. Some authors suggest that certain cytokines (IL-2, IFN-?) may be transported by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the ABCB1 gene. ABCB1 polymorphism might affect not only the effectiveness of treatment with drugs that are P-gp substrates but also contribute to the development of diseases, including BP. In the present work, we resolved to conduct a haplotype analysis of ABCB1 in patients with BP and to answer the question of whether any of the haplotypes are able to affect the incidence of this entity. The study involved 71 patients with BP and 100 healthy volunteers. Determination of polymorphisms 1236C?>?T and 3435C?>?T in ABCB1 was carried out with the PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method. The 2677G?>?T/A ABCB1 polymorphism was analyzed with the allele-specific PCR method. It was observed that the 1236T-2677G-3435T haplotype occurred with a statistically significantly lower frequency in patients with BP than in controls (1.4 vs. 10.0%). Carriers of this haplotype were also shown to have had a low relative risk for BP (OR?=?0.13, p?=?0.003). Haplotype analysis of ABCB1 conducted in patients with BP demonstrated that the 1236T-2677G-3435T haplotype may protect against development of this entity.
Project description:Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) gene polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility, controversial results exist. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to assess whether ABCB1 polymorphisms 3435C?>?T (rs1045642), 2677G?>?T/A (rs2032582), 1236C?>?T (rs1128503) and haplotypes were associated with AD risk. Nine independent publications were included and analyzed. Crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to investigate the strength of the association. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the robustness of our analysis. A funnel plot and trim and fill method were used to test and adjust for publication bias. The results showed a significant association between the 3435C?>?T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and AD susceptibility (CT vs. CC: OR?=?1.24, 95%?CI?=?1.06-1.45, P?=?0.01; CT?+?TT vs. CC: OR?=?1.21, 95%?CI?=?1.04-1.41, P?=?0.01) in the total population, as well as in Caucasian subgroup. The 2677G?>?T/A SNP was related to a decreased AD risk in Caucasian subgroup (TT?+?TA?+?AA vs. GT?+?GA?+?GG: OR?=?0.68, 95%?CI?=?0.47-0.98, P?=?0.04). Moreover, the ABCB1 haplotype analysis showed that the 1236T/2677T/3435C haplotype was associated with a higher risk of AD (OR?=?1.99, 95%?CI?=?1.24-3.18, P?=?0.00). Our results suggest that the ABCB1 3435C?>?T SNP, the 2677G?>?T/A SNP and 1236T/2677T/3435C haplotype are significantly associated with AD susceptibility.
Project description:PURPOSE:Despite therapeutic advances, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) continue to experience disease relapse and treatment resistance. The gene ABCB1 encodes the drug transporter P-glycoprotein, which confers resistance through drug extrusion across the cell membrane. Lenalidomide (Len) is excreted mainly via the kidneys, and, given the expression of P-gp in the renal tubuli, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ABCB1 gene may influence Len plasma concentrations and, subsequently, the outcome of treatment. We, therefore, investigated the influence of ABCB1 genetic variants on Len treatment outcomes and adverse events (AEs). METHODS:Ninety patients with relapsed or refractory MM, who received the second-line Len plus dexamethasone in the Rev II trial, were genotyped for the ABCB1 SNPs 1199G>A (Ser400Asn, rs2229109), 1236C>T (silent, rs1128503), 2677G>T/A (Ala893Ser, rs2032582), and 3435C>T (silent, rs1045642) using pyrosequencing, and correlations to response parameters, outcomes, and AEs were investigated. RESULTS:No significant associations were found between genotype and either best response rates or hematological AEs, and 1236C>T, 2677G>T or 3435C>T genotypes had no impact on survival. There was a trend towards increased time to progression (TTP) in patients carrying the 1199A variant, and a significant difference in TTP between genotypes in patients with standard-risk cytogenetics. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings show a limited influence of ABCB1 genotype on lenalidomide treatment efficacy and safety. The results suggest that 1199G>A may be a marker of TTP following Len treatment in standard-risk patients; however, larger studies are needed to validate and clarify the relationship.
Project description:The MDR1 (ABCB1) gene encodes a membrane-bound transporter that actively effluxes a wide range of compounds from cells. The overexpression of MDR1 by multidrug-resistant cancer cells is a serious impediment to chemotherapy. MDR1 is expressed in various tissues to protect them from the adverse effect of toxins. The pharmacokinetics of drugs that are also MDR1 substrates also influence disease outcome and treatment efficacy. Although MDR1 is a well-conserved gene, there is increasing evidence that its polymorphisms affect substrate specificity. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur frequently and have strong linkage, creating a common haplotype at positions 1236C>T (G412G), 2677G>T (A893S) and 3435C>T (I1145I). The frequency of the synonymous 3435C>T polymorphism has been shown to vary significantly according to ethnicity. Existing literature suggests that the haplotype plays a role in response to drugs and disease susceptibility. This review summarizes recent findings on the 3435C>T polymorphism of MDR1 and the haplotype to which it belongs. A possible molecular mechanism of action by ribosome stalling that can change protein structure and function by altering protein folding is discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1) gene codes for a membrane efflux pump localized in epithelial cells. Together with other Permeability-glycoproteins in the small and large intestine, its product represents a barrier against xenobiotics, bacterial toxins, drugs and other substances introduced with diet, including carcinogens. The aim of this investigation was to verify the possible contribution of ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the genetic risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). RESULTS: DNA obtained from the peripheral blood of 98 CRC patients and 100 healthy controls was genotyped for the three selected SNPs: 1236C > T (rs1128503), 2677G > T/A (rs2032582), and 3435C > T (rs1045642). Molecular data were analyzed to asses allele and haplotype association with CRC. No evidence of an association between ABCB1 alleles and CRC occurrence as a whole was found. However, ABCB1 showed either association with carcinoma of the sigmoid colon, and appeared able to influence the sex ratio among CRC patients. These two effects seemed to act independently based on multivariate analysis. We showed that ABCB1 polymorphisms were able to influence CRC susceptibility related to tumor localization and patient gender. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sensitivity to undetermined risk factors could depend on the genetic background of ABCB1 locus, with a mechanism that also depends on patient gender.
Project description:Human P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by MDR1 (ABCB1), is an efflux transporter with a wide specificity for substrates/drugs, including HIV protease inhibitors which are commonly used in HIV/AIDS treatment. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MDR1 have been shown to affect P-gp expression and function, and may affect HIV/AIDS treatment outcome: 1236C>T [G412G, exon-12], 2677G>T/A [A893S/T, exon-21] and 3435C>T [I1145I, exon-26]. In the present study, our aims were (i) to compare the 3-SNP MDR1 haplotype structure and genetic diversity between North American HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals belonging to four major ethnic groups and (ii) to determine whether the haplotype structure and genetic diversity observed in these ethnically admixed populations differ from that in ethnically non-admixed populations. For these aims, we analyzed a cohort of 447 HIV/AIDS patients (White [n=193], Black [n=235], Hispanic [n=17], and Asian [n=2]). Results obtained for these patients were compared with the results for (i) HIV-negative individuals (n=356) and (ii) various HapMap and Environmental Genome Project populations. We observed that the genetic characteristics of MDR1 were largely consistent between HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations, but there were striking interethnic differences in the genetic characteristics of MDR1 in both populations. Although it appeared that the genetic characteristics of MDR1 were largely consistent between ethnically admixed and non-admixed populations, genetic characterization of the admixed populations remains to be done. Thus, our results provide useful comparative insights about the genetic characteristics of MDR1 that could be extrapolated across population groups worldwide. For a meaningful interpretation of these results regarding HIV/AIDS treatment outcome, MDR1 haplotype/diplotype structure data, genetic characterization of population admixture, and polymorphisms in other relevant drug transporter and/or metabolizing enzyme genes should be considered in future clinical studies.
Project description:The role of ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the development of Crohn's disease (CD) remains unclear. Due to inconsistent results of several European population-based studies and limited information on populations from Poland and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), we conducted a preliminary association study of two main ABCB1 SNPs and CD. ABCB1 3435C>T and 2677G>T/A SNPs were analyzed in Polish and Bosnian patients with CD (n = 85 and n = 30, respectively) and controls (n = 82 and n = 30, respectively) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for 3435C>T and allele-specific PCR for 2677G>A/T SNP. A deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found for both SNPs in Polish patients with CD, and for 2677G>A/T in Polish control group. The allele and genotype frequencies of the two ABCB1 SNPs were not significantly different between the CD patients and controls in both populations (p > 0.05). Similarly, the genotype distribution of 3435C>T and 2677G>T/A SNPs was not significantly different between Polish and Bosnian patients with CD (p > 0.05). At least one mutated ABCB1 allele was carried by 97.7% of Polish and 90.0% of Bosnian patients with CD. No association was found between the ABCB1 SNPs and CD in the two populations. In conclusion, the two ABCB1 SNPs may not contribute to CD susceptibility in the populations of Poland and B&H. Further studies with larger samples in both populations are warranted.
Project description:Extrarenal adverse effects (AEs) associated with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) occur frequently but are unpredictable posttransplant complications. AEs may result from intracellular CNI accumulation and low activity of P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene. Since ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sex influence P-glycoprotein, we investigated haplotypes and extrarenal AEs. A prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 149 patients receiving tacrolimus and enteric coated mycophenolate sodium or cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Immunosuppressive AE assessment determined individual and composite gastrointestinal, neurologic, aesthetic, and cumulative AEs. Lipids were quantitated after 12-hour fast. ABCB1 SNPs: c.1236C>T (rs1128503), c.2677G>T/A (rs2032582), and c.3435C>T (rs1045642) were determined with haplotype associations computed using the THESIAS program, and evaluated by immunosuppression, sex and race using multivariate general linear models. Tacrolimus patients exhibited more frequent and higher gastrointestinal AE scores compared with cyclosporine with association to CTT (P?=?0.018) and sex (P?=?0.01). Aesthetic AE score was 3 times greater for cyclosporine with TTC haplotype (P?=?0.005). Females had higher gastrointestinal (P?=?0.022), aesthetic (P?<?0.001), neurologic (P?=?0.022), and cumulative AE ratios (P?<?0.001). Total cholesterol (TCHOL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and triglycerides were higher with cyclosporine. The TTC haplotype had higher TCHOL (P?<?0.001) and LDL (P?=?0.005). Higher triglyceride (P?=?0.034) and lower high-density lipoproteins (P?=?0.057) were associated with TTT with sex-adjusted analysis. ABCB1 haplotypes and sex were associated with extrarenal AEs. Using haplotypes, certain female patients manifested more AEs regardless of CNI. Haplotype testing may identify patients with greater susceptibility to AEs and facilitate CNI individualization.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genetic variability in ABCB1, encoding the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter, has been linked to altered methadone maintenance treatment dose requirements. However, subsequent studies have indicated that additional environmental or genetic factors may confound ABCB1 pharmacogenetics in different methadone maintenance treatment settings. There is evidence that genetic variability in OPRM1, encoding the mu opioid receptor, and ABCB1 may interact to affect morphine response in opposite ways. This study aimed to examine whether a similar gene-gene interaction occurs for methadone in methadone maintenance treatment. METHODS:Opioid-dependent subjects (n = 119) maintained on methadone (15-300 mg/day) were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1 (61A > G; 1199G > A; 1236C > T; 2677G > T; 3435C > T), as well as for the OPRM1 118A > G single nucleotide polymorphism. Subjects' methadone doses and trough plasma (R)-methadone concentrations (C(trough)) were compared between ABCB1 haplotypes (with and without controlling for OPRM1 genotype), and between OPRM1 genotypes (with and without controlling for ABCB1 haplotype). RESULTS:Among wild-type OPRM1 subjects, an ABCB1 variant haplotype group (subjects with a wild-type and 61A:1199G:1236C:2677T:3435T haplotype combination, or homozygous for the 61A:1199G:1236C:2677T:3435T haplotype) had significantly lower doses (median ± standard deviation 35 ± 5 versus 180 ± 65 mg/day, P < 0.01) and C(trough) (78 ± 22 versus 177 ± 97 ng/mL, P < 0.05) than ABCB1 wild-type subjects. Among subjects with the most common ABCB1 haplotype combination (wild-type with 61A:1199G:1236T:2677T:3435T), the OPRM1 118 A/G genotype was associated with a significantly higher C(trough) than 118 A/A (250 ± 126 versus 108 ± 36 ng/mL, P = 0.016). No ABCB1 haplotype group or OPRM1 genotype was associated with dose or C(trough) without taking into account confounding genetic variability at the other locus. Therefore, two interacting pharmacogenetic determinants of methadone maintenance treatment response were identified, ie, ABCB1, where variants are associated with lower methadone requirements, and OPRM1, where the variant is associated with higher methadone requirements. CONCLUSION:These opposing pharmacogenetic effects therefore need to be considered in combination when assessing methadone maintenance treatment pharmacogenetics.