Incidence and subtype specificity of API2-MALT1 fusion translocations in extranodal, nodal, and splenic marginal zone lymphomas.
ABSTRACT: The t(11;18)(q21;q21) is thought to represent an important primary event in the development of marginal zone lymphomas, although an accurate estimation of the frequency and distribution of this genetic alteration among nodal, splenic, and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma types has yet to be determined. Recently, molecular genetic studies have shown that this translocation results in the fusion of the API2 gene on chromosome 11 and a novel gene termed MALT1 on chromosome 18. To investigate the incidence of API2-MALT1 fusion transcripts among marginal zone lymphomas and to determine possible marginal zone lymphoma subtype associations, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to analyze RNAs extracted from frozen tissue samples of 99 marginal zone lymphomas. Fifty-seven involved diverse extranodal sites including 14 stomach, 11 lung, 7 orbit, 7 parotid, 5 thyroid, 5 lacrimal gland, 3 small intestine, 2 large intestine, 1 kidney, 1 paraspinal region and 1 skin. Twenty-one primary splenic and twenty-one primary nodal marginal zone lymphomas were also studied. API2-MALT1 fusion transcripts were detected in 12 of 57 extranodal marginal zone lymphomas (21%), but in none of the nodal or splenic cases. The cDNA sequences of the fusion transcripts were determined, revealing variation in the coding sequence fusion point for both API2 and MALT1. The findings suggest that t(11;18)(q21;q21) is restricted to extranodal marginal zone lymphomas and that these tumors have distinct genetic etiologies in comparison with their splenic and nodal counterparts.
Project description:Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type is a distinct clinicopathological disease entity in the category of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. Recently, we and others have shown that the API2 gene on chromosome 11 and the MALT1 gene on chromosome 18 are fused as a result of t(11;18)(q21;q21) in MALT lymphomas. Here we report a detection assay that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. It consists of a multiplex one-tube reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by three parallel multiplex nested polymerase chain reactions. Eight variants of the fusion transcripts have been reported to date. When these variants were used as positive controls, all were successfully detected. The subsequent direct sequencing confirmed the results. Using this rapid and simple method, we could detect API2-MALT1 fusion transcripts in 5 of 15 (33%) archival cases of MALT lymphoma for a frequency comparable with those of RT-PCR assays using frozen materials. The lung was the preferential anatomical site of origin of MALT lymphomas harboring API2-MALT1 fusion. No fusion transcript was detected in any of 20 high-grade B-cell lymphomas. Our multiplex RT-PCR assay, which can be used for routinely-processed paraffin samples, should serve as a useful molecular tool for clarifying the clinicopathological significance of API2-MALT1 fusion in MALT lymphoma.
Project description:Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the most common extranodal lymphoid cell neoplasia; it frequently follows chronic bacteria-induced inflammation in various tissues. MALT lymphomas are characterized genetically by the t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation, which yields chimeric transcripts encoding structurally distinct API2/MALT1 fusion proteins. In this study, we provide functional evidence for the contribution of API2/MALT1 fusion proteins to transformation of cells in culture by activating the NF-kappaB pathway through a RelB/p50 dimer. Using microchip gene expression analysis, we demonstrate that different forms of the API2/MALT1 proteins activate both unique and overlapping gene programs in cells. In addition to this genome reprogramming, expression of distinct API2/MALT1 fusion products inhibits DNA damage-induced, p53-mediated apoptosis in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. Collectively, these data reveal previously unknown functional diversity among API2/MALT1 fusion products and their function in NF-kappaB signaling as it connects to the apoptotic program, a pathway with strong relevance to cancer. Furthermore, they provide evidence underlying the emerging role of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the inhibition of apoptosis.
Project description:Recently we demonstrated that the t(11;18)(q21;q21) associated with extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphomas of MALT type results in the expression of a chimeric transcript fusing 5' API2 on chromosome 11 to 3' MLT on chromosome 18. Here we report the development of an RT-PCR approach for the detection of the API2-MLT fusion transcript and its application for the analysis of 58 cases of gastric lymphoma. Initially nested PCR amplification was combined with Southern analysis using internal API2 and MLT probes. A genuine API2-MLT fusion transcript of variable length was demonstrated in 11 out of 58 cases. Sequence analysis revealed that in all cases the breakpoint on chromosome 11 occurred between exons 7 and 8 of the API2 gene. In contrast, the breakpoints on chromosome 18 appeared to be heterogeneous as fusions to bp 814, 1123, and 1150, respectively, of MLT were observed. These observations allowed us to work out a highly sensitive diagnostic test for the API2-MLT fusion on an ABI Prism 7700 sequence detector that confirmed the results of our initial approach. The API2-MLT fusion was found in 48% of gastric marginal zone cell lymphomas of MALT type that did not contain a large cell component and it was lacking in all other lymphomas of the stomach.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) is the most frequent chromosomal aberration associated with MALT lymphoma and results in constitutive NF-kappaB activity via the expression of an API2-MALT1 fusion protein. The properties of the reciprocal MALT1-API2 were never investigated as it was reported to be rarely transcribed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our data indicate the presence of MALT1-API2 transcripts in the majority of t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphomas. Based on the breakpoints in the MALT1 and API2 gene, the MALT1-API2 protein contains the death domain and one or both immunoglobulin-like domains of MALT1 (approximately 90% of cases)--mediating the possible interaction with BCL10--fused to the RING domain of API2. Here we show that this RING domain enables MALT1-API2 to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for BCL10, inducing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation in vitro. Expression of MALT1-API2 transcripts in t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphomas was however not associated with a reduction of BCL10 protein levels. CONCLUSION: As we observed MALT1-API2 to be an efficient target of its own E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, our data suggest that this inherent instability of MALT1-API2 prevents its accumulation and renders a potential effect on MALT lymphoma development via destabilization of BCL10 unlikely.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas are very common types of extranodal lymphomas, and we hypothesize there are regional differences in subtype, distribution in the GI tract, and epidemiological features among the different populations. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical, molecular and histologic features of North American primary and secondary GI lymphomas diagnosed from 2000-2009 seen at our institution. We utilized immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization to further evaluate a subset of the gastric lymphomas. RESULTS: Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALTs) and diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) were the most common subtypes of GI lymphomas. Select gastric DLBCLs (N?=?6) and MALTs (N?=?13) were further examined for API2-MALT1 and IGH translocations, and P16 and P53 protein expression. Gastric MALTs showed frequent API2-MALT1 (38%) but not IGH translocations (0%), and the DLBCLs showed neither translocation. Expression of P16 and P53 proteins and the proliferative index were compared between high grade gastric lymphomas (gastric DLBCLs) and low grade gastric lymphomas (gastric MALTs). P53 overexpression (P?=?0.008) and a high proliferation index [Ki-67] (P?=?0.00042) were significantly associated with gastric DLBCL, but no statistically significant difference was observed in P16 expression (p?=?0.108) between gastric DLBCL and gastric MALT. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that GI lymphomas from a Central-Midwestern North American population showed differences and similarities to non-North American cohorts. In addition, API2-MALT1, P16 and P53 abnormalities occurred frequently in gastric lymphomas from this North American population. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1415505838687793.
Project description:t(11;18)(q21;q21) is associated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma and results in API2-MALT1 fusion. However, its clinicopathologic significance remains unclarified. API2-MALT1 fusion is detected most frequently in MALT lymphomas primarily involving the lung. We therefore screened 51 cases of pulmonary MALT lymphoma for API2-MALT1 fusion, and studied its relationship with clinicopathologic factors including the immunohistochemical expression of BCL10, another MALT lymphoma-associated molecule. The API2-MALT1 fusion transcript was detected in 21 of 51 (41%) cases, and was correlated with the absence of any underlying autoimmune disease, and with a normal serum lactate dehydrogenase, a "typical" histology without marked plasmacytic differentiation or an increased number of large cells, and aberrant nuclear BCL10 expression. However, its prognostic impact was not identified in the limited follow-up (6 to 187 months, median 27). These data suggest that the API2-MALT1 fusion may be a causative gene abnormality unrelated to autoimmune disease. In addition, this alteration may define a homogeneous MALT lymphoma subtype that is clinically more indolent and histologically more "typical." Aberrant nuclear BCL10 expression may have a possible role as a tool to screen for this API2-MALT1 fusion. A large-scale study with a long follow-up is necessary to establish the prognostic significance of API2-MALT1 fusion.
Project description:The etiology and pathogenesis of ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (OAEMZL) are still unknown and the association with Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) has been shown in only some geographic regions. Herein, we comprehensively examined the frequency of chromosomal translocations as well as CARD11, MYD88 (L265P), and A20 mutations/deletions in 45 C. psittaci negative OAEMZLs. t(14;18)(q32;q21) IGH-MALT1 and t(11;18)(q21;q21) API2-MALT1 were not detected in any of the analyzed tumors while three tumors harbored IGH translocations to an unidentified partner. CARD11 mutations were not found in all analyzed tumors, while the MYD88 L265P mutation was detected in three (6.7%) tumors. A20 mutations and deletions were each detected in seven (15.6%) and six (13.3%) tumors, respectively. Therefore, the observed genetic aberrations could account for the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kB signaling pathway in only a minority of the cases. Further studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of OAEMZL.
Project description:Recent progress in molecular analysis of low-grade B cell lymphoma has revealed that API2 at 11q21 and a novel gene, MALT1 at 18q21, are involved in t(11;18)(q21;q21), a characteristic chromosome aberration for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma. We describe here the establishment of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay that we used to analyze 22 cases of MALT lymphoma. All five cases that were shown to possess t(11;18)(q21;q21) showed the specific amplification of API2-MALT1 chimeric transcripts. Of the remaining 17 cases for which cytogenetic data were not available, three cases demonstrated the presence of fusion transcripts, indicating that a significant percentage of MALT lymphoma cases of the present series appeared to possess t(11;18). A single fragment was observed in each of these cases, but the size varied from case to case. Sequencing analysis revealed that there are two breakpoints in API2 and three in MALT1, and that all of the fusion transcripts are in-frame. On the basis of these results, four kinds of chimeric proteins can be predicted for the present series. Thus, the RT-PCR assay used here should serve as an effective molecular tool for understanding molecular pathogenesis and the clinical significance of API2-MALT1 for MALT lymphomas.
Project description:The API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein is created by the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We identified receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) as a novel API2-MALT1-associated protein, and demonstrate that RIP1 is required for API2-MALT1 to stimulate canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). API2-MALT1 promotes ubiquitination of RIP1 at lysine (K) 377, which is necessary for full NF-?B activation. Furthermore, we found that TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) recruitment is required for API2-MALT1 to induce RIP1 ubiquitination, NF-?B activation and cellular transformation. Although both TRAF2 and RIP1 interact with the API2 moiety of API2-MALT1, this moiety alone is insufficient to induce RIP1 ubiquitination or activate NF-?B, indicating that API2-MALT1-dependent RIP1 ubiquitination represents a gain of function requiring the concerted actions of both the API2 and MALT1 moieties of the fusion. Intriguingly, constitutive RIP1 ubiquitination was recently demonstrated in several solid tumors, and now our study implicates RIP1 ubiquitination as a critical component of API2-MALT1-dependent lymphomagenesis.
Project description:Marginal zone B cell lymphomas are divided into nodal, extranodal and splenic types. Renal involvement by extranodal B cell lymphoma is extremely rare with an incidence of about 0.1%. We present a case of a 79-year-old Caucasian male with progressive renal failure and isolated left renal extranodal marginal zone lymphoma. Asymptomatic immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy along with bone marrow involvement by lymphoma was observed. Contemporary management options including radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy, immune-modulating agents and novel chemotherapy-free regimens.