Trial on refinement of early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin versus vinorelbine and cisplatin: the TREAT protocol.
ABSTRACT: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been proven to be beneficial for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, toxicity and insufficient dose delivery have been critical issues with the chemotherapy used. Doublet regimens with pemetrexed, a multi-target folate inhibitor, and platin show clear activity in non-small cell lung cancer and are well tolerated with low toxicity rates and excellent delivery.In this prospective, multi-center, open label randomized phase II study, patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer, stage IB, IIA, IIB, T3N1 will be randomized after complete tumor resection either to 4 cycles of the standard adjuvant vinorelbine and cisplatin regimen from the published phase III data, or to 4 cycles of pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 d1 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 d1, q 3 weeks. Primary objective is to compare the clinical feasibility of these cisplatin doublets defined as non-occurrence of grade 4 neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia > 7 days or bleeding, grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia and/or infection, grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicity, non-acceptance leading to premature withdrawal and no cancer or therapy related death. Secondary parameters are efficacy (time to relapse, overall survival) and drug delivery. Parameters of safety are hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity of both arms.The TREAT trial was designed to evaluate the clinical feasibility, i.e. rate of patients without dose limiting toxicities or premature treatment withdrawal or death of the combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed as well as the published phase III regimen of cisplatin and vinorelbine. Hypothesis of the study is that reduced toxicities might improve the feasibility of drug delivery, compliance and the convenience of treatment for the patient and perhaps survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A previous study showed a survival benefit with maintenance therapy with pemetrexed in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it remains unclear whether continuation maintenance therapy with pemetrexed is beneficial in Japanese patients. Here, we present our phase II study that assessed the efficacy and safety of cisplatin plus pemetrexed as induction chemotherapy, followed by maintenance therapy with pemetrexed in advanced NSCLC patients in Japan.<h4>Methods</h4>Chemotherapy-naïve patients received 500?mg/m(2) pemetrexed and 75?mg/m(2) cisplatin on day one every three weeks for four cycles. In patients who responded to therapy or achieved stable disease, pemetrexed was continued until disease progression. The primary endpoint of this study was the progression-free survival rate at six months (PFS-6).<h4>Results</h4>Of the 35 patients initially enrolled in the study, 18 (51%) received maintenance chemotherapy with pemetrexed. The median PFS was 6.7 months, and the PFS-6 was 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42-76%). Median overall survival (OS) was 15.5 months (95% CI, 8.3-22.7 months). The median PFS and OS in patients who received maintenance chemotherapy with pemetrexed were 9.5 months and 25.3 months, respectively. The most frequently noted severe toxicity during induction chemotherapy was neutropenia, which occurred in seven patients. Two patients discontinued maintenance therapy owing to prolonged grade 2 edema in one patient and grade 3 neutropenia in another.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Continuation maintenance chemotherapy with pemetrexed is associated with a survival benefit in patients who have completed induction chemotherapy for non-squamous NSCLC.
Project description:Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has shown a survival advantage over intravenous chemotherapy for women with newly diagnosed optimally debulked epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. However, significant toxicity has limited its acceptance. In an effort to reduce toxicity, the Gynecologic Oncology Group conducted a Phase I study to evaluate the feasibility of day 1 intravenous (IV) paclitaxel and intraperitoneal (IP) cisplatin followed by day 8 IP paclitaxel on an every 21-day cycle.Patients with Stage IIB-IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, primary peritoneal carcinomas or carcinosarcoma received paclitaxel 135mg/m(2) IV over 3h followed by cisplatin 75mg/m(2) IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) IP on day 8 of a 21 day cycle with 6 cycles planned. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as febrile neutropenia or dose-delay of greater than 2 weeks due to failure to recover counts, or Grade 3-5 non-hematologic toxicity occurring within the first 4 cycles of treatment.Twenty of 23 patients enrolled were evaluable and nineteen (95%) completed all six cycles of therapy. Three patients experienced a DLT consisting of infection with normal absolute neutrophil count, grade 3 hyperglycemia, and grade 4 abdominal pain.This modified IP regimen which administers both IV paclitaxel and IP cisplatin on day one, followed by IP paclitaxel on day eight, of a twenty-one day cycle appears feasible and is an attractive alternative to the intraperitoneal treatment regimen administered in GOG-0172.
Project description:To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and pharmacodynamics of aflibercept, and to identify the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of aflibercept in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin.Aflibercept was administered at escalating doses of 2, 4, or 6 mg kg(-1) in combination with fixed doses of pemetrexed (500 mg m(-2)) plus cisplatin (75?mg?m(-2)) every 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for PK analyses. Serum antiaflibercept antibodies were quantified to assess their impact on systemic aflibercept concentrations.Eighteen patients were enrolled. One patient dosed at 4 mg kg(-1) experienced grade 3 hypophosphatemia (dose-limiting toxicity; DLT), which prompted a cohort expansion. No further DLTs were observed in the 4 mg kg(-1) cohort or the 6 mg kg(-1) dose cohort. Most common adverse events (AEs) of all grades included (%): fatigue (89), anaemia (89), nausea (83), hyponatremia (78), and neutropenia (72). Grade ? 3 AEs consistent with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy included (%): hypertension (22), pulmonary embolism (11), and deep vein thrombosis (6). Five patients (28%) experienced mild neurocognitive disturbance. No episodes of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) were noted.The results of this phase I study allowed further evaluation of the combination of aflibercept with pemetrexed and cisplatin in a phase II study. The RP2D of aflibercept was 6 mg kg(-1), to be administered intravenously every 3 weeks in combination with pemetrexed and cisplatin.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In malignant pleural mesothelioma, targeting angiogenesis with cediranib, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential. METHODS:S0905 phase I combined cediranib (two dose cohorts [30 mg and 20 mg daily]) with cisplatin-pemetrexed for six cycles followed by maintenance cediranib in unresectable chemonaive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma of any histologic subtype. The primary end point established the maximum tolerated dose in combination with cisplatin-pemetrexed in a dose deescalation scheme. RESULTS:A total of 20 patients were enrolled (seven to the 30-mg cohort and 13 to the 20-mag cohort). In the cediranib 30-mg cohort, two of the initial six patients reported dose-limiting toxicities and the dose was deemed too toxic to continue. In the next cohort, two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities, and thus, the maximum tolerated dose of cediranib was established as 20 mg. During the six cycles of cisplatin-pemetrexed-cediranib, 20 mg, there were grade 3 toxicities (neutropenia and gastrointestinal) and grade 4 thrombocytopenia. No patients had any significant episodes of bleeding. According to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (n = 17 evaluable patients), the median progression-free survival was 12.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.9-17.2); according to the Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (n = 19 evaluable patients), the median progression-free survival was 8.6 months (95% CI: 6.1-10.9). For all patients, the disease control rate at 6 weeks was 90% and median overall survival time was 16.2 months (95% CI: 10.5-28.7). CONCLUSIONS:Cediranib combined with cisplatin-pemetrexed has a reasonable toxicity profile and preliminary promising efficacy. The phase II S0905 trial will evaluate the efficacy of the triplet regimen compared with the current standard of care, cisplatin-pemetrexed.
Project description:Pemetrexed has shown a favourable response rate of about 30% with minimal toxicity when used as a single agent for treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma. This phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed plus cisplatin in advanced urothelial carcinoma.This multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase II clinical trial enrolled patients who had advanced urothelial carcinoma, ECOG PS 0-2, and measurable disease. Pemetrexed 500?mg?m(-2) with cisplatin 70?mg?m(-2) on day 1 were administered every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity.A total of 42 patients were enrolled (median age, 66 years; ECOG 0-1, 100%; visceral metastasis, 54.8%; recurrent disease, 57.1%). Twenty-seven partial responses for an ORR of 64.3% (95% CI, 49.2%-77.0%) were documented. Seven patients had stable disease. Median PFS and OS were 6.9 (95% CI, 6.2-7.6) and 14.4 (95% CI, 10.4-18.4) months, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was observed in 28.6% of patients. No patients experienced febrile neutropenia.The combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin is active, and well tolerated in patients with advanced urothelial cancer as a first-line treatment.
Project description:In cervical cancer patients with intermediate-risk factors, the optimal adjuvant therapy is still controversial. We undertook a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01418859) to compare the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with topotecan and cisplatin with radiotherapy alone in intermediate-risk cervical cancer patients.Eligible patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms including arm A (radiotherapy only,RT), arm B(concurrent chemoradiotherapy only, CCRT), and arm C (concurrent chemoradiotherapy with following consolidation chemotherapy, CCRT?+ CT). All eligible patients completed external RT (IMRT or 3D-CRT), receiving 45-50 Gy /25 f uniformly to the pelvis. Concurrent chemotherapy regimen was topotecan 0.75 mg/m(2) for days 1, 2 and 3, followed by cisplatin 25 mg/m(2) for days 1, 2 and 3. Three cycles of consolidation chemotherapy regimen was topotecan 1.5 mg/m(2) for days 1 and 2, and 0.75 mg/m(2) for day 3; followed by cisplatin 25 mg/m(2) for days 1, 2 and 3, repeated every 21 days. Adverse events of each group were investigated and compared.Thirty-nine patients enrolled onto the remaining regimens: 14 to RT, 15 to CCRT and 10 to CCRT?+ CT. Six patients (15.4%) did not complete the protocol treatment. Hematologic toxicity was more frequent and more severe in the CCRT and CCRT?+ CT arms compared with the RT arm. The incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia was significantly different statistically between the RT, CCRT and CCRT?+ RT groups (15.4%, 46.7% and 100%, respectively; P = 0.002). Specially, three patients in CCRT?+ CT arm of all six patients who did not complete the protocol treatment discontinued planned therapy because of persistent grade 4 neutropenia. However, there were no significant differences in grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicities between the three groups(all P > 0.05). Recurrence-free survival and overall survival of each group were not analyzed on account of a median follow-up of only 16 months.Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with topotecan and cisplatin showed severe hematologic toxicity in intermediate-risk cervical cancer patients after radical hysterectomy. Thus, the study was closed ahead of schedule.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01418859 .
Project description:BACKGROUND:Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is an optimal recommended treatment for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral vinorelbine plus cisplatin with concomitant radiotherapy for stage III NSCLC. METHODS:This prospective, open-label, single-arm, observational cohort study was performed between January 2010 and September 2016. Patients were treated with two cycles of chemotherapy with 60 mg/m2 intravenous cisplatin on day 1 and 50 mg/m2 oral vinorelbine on days 1, 8, and 15; radiotherapy was administered concurrently from day 1 when chemotherapy was initiated. A total dose of 66-70 Gy radiotherapy was delivered in daily fractions of 2 Gy for 6.5-7 consecutive weeks. The tumor response was assessed after completing concomitant treatment. RESULTS:A total of 58 patients were enrolled and analyzed; 31 patients had stage IIIA NSCLC and 27 had stage IIIB NSCLC. After induction CCRT, 31 patients achieved an objective response (complete response in one and partial response in 30; the response rate was 53.4%). The median progression-free survival was 6.73 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.42-7.91), duration of response was 12.30 months (95% CI, 5.59-19.01), and overall survival was 24.83 months (95% CI, 19.26-30.21). No treatment-related mortality was observed, and neutropenia was the most common grade 3 and 4 treatment-related toxicity (11 patients; 18.9%). CONCLUSIONS:CCRT with the weekly regimen of oral vinorelbine plus triweekly cisplatin was effective and safe for stage III NSCLC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The FAST is a 2 × 2 factorial trial addressing two questions: (1) the role of replacing cisplatin (P) with a non-platinum agent, vinorelbine (N), and (2) the role of adding a third agent, ifosfamide (I), in a doublet based on gemcitabine (G).<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 433 stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were randomised to one of four arms: gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP), gemcitabine-vinorelbine, gemcitabine-ifosfamide-cisplatin or gemcitabine-ifosfamide-vinorelbine. Two comparisons were performed: N- vs P-containing regimens and I-triplets vs non-I doublets.<h4>Results</h4>For N- vs P-containing regimens, adjusted overall survival was 9.7 vs 11.3 months (P=0.044), progression-free survival was 4.9 vs 6.4 months (P=0.020) and response rate was 24% vs 31% (P=0.124), respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed between doublets and triplets. Grade 3-4 haematological toxicity was significantly more frequent in P-containing therapy; grade 3-4 leucopenia was significantly more common in triplets. Concerning non-haematological toxicity, grade 3-4 nausea-vomiting was significantly increased in P-containing regimens.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This trial provides evidence of a slight survival superiority of GP-containing regimens over platinum-free N-containing chemotherapy. This trial also confirms that the addition of a third chemotherapy agent (I) to a standard G-based doublet does not improve treatment outcome.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pemetrexed and cisplatin is a first-line standard in non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer without targetable mutations. It became the backbone of checkpoint-inhibitor-chemotherapy combinations. Single high doses of cisplatin pose toxicity risks and require hyperhydration, potentially prolonging outpatient application. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy, safety and tolerability of split-dose cisplatin with the standard schedule.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with metastatic non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to up to six 21-day cycles of pemetrexed 500 mg/m<sup>2</sup> and cisplatin 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> on day 1 (arm A), or pemetrexed 500 mg/m<sup>2</sup> (day 1) and cisplatin 40 mg/m<sup>2</sup> (day 1 + 8, arm B), followed by pemetrexed maintenance. Primary endpoint was objective response rate. Secondary objectives were overall survival, progression-free survival, time to progression, treatment compliance, toxicity profile, and quality of life.<h4>Results</h4>We enrolled 130 patients (129 evaluable). Median cycle numbers in A and B were six (1-6) and five (1-6). Dose intensities were comparable between arms. More patients in A received pemetrexed maintenance (24.2% <i>versus</i> 11.1%). With 16 (24.2%) in A and 19 (30.2%) patients in B achieving objective responses [odds ratio 0.74 (0.34-1.62), <i>p</i> = 0.55] the primary endpoint was met. Overall survival was not different between arms (median 14.4 <i>versus</i> 14.9 months); [HR = 1.07; (0.68-1.68), <i>p</i> = 0.78]. Median progression-free survival was 7.0 months in A and 6.2 months in B [HR = 1.63; (1.17-2.38); <i>p</i> = 0.01]. Adverse events of CTCAE grade ⩾3, particularly hematological, were more frequent in B. No difference in grade 4 and 5 infections between arms was noted. Treatment-related asthenia and nausea/vomiting of any grade were more frequent in A. Global health status, fatigue and constipation measured on day 1 of cycle 4 demonstrated superior scores in B.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Pemetrexed and split-dose cisplatin is safe and effective. Advantages of split-dose cisplatin with regard to specific toxicities allow personalization of this important chemotherapy backbone.<h4>Trial registration</h4>European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT) number 2011-001963-37.
Project description:Patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (aSTS) typically have a poor prognosis. Patients progressing to doxorubicin-based regimen have limited therapeutic options. Monotherapy with cytotoxic drugs appears to have only modest activity in the second-line setting. The purpose of this phase II study was to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination regimen with gemcitabine, vincristine, and cisplatin (GVP) as a salvage treatment for patients with aSTS.Eligible patients were female with 18?75 years old, and had aSTS that had progressed after 1 prior anthracyclines-based chemotherapy regimen. Patients were treated with 1,000?mg/m gemcitabine intravenously (IV) on days 1 and 8, 1.4?mg/m (max 2?mg) vincristine IV on day 1 and 25?mg/m cisplatin IV on days 1 through 3 every 21 days until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or up to 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), over response rate (ORR) and safety. This trial was registered with http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (no. NCT01192633).A total of 26 patients with a median age 47 years (21-72) were recruited. ORR was 23.1% [1 complete response and 5 partial responses]. The median PFS and OS were 4.8 (95% CI, 0.1-9.5) months and 15.0 (95% CI, 6.1-23.9) months, respectively. Grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities included neutropenia (34.6%), leukopenia (23.1%), thrombocytopenia (11.5%) and anemia (3.8%). No febrile neutropenia and grade 3/4 non-hematologic toxicities occurred. The most frequent non-hematologic toxicities were nausea/vomiting (50.0%), fatigue (30.8%), and fever (11.5%).We conclude that GVP regimen is effective with a favorable safety profile as the second-line chemotherapy in aSTS patients, which warrants further investigation in a phase III study.