Sequencing of a tet(Q) gene isolated from Bacteroides fragilis 1126.
ABSTRACT: Recently, Tet Q, a tetracycline resistance determinant that confers resistance by a ribosome protection mechanism, was described and added to the two previously described classes, Tet M and Tet O. The first representative of this class, tetA(Q)1, was isolated from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DOT. We report the sequencing of a gene isolated from B. fragilis 1126 which also confers tetracycline resistance. Because of its high degree of identity (97%) with the tetA(Q)1 gene, we defined it as tetA(Q)2. MIC studies revealed that tetA(Q)2 provides a low level of resistance to tetracycline when cloned into Escherichia coli. The extensive homology between tetA(Q)1 and tetA(Q)2 supports the idea of a recent horizontal transfer of tet(Q) genes among Bacteroides spp.
Project description:Previously, only one ribosome protection type of a tetracycline resistance gene, tetQ, had been identified in Bacteroides spp. During an investigation of anaerobic bacteria present in swine feces and manure storage pits, a tetracycline-resistant Bacteroides strain was isolated. Subsequent analysis showed that this new Bacteroides strain, Bacteroides sp. strain 139, did not contain tetQ but contained a previously unidentified tetracycline resistance gene. Sequence analysis showed that the tetracycline resistance gene from Bacteroides sp. strain 139 encoded a protein (designated Tet 36) that defines a new class of ribosome protection types of tetracycline resistance. Tet 36 has 60% amino acid identity over 640 aa to TetQ and between 31 and 49% amino acid identity to the nine other ribosome protection types of tetracycline resistance genes. The tet(36) region was not observed to transfer from Bacteroides sp. strain 139 to another Bacteroides sp. under laboratory conditions. Yet tet(36) was found in other genera of bacteria isolated from the same swine manure pits and from swine feces. Phylogenetic analysis of the tet(36)-containing isolates indicated that tet(36) was present not only in the Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroides group to which Bacteroides sp. strain 139 belongs but also in gram-positive genera and gram-negative proteobacteria, indicating that horizontal transfer of tet(36) is occurring between these divergent phylogenetic groups in the farm environment.
Project description:The bacterium Clostridium saccharolyticum K10, isolated from a fecal sample obtained from a healthy donor who had received long-term tetracycline therapy, was found to carry three tetracycline resistance genes: tet(W) and the mosaic tet(O/32/O), both conferring ribosome protection-type resistance, and a novel, closely linked efflux-type resistance gene designated tet(40). tet(40) encodes a predicted membrane-associated protein with 42% amino acid identity to tetA(P). Tetracycline did not accumulate in Escherichia coli cells expressing the Tet(40) efflux protein, and resistance to tetracycline was reduced when cells were incubated with an efflux pump inhibitor. E. coli cells carrying tet(40) had a 50% inhibitory concentration of tetracycline of 60 microg/ml. Analysis of a transconjugant from a mating between donor strain C. saccharolyticum K10 and the recipient human gut commensal bacterium Roseburia inulinivorans suggested that tet(O/32/O) and tet(40) were cotransferred on a mobile element. Sequence analysis of a 37-kb insert identified on the basis of tetracycline resistance from a metagenomic fosmid library again revealed a tandem arrangement of tet(O/32/O) and tet(40), flanked by regions with homology to parts of the VanG operon previously identified in Enterococcus faecalis. At least 10 of the metagenomic inserts that carried tet(O/32/O) also carried tet(40), suggesting that tet(40), although previously undetected, may be an abundant efflux gene.
Project description:The Clostridium perfringens tetracycline resistance determinant from the 47-kb conjugative R-plasmid pCW3 is unique in that it consists of two overlapping genes, tetA(P) and tetB(P), which mediate resistance by different mechanisms. Detailed transcriptional analysis has shown that the inducible tetA(P) and tetB(P) genes comprise an operon that is transcribed from a single promoter, P3, located 529 bp upstream of the tetA(P) start codon. Deletion of P3 or alteration of the spacing between the -35 and -10 regions significantly reduced the level of transcription in a reporter construct. Induction was shown to be mediated at the level of transcription. Unexpectedly, a factor-independent terminator, T1, was detected downstream of P3 but before the start of the tetA(P) gene. Deletion or mutation of this terminator led to increased read-through transcription in the reporter construct. It is postulated that the T1 terminator is an intrinsic control element of the tet(P) operon and that it acts to prevent the overexpression of the TetA(P) transmembrane protein, even in the presence of tetracycline.
Project description:Tet 42, a novel tetracycline resistance determinant from deep subsurface bacteria, was characterized and found to have a 30% sequence similarity to TetA(Z). The protein is a putative efflux pump that shares characteristics with previously characterized pumps, including a divergently transcribed TetR repressor, a conserved GxxSDRxGRR motif, and transmembrane domains.
Project description:The enterococcal plasmid pKQ10 has been reported to carry a poorly characterized tetracycline resistance determinant designated tet(U). However, in a series of studies intended to further characterize this determinant, we have been unable to substantiate the claim that tet(U) confers resistance to tetracyclines. In line with these results, bioinformatic analysis provides compelling evidence that "tet(U)" is in fact the misannotated 3' end of a gene encoding a rolling-circle replication initiator (Rep) protein.
Project description:Tet(O) is an elongation factor-like protein which confers resistance to the protein synthesis inhibitor tetracycline by promoting the release of the drug from its inhibitory site on the ribosome. Here we investigated the interaction of Tet(O) with the elongating ribosome and show, using dimethyl sulfate (DMS) probing and binding assays, that it interacts preferentially with the post-translocational ribosome. Furthermore, using an XTP-dependent mutant of Tet(O), we demonstrated that Tet(O) induces conformational rearrangements within the ribosome which can be detected by EF-Tu, and manifested as a stimulation in the GTPase activity of this elongation factor. As such, these conformational changes probably involve the ribosomal GTPase-associated center and, accordingly, Tet(O) alters the DMS modification pattern of the L11 region. Additionally, tetracycline binding is associated with an E(a) of 58 kJ/mol. These results suggest a model where both Tet(O) and tetracycline induce a conformational change in functionally opposite directions and the Tet(O)-induced conformation persists after it has left the ribosome; this prevents rebinding of the drug while allowing productive A-site occupation by a ternary complex in the presence of tetracycline.
Project description:Resistances to tetracycline and mercury were identified in an environmental strain of Serratia marcescens isolated from a stream highly contaminated with heavy metals. As a step toward addressing the mechanisms of coselection of heavy metal and antibiotic resistances, the tetracycline resistance determinant was cloned in Escherichia coli. Within the cloned 13-kb segment, the tetracycline resistance locus was localized by deletion analysis and transposon mutagenesis. DNA sequence analysis of an 8.0-kb region revealed a novel gene [tetA(41)] that was predicted to encode a tetracycline efflux pump. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the TetA(41) protein was most closely related to the Tet(39) efflux protein of Acinetobacter spp. yet had less than 80% amino acid identity with known tetracycline efflux pumps. Adjacent to the tetA(41) gene was a divergently transcribed gene [tetR(41)] predicted to encode a tetracycline-responsive repressor protein. The tetA(41)-tetR(41) intergenic region contained putative operators for TetR(41) binding. The tetA(41) and tetR(41) promoters were analyzed using lacZ fusions, which showed that the expression of both the tetA(41) and tetR(41) genes exhibited TetR(41)-dependent regulation by subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline. The apparent lack of plasmids in this S. marcescens strain, as well as the presence of metabolic genes adjacent to the tetracycline resistance locus, suggested that the genes were located on the S. marcescens chromosome and may have been acquired by transduction. The cloned Tet 41 determinant did not confer mercury resistance to E. coli, confirming that Tet 41 is a tetracycline-specific efflux pump rather than a multidrug transporter.
Project description:A novel tetracycline resistance gene, designated tet(32), which confers a high level of tetracycline resistance, was identified in the Clostridium-related human colonic anaerobe K10, which also carries tet(W). tet(32) was transmissible in vitro to the rumen anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 2221(R). The predicted gene product of tet(32) has 76% amino acid identity with Tet(O). PCR amplification indicated that tet(32) is widely distributed in the ovine rumen and in porcine feces.
Project description:New tetracycline and streptomycin resistance genes, tet(44) and ant(6)-Ib, were identified in Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus within a transferable pathogenicity island that is typically unique to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The 640-amino-acid tetracycline resistance determinant, Tet 44, belongs to a class of proteins that confers resistance to tetracycline and minocycline by ribosomal protection. The 286-amino-acid streptomycin resistance determinant, ANT(6)-Ib, belongs to a family of aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases. The resistance phenotypes were demonstrated by gene inactivation and expression.
Project description:To investigate tetracycline resistance and resistant genotype in Riemerella anatipestifer, the tetracycline susceptibility of 212 R. anatipestifer isolates from China between 2011 and 2017 was tested. The results showed that 192 of 212 (90.6%) R. anatipestifer isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (the MICs ranged from 4 to 256 ?g/ml). The results of PCR detection showed that, 170 of 212 (80.2%) R. anatipestifer isolates possessed the tet(X) gene. Other genes, including tet(A), tet(M), tet(Q), tet(O), tet(B), and tet(O/W/32/O), were found at frequencies of 20.8, 4.7, 1.4, 0.9, 0.9, and 0.5%, respectively. However, tet(C), tet(E), tet(G), tet(K), and tet(W) were not detected in any isolate. In these tet gene positive strains, 31 (14.6%), 2 (0.9%), 5 (2.4%), 1 (0.5%), 3 (1.4%) were detected containing tet(A)/tet(X), tet(M)/tet(O), tet(M)/tet(X), tet(O)/tet(X), and tet(Q)/tet(X) simultaneously, respectively. One isolates, R131, unexpectedly contained three tet genes, i.e., tet(M), tet(O), and tet(X). Sequence analysis of the tet gene ORFs cloned from R. anatipestifer isolates confirmed that tet(A), tet(B), tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q) and an unusual mosaic tet gene tet(O/W/32/O) were present in R. anatipestifer. The MIC results of R. anatipestifer ATCC 11845 transconjugants carrying tet(A), tet(B), tet(M), tet(O), tet(O/W/32/O), tet(Q), and tet(X) genes exhibited tetracycline resistance with MIC values ranging from 4 to 64 ?g/ml. Additionally, the tet(X) gene could transfer into susceptible strain via natural transformation (transformation frequencies of ~10-6). In conclusion, the tet(A), tet(B), tet(M), tet(O), tet(O/W/32/O), tet(Q), and tet(X) genes were found and conferred tetracycline resistance in R. anatipestifer isolates. Moreover, the tet(X) is the main mechanism of tetracycline resistance in R. anatipestifer isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tet(A), tet(B), tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and mosaic gene tet(O/W/32/O) in R. anatipestifer.