Autotaxin is released from adipocytes, catalyzes lysophosphatidic acid synthesis, and activates preadipocyte proliferation. Up-regulated expression with adipocyte differentiation and obesity.
ABSTRACT: Our group has recently demonstrated (Gesta, S., Simon, M., Rey, A., Sibrac, D., Girard, A., Lafontan, M., Valet, P., and Saulnier-Blache, J. S. (2002) J. Lipid Res. 43, 904-910) the presence, in adipocyte conditioned-medium, of a soluble lysophospholipase d-activity (LPLDact) involved in synthesis of the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In the present report, LPLDact was purified from 3T3F442A adipocyte-conditioned medium and identified as the type II ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase, autotaxin (ATX). A unique ATX cDNA was cloned from 3T3F442A adipocytes, and its recombinant expression in COS-7 cells led to extracellular release of LPLDact. ATX mRNA expression was highly up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes. This up-regulation was paralleled by the ability of newly differentiated adipocytes to release LPLDact and LPA. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of ATX expression was also observed in a primary culture of mouse preadipocytes. Treatment of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX-expressing COS-7 cells led to an increase in cell number as compared with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX non-expressing COS-7 cells. The specific effect of ATX on preadipocyte proliferation was completely suppressed by co-treatment with a LPA-hydrolyzing phospholipase, phospholipase B. Finally, ATX expression was found in mature adipocytes isolated from mouse adipose tissue and was substantially increased in genetically obese-diabetic db/db mice when compared with their lean siblings. In conclusion, the present work shows that ATX is responsible for the LPLDact released by adipocytes and exerts a paracrine control on preadipocyte growth via an LPA-dependent mechanism. Up-regulations of ATX expression with adipocyte differentiation and genetic obesity suggest a possible involvement of this released protein in the development of adipose tissue and obesity-associated pathologies.
Project description:Because of its production by adipocytes and its ability to increase preadipocyte proliferation, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) could participate in the paracrine control of adipose tissue development. The aim of the present study was to determine which enzyme activities are involved in exogenous LPA hydrolysis by preadipocytes and adipocytes. Using a quantitative method, we observed that extracellular LPA rapidly disappeared from the culture medium of 3T3F442A preadipocytes. This disappearance was strongly slowed down in the presence of the phosphatase inhibitors, sodium vanadate and sodium pervanadate. By using [(33)P]LPA on intact 3T3F442A preadipocytes, we found that 90% of LPA hydrolysis resulted from LPA phosphatase activity biochemically related to previously described ectolipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPPs). Quantitative real time reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that 3T3F442A preadipocytes expressed mRNAs of three known Lpp gene subtypes (1, 2, and 3), with a predominant expression of Lpp1 and Lpp3. Differentiation of 3T3F442A preadipocytes into adipocytes led to an 80% reduction in ecto-LPA phosphatase activity, with a concomitant down-regulation in Lpp1, Lpp2, and Lpp3 mRNA expression. Despite this regulation, treatment of 3T3F442A adipocytes with sodium vanadate increased LPA production in the culture medium, suggesting the involvement of ecto-LPA phosphatase activity in the control of extracellular production of LPA by adipocytes. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that hydrolysis of extracellular LPA by preadipocytes and adipocytes mainly results from a dephosphorylation activity. This activity (i) occurs at the extracellular face of cell membrane, (ii) exhibits biochemical characteristics similar to those of the LPP, (iii) is negatively regulated during adipocyte differentiation, and (iv) plays an important role in the control of extracellular LPA production by adipocytes. Ecto-LPA phosphatase activity represents a potential target to control adipose tissue development.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Adipocyte renewal from preadipocytes occurs throughout the lifetime and contributes to obesity. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that control preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Prokineticin-2 is an angiogenic and anorexigenic hormone that activate two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): PKR1 and PKR2. Prokineticin-2 regulates food intake and energy metabolism via central mechanisms (PKR2). The peripheral effect of prokineticin-2 on adipocytes/preadipocytes has not been studied yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since adipocytes and preadipocytes express mainly prokineticin receptor-1 (PKR1), here, we explored the role of PKR1 in adipose tissue expansion, generating PKR1-null (PKR1(-/-)) and adipocyte-specific (PKR1(ad-/-)) mutant mice, and using murine and human preadipocyte cell lines. Both PKR1(-/-) and PKR1(ad-/-) had excessive abdominal adipose tissue, but only PKR1(-/-) mice showed severe obesity and diabetes-like syndrome. PKR1(ad-/-)) mice had increased proliferating preadipocytes and newly formed adipocyte levels, leading to expansion of adipose tissue. Using PKR1-knockdown in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we show that PKR1 directly inhibits preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. These PKR1 cell autonomous actions appear targeted at preadipocyte cell cycle regulatory pathways, through reducing cyclin D, E, cdk2, c-Myc levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest PKR1 to be a crucial player in the preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our data should facilitate studies of both the pathogenesis and therapy of obesity in humans.
Project description:In addition to providing energy and constituting cell membrane, fatty acids also play an important role in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. As an important member of monounsaturated fatty acids, oleate, together with other components, is widely used to induce chicken preadipocyte differentiation. However, it is not clear whether oleate alone can induce chicken preadipocyte differentiation. In the present study, four different treatments were designed to test this question: basal medium, IDX [insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (isobutylmethylxanthine)], oleate and IDX plus oleate. Cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation and mRNA expression for adipogenesis-related genes were monitored. After treatment of oleate on chicken preadipocytes, apparent lipid droplet formation and lipid accumulation were observed, accompanied by increasing expression of PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?) and AFABP (adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein), but decreasing level of GATA2 (GATA-binding protein 2). In contrast, for cells cultured in the basal medium with or without IDX supplementation, lipid droplet barely occurred. These results suggest that exogenous oleate alone can act as an inducer of preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intra-articular adipose tissues (IAATs) are involved in osteoarthritis (OA) pathophysiology. We hypothesize that mesenchymal cells residing in IAATs may account for the specific inflammatory and metabolic patterns in OA patients. METHODS:Adipocyte precursors (preadipocytes and dedifferentiated fat cells (DFATc)) from IAATs (infrapatellar and suprapatellar fat pads) and autologous subcutaneous adipose tissues (SCATs) were isolated from knee OA patients. The ability of these precursors to differentiate into adipocytes was assessed by oil red O staining after 14?days of culture in adipogenic medium. The gene expression of adipocyte-related transcription factors (C/EBP-? and PPAR-?) and development-related factors (EN1 and SFRP2) were analyzed. The inflammatory pattern was assessed by RT-qPCR and ELISA (interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, Cox2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)) after a 24-h stimulation by IL-1? (1?ng/mL) and by conditioned medium from OA synovium. RESULTS:IAAT preadipocytes displayed a significantly higher ability to differentiate into adipocytes and expressed significantly more C/EBP-? mRNA than SCAT preadipocytes. IAAT preadipocytes expressed significantly less EN-1 and SFRP2 mRNA than SCAT preadipocytes. Unstimulated IAAT preadipocytes displayed a less inflammatory pattern (IL-6, IL-8, and Cox2/PGE2) than SCAT preadipocytes. In contrast, the response of IAAT preadipocytes to an inflammatory stimulus (IL-1? and conditioned media of OA synovium) was exacerbated compared to that of SCAT preadipocytes. Similar results were obtained with DFATc. CONCLUSION:IAAT adipocyte precursors from OA patients have a specific phenotype, which may account for the unique phenotype of OA IAATs. The exacerbated response of IAAT preadipocytes to inflammatory stimulation may contribute to OA pathophysiology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The existence of a cross-talk between peritumoral adipocytes and cancer cells has been increasingly investigated. Several studies have shown that these adipocytes protect tumor cells from the effect of anticancer agents. METHODS:To investigate a potential protective effect of adipocyte-conditioned medium on HER2 positive breast cancer cells exposed to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as lapatinib, we analyzed the sensitivity of HER2 positive breast cancer models in vitro and in vivo on SCID mice in the presence or absence of adipocytes or adipocyte-conditioned medium. RESULTS:Conditioned medium from differentiated adipocytes reduced the in vitro sensitivity of the HER2+ cell lines BT474 and SKBR3 to TKI. Particularly, conditioned medium abrogated P27 induction in tumor cells by lapatinib but this was observed only when conditioned medium was present during exposure to lapatinib. In addition, resistance was induced with adipocytes derived from murine NIH3T3 or human hMAD cells but not with fibroblasts or preadipocytes. In vivo studies demonstrated that the contact of the tumors with adipose tissue reduced sensitivity to lapatinib. Soluble factors involved in this resistance were found to be thermolabile. Pharmacological modulation of lipolysis in adipocytes during preparation of conditioned media showed that various lipolysis inhibitors abolished the protective effect of conditioned media on tumor cells, suggesting a role for adipocyte lipolysis in the induction of resistance of tumor cells to TKI. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, our results suggest that contact of tumor cells with proximal adipose tissue induces resistance to anti HER2 small molecule inhibitors through the production of soluble thermolabile factors, and that this effect can be abrogated using lipolysis inhibitors.
Project description:The preadipocyte differentiation biological process involves a cascade of transcriptional events that culminates in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?. The differentiation cocktail [insulin (INS), dexamethasone (DEX) and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX)] can induce preadipocyte differentiation in mammals, but it is insufficient for chicken (Gallus gallus) adipogenesis. Oleate can induce chicken preadipocyte differentiation, but these differentiated preadipocytes may not be fully functional. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether chicken preadipocytes can be induced to mature adipocytes by a novel induction method using differentiation cocktail supplemented with PPAR? agonist(s). Chicken preadipocytes cultured in cocktail supplemented with rosiglitazone or troglitazone resulted in a marked increase in lipid droplet accumulation (P<0.05), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity (P<0.05), mRNA expression level of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2; P<0.05), G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2; P<0.05) and lipolysis (P<0.05). In addition, supplementation of the cocktail with rosiglitazone promoted PPAR? mRNA expression (P<0.05). In conclusion, our data indicated that chicken preadipocytes can be induced to mature adipocytes using differentiation cocktail supplemented with rosiglitazone. The results of the present study provide a novel induction method for in vitro chicken preadipocyte differentiation.
Project description:AIM:The physiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance are not fully understood. Impaired adipocyte differentiation and localized inflammation characterize adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant humans. The directionality of this relationship is not known, however. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adipose tissue inflammation is causally-related to impaired adipocyte differentiation. METHODS:Abdominal subcutaneous(SAT) and visceral(VAT) adipose tissue was obtained from 20 human participants undergoing bariatric surgery. Preadipocytes were isolated, and cultured in the presence or absence of CD14+ macrophages obtained from the same adipose tissue sample. Adipocyte differentiation was quantified after 14 days via immunofluorescence, Oil-Red O, and adipogenic gene expression. Cytokine secretion by mature adipocytes cultured with or without CD14+macrophages was quantified. RESULTS:Adipocyte differentiation was significantly lower in VAT than SAT by all measures (p<0.001). With macrophage removal, SAT preadipocyte differentiation increased significantly as measured by immunofluorescence and gene expression, whereas VAT preadipocyte differentiation was unchanged. Adipocyte-secreted proinflammatory cytokines were higher and adiponectin lower in media from VAT vs SAT: macrophage removal reduced inflammatory cytokine and increased adiponectin secretion from both SAT and VAT adipocytes. Differentiation of preadipocytes from SAT but not VAT correlated inversely with systemic insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS:The current results reveal that proinflammatory immune cells in human SAT are causally-related to impaired preadipocyte differentiation, which in turn is associated with systemic insulin resistance. In VAT, preadipocyte differentiation is poor even in the absence of tissue macrophages, pointing to inherent differences in fat storage potential between the two depots.
Project description:White adipose tissues are composed mainly of white fat cells (adipocytes), which play a key role in energy storage and metabolism. White adipocytes are terminally differentiated postmitotic cells and arise from their progenitor cells (preadipocytes) or mesenchymal stem cells residing in white adipose tissues. Thus, white adipocyte number is most likely controlled by the rate of preadipocyte proliferation, which may contribute to the etiology of obesity. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate preadipocyte proliferation during adipose tissue development. Necdin, which is expressed predominantly in postmitotic neurons, is a pleiotropic protein that possesses anti-mitotic and pro-survival activities. Here we show that necdin functions as an intrinsic regulator of white preadipocyte proliferation in developing adipose tissues. Necdin is expressed in early preadipocytes or mesenchymal stem cells residing in the stromal compartment of white adipose tissues in juvenile mice. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of endogenous necdin expression in vivo in adipose tissues markedly increases fat mass in juvenile mice fed a high-fat diet until adulthood. Furthermore, necdin-null mutant mice exhibit a greater expansion of adipose tissues due to adipocyte hyperplasia than wild-type mice when fed the high-fat diet during the juvenile and adult periods. Adipose stromal-vascular cells prepared from necdin-null mice differentiate in vitro into a significantly larger number of adipocytes in response to adipogenic inducers than those from wild-type mice. These results suggest that necdin prevents excessive preadipocyte proliferation induced by adipogenic stimulation to control white adipocyte number during adipose tissue development.
Project description:During differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, the transcription of adipocyte genes, including the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (SCD2) gene, is activated. Transfection experiments with chimeric SCD2 promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene constructs revealed a preadipocyte repressor element (PRE) capable of repressing transcription of the reporter gene in preadipocytes but not in adipocytes. DNase I protection and gel retardation analyses were used to localize the PRE site between nucleotides -435 and -410 of the SCD2 promoter and to identify a nuclear PRE binding protein present at high levels in preadipocytes and HeLa cells but lacking or inactive in adipocytes. Southwestern blot analysis indicated that the PRE binding protein has an apparent molecular mass of approximately 58 kDa. A single copy of the PRE site, inserted upstream of the simian virus 40 enhancer/promoter of pSV2CAT, was capable of strongly repressing transcription of the reporter gene in preadipocytes and HeLa cells but not in adipocytes. Taken together these results suggest that the PRE site and binding protein may regulate transcription of SCD2 and possibly other adipocyte genes by inhibiting their transcription in preadipocytes.