MPS3 mediates meiotic bouquet formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: In meiotic prophase, telomeres associate with the nuclear envelope and accumulate adjacent to the centrosome/spindle pole to form the chromosome bouquet, a well conserved event that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the meiotic telomere protein Ndj1p. Ndj1p interacts with Mps3p, a nuclear envelope SUN domain protein that is required for spindle pole body duplication and for sister chromatid cohesion. Removal of the Ndj1p-interaction domain from MPS3 creates an ndj1 Delta-like separation-of-function allele, and Ndj1p and Mps3p are codependent for stable association with the telomeres. SUN domain proteins are found in the nuclear envelope across phyla and are implicated in mediating interactions between the interior of the nucleus and the cytoskeleton. Our observations indicate a general mechanism for meiotic telomere movements.
Project description:During meiotic prophase, chromosomes display rapid movement, and their telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope and cluster to form a "chromosomal bouquet." Little is known about the roles of the chromosome movement and telomere clustering in this phase. In budding yeast, telomere clustering is promoted by a meiosis-specific, telomere-binding protein, Ndj1. Here, we show that a meiosis-specific protein, Csm4, which forms a complex with Ndj1, facilitates bouquet formation. In the absence of Csm4, Ndj1-bound telomeres tether to nuclear envelopes but do not cluster, suggesting that telomere clustering in the meiotic prophase consists of at least two distinct steps: Ndj1-dependent tethering to the nuclear envelope and Csm4-dependent clustering/movement. Similar to Ndj1, Csm4 is required for several distinct steps during meiotic recombination. Our results suggest that Csm4 promotes efficient second-end capture of a double-strand break following a homology search, as well as resolution of the double-Holliday junction during crossover formation. We propose that chromosome movement and associated telomere dynamics at the nuclear envelope promotes the completion of key biochemical steps during meiotic recombination.
Project description:The H2A.Z histone variant is deposited into the chromatin by the SWR1 complex, affecting multiple aspects of meiosis. We describe here a SWR1-independent localization of H2A.Z at meiotic telomeres and the centrosome. We demonstrate that H2A.Z colocalizes and interacts with Mps3, the SUN component of the linker of nucleoskeleton, and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex that spans the nuclear envelope and links meiotic telomeres to the cytoskeleton, promoting meiotic chromosome movement. H2A.Z also interacts with the meiosis-specific Ndj1 protein that anchors telomeres to the nuclear periphery via Mps3. Telomeric localization of H2A.Z depends on Ndj1 and the N-terminal domain of Mps3. Although telomeric attachment to the nuclear envelope is maintained in the absence of H2A.Z, the distribution of Mps3 is altered. The velocity of chromosome movement during the meiotic prophase is reduced in the htz1? mutant lacking H2A.Z, but it is unaffected in swr1? cells. We reveal that H2A.Z is an additional LINC-associated factor that contributes to promote telomere-driven chromosome motion critical for error-free gametogenesis.
Project description:Yeast centrosomes (called spindle pole bodies [SPBs]) remain cohesive for hours during meiotic G2 when recombination takes place. In contrast, SPBs separate within minutes after duplication in vegetative cells. We report here that Ndj1, a previously known meiosis-specific telomere-associated protein, is required for protecting SPB cohesion. Ndj1 localizes to the SPB but dissociates from it ?16 min before SPB separation. Without Ndj1, meiotic SPBs lost cohesion prematurely, whereas overproduction of Ndj1 delayed SPB separation. When produced ectopically in vegetative cells, Ndj1 caused SPB separation defects and cell lethality. Localization of Ndj1 to the SPB depended on the SUN domain protein Mps3, and removal of the N terminus of Mps3 allowed SPB separation and suppressed the lethality of NDJ1-expressing vegetative cells. Finally, we show that Ndj1 forms oligomeric complexes with Mps3, and that the Polo-like kinase Cdc5 regulates Ndj1 protein stability and SPB separation. These findings reveal the underlying mechanism that coordinates yeast centrosome dynamics with meiotic telomere movement and cell cycle progression.
Project description:In virtually all eukaryotic cells, protein bridges formed by the conserved inner nuclear membrane SUN (for Sad1-UNC-84) domain-containing proteins and their outer nuclear membrane binding partners span the nuclear envelope (NE) to connect the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. These linkages are important for chromosome movements within the nucleus during meiotic prophase and are essential for nuclear migration and centrosome attachment to the NE. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MPS3 encodes the sole SUN protein. Deletion of MPS3 or the conserved SUN domain is lethal in three different genetic backgrounds. Mutations in the SUN domain result in defects in duplication of the spindle pole body, the yeast centrosome-equivalent organelle. A genome-wide screen for mutants that exhibited synthetic fitness defects in combination with mps3 SUN domain mutants yielded a large number of hits in components of the spindle apparatus and the spindle checkpoint. Mutants in lipid metabolic processes and membrane organization also exacerbated the growth defects of mps3 SUN domain mutants, pointing to a role for Mps3 in nuclear membrane organization. Deletion of SLP1 or YER140W/EMP65 (for ER membrane protein of 65 kDa) aggravated growth of mps3 SUN domain mutants. Slp1 and Emp65 form an ER-membrane associated protein complex that is not required directly for spindle pole body duplication or spindle assembly. Rather, Slp1 is involved in Mps3 localization to the NE.
Project description:LINC complexes are evolutionarily conserved nuclear envelope bridges, composed of SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84) and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne/homology) domain proteins. They are crucial for nuclear positioning and nuclear shape determination, and also mediate nuclear envelope (NE) attachment of meiotic telomeres, essential for driving homolog synapsis and recombination. In mice, SUN1 and SUN2 are the only SUN domain proteins expressed during meiosis, sharing their localization with meiosis-specific KASH5. Recent studies have shown that loss of SUN1 severely interferes with meiotic processes. Absence of SUN1 provokes defective telomere attachment and causes infertility. Here, we report that meiotic telomere attachment is not entirely lost in mice deficient for SUN1, but numerous telomeres are still attached to the NE through SUN2/KASH5-LINC complexes. In Sun1(-/-) meiocytes attached telomeres retained the capacity to form bouquet-like clusters. Furthermore, we could detect significant numbers of late meiotic recombination events in Sun1(-/-) mice. Together, this indicates that even in the absence of SUN1 telomere attachment and their movement within the nuclear envelope per se can be functional.
Project description:Meiosis is a specialized cellular program required to create haploid gametes from diploid parent cells. Homologous chromosomes pair, synapse, and recombine in a dynamic environment that accommodates gross chromosome reorganization and significant chromosome motion, which are critical for normal chromosome segregation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ndj1 is a meiotic telomere-associated protein required for physically attaching telomeres to proteins embedded in the nuclear envelope. In this study, we identified additional proteins that act at the nuclear periphery from meiotic cell extracts, including Nup2, a nonessential nucleoporin with a known role in tethering interstitial chromosomal loci to the nuclear pore complex. We found that deleting NUP2 affects meiotic progression and spore viability, and gives increased levels of recombination intermediates and products. We identified a previously uncharacterized 125 aa region of Nup2 that is necessary and sufficient for its meiotic function, thus behaving as a meiotic autonomous region (MAR). Nup2-MAR forms distinct foci on spread meiotic chromosomes, with a subset overlapping with Ndj1 foci. Localization of Nup2-MAR to meiotic chromosomes does not require Ndj1, nor does Ndj1 localization require Nup2, suggesting these proteins function in different pathways, and their interaction is weak or indirect. Instead, several severe synthetic phenotypes are associated with the nup2? ndj1? double mutant, including delayed turnover of recombination joint molecules, and a failure to undergo nuclear divisions without also arresting the meiotic program. These data suggest Nup2 and Ndj1 support partially overlapping functions that promote two different levels of meiotic chromosome organization necessary to withstand a dynamic stage of the eukaryotic life cycle.
Project description:Faithful genome propagation requires coordination between nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown, spindle formation, and chromosomal events. The conserved linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex connects fission yeast centromeres and the centrosome, across the NE, during interphase. During meiosis, LINC connects the centrosome with telomeres rather than centromeres. We previously showed that loss of telomere-LINC contacts compromises meiotic spindle formation. Here, we define the precise events regulated by telomere-LINC contacts and address the analogous possibility that centromeres regulate mitotic spindle formation. We develop conditionally inactivated LINC complexes in which the conserved SUN-domain protein Sad1 remains stable but severs interphase centromere-LINC contacts. Strikingly, the loss of such contacts abolishes spindle formation. We pinpoint the defect to a failure in the partial NE breakdown required for centrosome insertion into the NE, a step analogous to mammalian NE breakdown. Thus, interphase chromosome-LINC contacts constitute a cell-cycle control device linking nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic events.
Project description:The linker of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is composed of two transmembrane proteins: the KASH domain protein localized to the outer nuclear membrane and the SUN domain protein to the inner nuclear membrane. In budding yeast, the sole SUN domain protein, Mps3, is thought to pair with either Csm4 or Mps2, two KASH-like proteins, to form two separate LINC complexes. Here, we show that Mps2 mediates the interaction between Csm4 and Mps3 to form a heterotrimeric telomere-associated LINC (t-LINC) complex in budding yeast meiosis. Mps2 binds to Csm4 and Mps3, and all three are localized to the telomere. Telomeric localization of Csm4 depends on both Mps2 and Mps3; in contrast, Mps2's localization depends on Mps3 but not Csm4. Mps2-mediated t-LINC complex regulates telomere movement and meiotic recombination. By ectopically expressing CSM4 in vegetative yeast cells, we reconstitute the heterotrimeric t-LINC complex and demonstrate its ability to tether telomeres. Our findings therefore reveal the heterotrimeric composition of the t-LINC complex in budding yeast and have implications for understanding variant LINC complex formation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Telomeres have crucial meiosis-specific roles in the orderly reduction of chromosome numbers and in ensuring the integrity of the genome during meiosis. One such role is the attachment of telomeres to trans-nuclear envelope protein complexes that connect telomeres to motor proteins in the cytoplasm. These trans-nuclear envelope connections between telomeres and cytoplasmic motor proteins permit the active movement of telomeres and chromosomes during the first meiotic prophase. Movements of chromosomes/telomeres facilitate the meiotic recombination process, and allow high fidelity pairing of homologous chromosomes. Pairing of homologous chromosomes is a prerequisite for their correct segregation during the first meiotic division. Although inner-nuclear envelope proteins, such as SUN1 and potentially SUN2, are known to bind and recruit meiotic telomeres, these proteins are not meiosis-specific, therefore cannot solely account for telomere-nuclear envelope attachment and/or for other meiosis-specific characteristics of telomeres in mammals. RESULTS: We identify CCDC79, alternatively named TERB1, as a meiosis-specific protein that localizes to telomeres from leptotene to diplotene stages of the first meiotic prophase. CCDC79 and SUN1 associate with telomeres almost concurrently at the onset of prophase, indicating a possible role for CCDC79 in telomere-nuclear envelope interactions and/or telomere movements. Consistent with this scenario, CCDC79 is missing from most telomeres that fail to connect to SUN1 protein in spermatocytes lacking the meiosis-specific cohesin SMC1B. SMC1B-deficient spermatocytes display both reduced efficiency in telomere-nuclear envelope attachment and reduced stability of telomeres specifically during meiotic prophase. Importantly, CCDC79 associates with telomeres in SUN1-deficient spermatocytes, which strongly indicates that localization of CCDC79 to telomeres does not require telomere-nuclear envelope attachment. CONCLUSION: CCDC79 is a meiosis-specific telomere associated protein. Based on our findings we propose that CCDC79 plays a role in meiosis-specific telomere functions. In particular, we favour the possibility that CCDC79 is involved in telomere-nuclear envelope attachment and/or the stabilization of meiotic telomeres. These conclusions are consistent with the findings of an independently initiated study that analysed CCDC79/TERB1 functions.
Project description:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUN-domain protein Mps3 is required for duplication of the yeast centrosome-equivalent organelle, the spindle pole body (SPB), and it is involved in multiple aspects of nuclear organization, including telomere tethering and gene silencing at the nuclear membrane, establishment of sister chromatid cohesion, and repair of certain types of persistent DNA double-stranded breaks. How these diverse SUN protein functions are regulated is unknown. Here we show that the Mps3 N-terminus is a substrate for the acetyltransferase Eco1/Ctf7 in vitro and in vivo and map the sites of acetylation to three lysine residues adjacent to the Mps3 transmembrane domain. Mutation of these residues shows that acetylation is not essential for growth, SPB duplication, or distribution in the nuclear membrane. However, analysis of nonacetylatable mps3 mutants shows that this modification is required for accurate sister chromatid cohesion and for chromosome recruitment to the nuclear membrane. Acetylation of Mps3 by Eco1 is one of the few regulatory mechanisms known to control nuclear organization.