Insulin receptors in beta-cells are critical for islet compensatory growth response to insulin resistance.
ABSTRACT: Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) are ubiquitous growth factors that regulate proliferation in most mammalian tissues including pancreatic islets. To explore the specificity of insulin receptors in compensatory beta-cell growth, we examined two models of insulin resistance. In the first model, we used liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mice, which exhibit hyperinsulinemia without developing diabetes due to a compensatory increase in beta-cell mass. LIRKO mice, also lacking functional insulin receptors in beta-cells (beta IRKO/LIRKO), exhibited severe glucose intolerance but failed to develop compensatory islet hyperplasia, together leading to early death. In the second model, we examined the relative significance of insulin versus IGF1 receptors in islet growth by feeding high-fat diets to beta IRKO and beta-cell-specific IGF1 receptor knockout (beta IGFRKO) mice. Although both groups on the high-fat diet developed insulin resistance, beta IRKO, but not beta IGFRKO, mice exhibited poor islet growth consistent with insulin-stimulated phosphorylation, nuclear exclusion of FoxO1, and reduced expression of Pdx-1. Together these data provide direct genetic evidence that insulin/FoxO1/Pdx-1 signaling is one pathway that is crucial for islet compensatory growth response to insulin resistance.
Project description:The insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of islet cell biology. However, the signaling pathway(s) utilized by insulin to directly modulate ?-cells is unclear. To interrogate whether insulin exerts endocrine effects in regulating proteins in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade in vivo in physiological states via the insulin receptor, we designed two experimental approaches: 1) glucose gavage and 2) hyperinsulinemic intravenous infusion, for studies in either ?-cell specific insulin receptor knock-out (?IRKO) or control mice. Immunostaining of sections of pancreas (collected immediately after glucose gavage or insulin infusion) from controls showed significant increases in pAKT+, p-p70S6K+, and pERK+ ?-cells and a significant decrease in % nuclear FoxO1+ ?-cells compared with corresponding vehicle-treated groups. In contrast, in ?IRKOs, we observed no significant changes in pAKT+ or p-p70S6K+ ?-cells in either experiment; however, pERK+ ?-cells were significantly increased, and an attenuated decrease in % nuclear FoxO1+ ? cells was evident in response to glucose gavage or insulin infusion. Treatment of control and ?IRKO ?-cell lines with glucose or insulin showed significantly decreased % nuclear FoxO1+ ?-cells suggesting direct effects. Furthermore, blocking MAPK signaling had virtually no effect on FoxO1 nuclear export in controls, in contrast to attenuated export in ?IRKO ?-cells. These data suggest insulin acts on ?-cells in an endocrine manner in the normal situation; and that in ?-cells lacking insulin receptors, insulin and glucose minimally activate the Akt pathway, while ERK phosphorylation and FoxO1 nuclear export occur independently of insulin signaling.
Project description:The presence of insulin receptor (IR) on ?-cells suggests that insulin has an autocrine/paracrine role in the regulation of ?-cell function. It has previously been reported that the ?-cell specific loss of IR (?IRKO) leads to the development of impaired glycemic regulation and ?-cell death in mice. However, temporally controlled ?IRKO induced during the distinct transitions of fetal pancreas development has yet to be investigated. We hypothesized that the presence of IR on ?-cells during the 2nd transition phase of the fetal murine pancreas is required for maintaining normal islet development.We utilized a mouse insulin 1 promoter driven tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase IR knockout (MIP-?IRKO) mouse model to investigate the loss of ?-cell IR during pancreatic development at embryonic day (e) 13, a phase of endocrine proliferation and ?-cell fate determination. Fetal pancreata examined at e19-20 showed significantly reduced IR levels in the ?-cells of MIP-?IRKO mice. Morphologically, MIP-?IRKO pancreata exhibited significantly enlarged islet size with increased ?-cell area and proliferation. MIP-?IRKO pancreata also displayed significantly increased Igf-2 protein level and Akt activity with a reduction in phospho-p53 when compared to control littermates. Islet vascular formation and Vegf-a protein level was significantly increased in MIP-?IRKO pancreata.Our results demonstrate a developmental role for the ?-cell IR, whereby its loss leads to an islet compensatory overgrowth, and contributes further information towards elucidating the temporally sensitive signaling during ?-cell commitment.
Project description:Although compensatory islet hyperplasia in response to insulin resistance is a recognized feature in diabetes, the factor(s) that promote ? cell proliferation have been elusive. We previously reported that the liver is a source for such factors in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, an insulin resistance model that manifests islet hyperplasia. Using proteomics we show that serpinB1, a protease inhibitor, which is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice, is the liver-derived secretory protein that regulates ? cell proliferation in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Small-molecule compounds, that partially mimic serpinB1 effects of inhibiting elastase activity, enhanced proliferation of ? cells, and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuated ? cell compensation in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1 treatment of islets modulated proteins in growth/survival pathways. Together, these data implicate serpinB1 as an endogenous protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional ? cell mass in patients with diabetes.
Project description:A major determinant of the progression from insulin resistance to the development of overt type 2 diabetes is a failure to mount an appropriate compensatory beta-cell hyperplastic response to maintain normoglycemia. We undertook the present study to directly explore the significance of the cell cycle protein cyclin D2 in the expansion of beta-cell mass in two different models of insulin resistance.We created compound knockouts by crossing mice deficient in cyclin D2 (D2KO) with either the insulin receptor substrate 1 knockout (IRS1KO) mice or the insulin receptor liver-specific knockout mice (LIRKO), neither of which develops overt diabetes on its own because of robust compensatory beta-cell hyperplasia. We phenotyped the double knockouts and used RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry to examine beta-cell mass.Both compound knockouts, D2KO/LIRKO and D2KO/IRS1KO, exhibited insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia and an absence of compensatory beta-cell hyperplasia. However, the diabetic D2KO/LIRKO group rapidly succumbed early compared with a relatively normal lifespan in the glucose-intolerant D2KO/IRS1KO mice.This study provides direct genetic evidence that cyclin D2 is essential for the expansion of beta-cell mass in response to a spectrum of insulin resistance and points to the cell-cycle protein as a potential therapeutic target that can be harnessed for preventing and curing type 2 diabetes.
Project description:FoxO proteins are major targets of insulin action. To better define the role of FoxO1 in mediating insulin effects in the liver, we generated liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) and IR/FoxO1 double knockout (LIRFKO) mice. Here we show that LIRKO mice are severely insulin resistant based on glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and genetic deletion of hepatic FoxO1 reverses these effects. (13)C-glucose and insulin clamp studies indicate that regulation of both hepatic glucose production (HGP) and glucose utilization is impaired in LIRKO mice, and these defects are also restored in LIRFKO mice corresponding to changes in gene expression. We conclude that (1) inhibition of FoxO1 is critical for both direct (hepatic) and indirect effects of insulin on HGP and utilization, and (2) extrahepatic effects of insulin are sufficient to maintain normal whole-body and hepatic glucose metabolism when liver FoxO1 activity is disrupted.
Project description:FoxO proteins are major targets of insulin action, and FoxO1 mediates the effects of insulin on hepatic glucose metabolism. We reported previously that serpinB1 is a liver-secreted factor (hepatokine) that promotes adaptive ?-cell proliferation in response to insulin resistance in the liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse. Here we report that FoxO1 plays a critical role in promoting serpinB1 expression in hepatic insulin resistance in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Mice lacking both the insulin receptor and FoxO1 (LIRFKO) exhibit reduced ?-cell mass compared with LIRKO mice because of attenuation of ?-cell proliferation. Although hepatic expression of serpinB1 mRNA and protein levels was increased in LIRKO mice, both the mRNA and protein levels returned to control levels in LIRFKO mice. Furthermore, liver-specific expression of constitutively active FoxO1 in transgenic mice induced an increase in hepatic serpinB1 mRNA and protein levels in refed mice. Conversely, serpinB1 mRNA and protein levels were reduced in mice lacking FoxO proteins in the liver. ChIP studies demonstrated that FoxO1 binds to three distinct sites located ?9 kb upstream of the serpinb1 gene in primary mouse hepatocytes and that this binding is enhanced in hepatocytes from LIRKO mice. However, adenoviral expression of WT or constitutively active FoxO1 and insulin treatment are sufficient to regulate other FoxO1 target genes (IGFBP-1 and PEPCK) but not serpinB1 expression in mouse primary hepatocytes. These results indicate that liver FoxO1 promotes serpinB1 expression in hepatic insulin resistance and that non-cell-autonomous factors contribute to FoxO1-dependent effects on serpinB1 expression in the liver.
Project description:The identification of new sources of β cells is an important endeavor with therapeutic implications for diabetes. Insulin resistance, in physiological states such as pregnancy or in pathological states such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), is characterized by a compensatory increase in β cell mass. To explore the existence of a dynamic β cell reserve, we superimposed pregnancy on the liver-specific insulin receptor-KO (LIRKO) model of insulin resistance that already exhibits β cell hyperplasia and used lineage tracing to track the source of new β cells. Although both control and LIRKO mice displayed increased β cell mass in response to the relative insulin resistance of pregnancy, the further increase in mass in the latter supported a dynamic source that could be traced to pancreatic ducts. Two observations support the translational significance of these findings. First, NOD/SCID-γ LIRKO mice that became pregnant following cotransplantation of human islets and human ducts under the kidney capsule showed enhanced β cell proliferation and an increase in ductal cells positive for transcription factors expressed during β cell development. Second, we identified duct cells positive for immature β cell markers in pancreas sections from pregnant humans and in individuals with T2D. Taken together, during increased insulin demand, ductal cells contribute to the compensatory β cell pool by differentiation/neogenesis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Insulin receptor (IR)-mediated signaling is involved in the regulation of pluripotent stem cells; however, its direct effects on regulating the maintenance of pluripotency and lineage development are not fully understood. The main objective of this study is to understand the role of IR signaling in pluripotency and lineage development. METHODS:To explore the role of IR signaling, we generated IR knock-out (IRKO) mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) from E14.5 mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) of global IRKO mice using a cocktail of four reprogramming factors: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, cMyc. We performed pluripotency characterization and directed the differentiation of control and IRKO iPSCs into neural progenitors (ectoderm), adipocyte progenitors (mesoderm), and pancreatic beta-like cells (endoderm). We mechanistically confirmed these findings via phosphoproteomics analyses of control and IRKO iPSCs. RESULTS:Interestingly, expression of pluripotency markers including Klf4, Lin28a, Tbx3, and cMyc were upregulated, while abundance of Oct4 and Nanog were enhanced by 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, in IRKO iPSCs. Analyses of signaling pathways demonstrated downregulation of phospho-STAT3, p-mTor and p-Erk and an increase in the total mTor and Erk proteins in IRKO iPSCs in the basal unstimulated state. Stimulation with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) showed a ?33% decrease of phospho-ERK in IRKO iPSCs. On the contrary, Erk phosphorylation was increased during in vitro spontaneous differentiation of iPSCs lacking IRs. Lineage-specific directed differentiation of the iPSCs revealed that cells lacking IR showed enhanced expression of neuronal lineage markers (Pax6, Tubb3, Ascl1 and Oligo2) while exhibiting a decrease in adipocyte (Fas, Acc, Ppar?, Fabp4, C/ebp?, and Fsp27) and pancreatic beta cell markers (Ngn3, Isl1, and Sox9). Further molecular characterization by phosphoproteomics confirmed the novel IR-mediated regulation of the global pluripotency network including several key proteins involved in diverse aspects of growth and embryonic development. CONCLUSION:We report, for the first time to our knowledge, the phosphoproteome of insulin, IGF1, and LIF stimulation in mouse iPSCs to reveal the importance of insulin receptor signaling for the maintenance of pluripotency and lineage determination.
Project description:Macrophages play a dynamic role in tissue repair following injury. Here we found that following streptozotocin (STZ)-induced beta-cell death, mouse islet macrophages had increased Igf1 expression, decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression, and transcriptome changes consistent with macrophages undergoing efferocytosis and having an enhanced state of metabolism. Macrophages were the major, if not sole, contributors to islet insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production. Adoptive transfer experiments showed that macrophages can maintain insulin secretion in vivo following beta-cell death with no effects on islet cell turnover. IGF-1 neutralization during STZ treatment decreased insulin secretion without affecting islet cell apoptosis or proliferation. Interestingly, high-fat diet (HFD) combined with STZ further skewed islet macrophages to a reparative state. Finally, islet macrophages from db/db mice also expressed decreased proinflammatory cytokines and increased Igf1 mRNA. These data have important implications for islet biology and pathology and show that islet macrophages preserve their reparative state following beta-cell death even during HFD feeding and severe hyperglycemia.
Project description:Integrative organ crosstalk regulates key aspects of energy homeostasis, and its dysregulation may underlie metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. To test the hypothesis that crosstalk between the liver and pancreatic islets modulates ? cell growth in response to insulin resistance, we used the liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a unique model that exhibits dramatic islet hyperplasia. Using complementary in vivo parabiosis and transplantation assays, as well as in vitro islet culture approaches, we demonstrate that humoral, nonneural, non-cell-autonomous factor(s) induces ? cell proliferation in LIRKO mice. Furthermore, we report that a hepatocyte-derived factor(s) stimulates mouse and human ? cell proliferation in ex vivo assays, independent of ambient glucose and insulin levels. These data implicate the liver as a critical source of ? cell growth factor(s) in insulin-resistant states.