Fc receptor-like 5 inhibits B cell activation via SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase recruitment.
ABSTRACT: The Fc receptor-like protein 5 (FCRL5) on B cells has both an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence and two consensus immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) in its cytoplasmic region. To evaluate its signaling potential, we expressed constructs for chimeric molecules composed of the cytoplasmic region of FCRL5 and the extracellular and transmembrane regions of the IgG Fc receptor FcgammaRIIB in a B cell line lacking an endogenous Fc receptor. Coligation of this fusion protein with the B cell receptor (BCR) inhibited BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation, and Erk kinase activation. Our mutational analysis indicated that, whereas tyrosines in both the inhibitory and activation motifs are phosphorylated after ligation, only those in ITIMs influence BCR-mediated signaling. This FCRL5 inhibitory effect was mediated through dual ITIM recruitment of the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, which in turn dephosphorylates the ITAM-based tyrosines in BCR Igalpha/Igbeta heterodimers. An FCRL5 inhibitory effect on BCR signaling was likewise demonstrable for primary B cells. Although its ligand is presently unknown, we conclude that FCRL5 has the functional potential to serve as an inhibitory coreceptor on mature B cells in humans.
Project description:In vitro studies have demonstrated that the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) of the inhibitory Fc receptor Fc?RIIB is critical for mediating attenuation of signaling via immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) containing receptors, such as the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), when Fc?RIIB is co-cross-linked to these activation receptors. To test the role of the Fc?RIIB ITIM motif in regulation of the B cell immune response in vivo, we constructed lines of transgenic mice expressing a form of Fc?RIIB with an inactivating tyrosine (Y) to phenylalanine (F) mutation in the ITIM motif. Detailed studies of one of these lines, in which the mutant Fc?RIIB was expressed on B cells and other cell types that normally express this receptor, were performed. No quantitative differences in germinal center (GC) B cell responses were observed between the mutant Fc?RIIB transgenic line and control mice. However, serum antibody and antibody forming cell responses were often observed to be elevated in the ITIM mutant Fc?RIIB transgenic mice as compared to controls, though not to the same extent as mice deficient in expression of Fc?RIIB. Moreover, primary B cells from the ITIM mutant Fc?RIIB line did not display the same level of augmented BCR signaling as primary Fc?RIIB deficient B cells under conditions inducing co-cross-linking of Fc?RIIB and the BCR. In total, these data suggest that a functional ITIM motif is not required for all in vivo inhibitory activity of this receptor. However, we also found that the transgenic ITIM mutant Fc?RIIB receptor was expressed at abnormal levels in several hematopoietic lineages. Thus, confirmation of our findings will require the generation and analysis of mice in which an ITIM mutant form of Fc?RIIB is expressed in vivo as is the endogenous receptor.
Project description:Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptors inhibit cellular responsiveness to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-linked receptors. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is central to the initiation of both inhibitory ITIM and stimulatory ITAM signaling, the events that regulate receptor phosphorylation are incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that ITAM tyrosines engage in structure-inducing interactions with the plasma membrane that must be relieved for phosphorylation to occur. Whether ITIM phosphorylation is similarly regulated and the mechanisms responsible for release from plasma membrane interactions to enable phosphorylation, however, have not been defined. PECAM-1 is a dual ITIM-containing receptor that inhibits ITAM-dependent responses in hematopoietic cells. We found that the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain is unstructured in an aqueous environment but adopts an ?-helical conformation within a localized region on interaction with lipid vesicles that mimic the plasma membrane. The lipid-interacting segment contains the C-terminal ITIM tyrosine and a serine residue that undergo activation-dependent phosphorylation. The N-terminal ITIM is excluded from the lipid-interacting segment, and its phosphorylation is secondary to phosphorylation of the membrane-interacting C-terminal ITIM. On the basis of these findings, we propose a novel model for regulation of inhibitory signaling by ITIM-containing receptors that relies on reversible plasma membrane interactions and sequential ITIM phosphorylation.
Project description:Innate-like splenic marginal zone (MZ) and peritoneal cavity B1 B lymphocytes share critical responsibilities in humoral responses but have divergent B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling features. A discrete marker of these subsets with tyrosine-based dual regulatory potential termed "Fc receptor-like 5" (FCRL5) was investigated to explore this discrepancy. Although FCRL5 repressed the robust BCR activity that is characteristic of MZ B cells, it had no influence on antigen receptor stimulation that is blunted in peritoneal cavity-derived B1 B cells. The molecular basis for the receptor's inhibitory function derived from recruitment of the Src homology-2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) to a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. Surprisingly, mutagenesis of this docking site unearthed coactivation properties for FCRL5 that were orchestrated by independent association of the Lyn Src-family kinase with an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-like sequence. FCRL5's unique binary regulation directly correlated with SHP-1 and Lyn activity, which, like BCR function, differed between MZ and B1 B cells. These findings collectively imply a specialized counterregulatory role for FCRL molecules at the intersection of innate and adaptive immunity.
Project description:The activation state of many blood and vascular cells is tightly controlled by a delicate balance between receptors that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and those that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). Precisely how the timing of cellular activation by ITAM-coupled receptors is regulated by ITIM-containing receptors is, however, poorly understood. Using platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) as a prototypical ITIM-bearing receptor, we demonstrate that initiation of inhibitory signaling occurs via a novel, sequential process in which Src family kinases phosphorylate the C-terminal ITIM, thereby enabling phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of PECAM-1 by other Src homology 2 domain-containing nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). NRTKs capable of mediating the second phosphorylation event include C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk and Csk function downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation during ITAM-dependent platelet activation. In ITAM-activated platelets that were treated with a PI3K inhibitor, PECAM-1 was phosphorylated but did not bind the tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, indicating that it was not phosphorylated on its N-terminal ITIM. Csk bound to and phosphorylated PECAM-1 more efficiently than did Btk and required its SH2 domain to perform these functions. Additionally, the phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of Siglec-9 by Csk is enhanced by the prior phosphorylation of its C-terminal ITIM, providing evidence that the ITIMs of other dual ITIM-containing receptors are also sequentially phosphorylated. On the basis of these findings, we propose that sequential ITIM phosphorylation provides a general mechanism for precise temporal control over the recruitment and activation of tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases that dampen ITAM-dependent signals.
Project description:Src family kinases (SFKs) coordinate the initiating and propagating activation signals in platelets, but it remains unclear how they are regulated. Here, we show that ablation of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and receptor-like protein tyrosine-phosphatase CD148 in mice results in a dramatic increase in platelet SFK activity, demonstrating that these proteins are essential regulators of platelet reactivity. Paradoxically, Csk/CD148-deficient mice exhibit reduced in vivo and ex vivo thrombus formation and increased bleeding following injury rather than a prothrombotic phenotype. This is a consequence of multiple negative feedback mechanisms, including downregulation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)- and hemi-ITAM-containing receptors glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-Fc receptor (FcR) ?-chain and CLEC-2, respectively and upregulation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)-containing receptor G6b-B and its interaction with the tyrosine phosphatases Shp1 and Shp2. Results from an analog-sensitive Csk mouse model demonstrate the unconventional role of SFKs in activating ITIM signaling. This study establishes Csk and CD148 as critical molecular switches controlling the thrombotic and hemostatic capacity of platelets and reveals cell-intrinsic mechanisms that prevent pathological thrombosis from occurring.
Project description:Ab-dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus (DENV) infection is mediated through the interaction of viral immune complexes with FcγRs, with notable efficiency of FcγRII. Most human dengue target cells coexpress activating (FcγRIIa) and inhibitory (FcγRIIb) isoforms, but their relative roles in ADE are not well understood. We studied the effects of FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb by transfecting cells to express each individual receptor isoform or through coexpression of both isoforms. We showed that although both isoforms similarly bind dengue-immune complexes, FcγRIIa efficiently internalized virus leading to productive cellular infection, unlike FcγRIIb. We next focused on the main discriminating feature of these isoforms: their distinct intracytoplasmic tails (FcγRIIa with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif [ITAM] and FcγRIIb with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif [ITIM]). We engineered cells to express "swapped" versions of their FcγRII by switching the cytoplasmic tails containing the ITAM/ITIM motifs, leaving the remainder of the receptor intact. Our data show that both FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb comparably bind dengue immune complexes. However, wild type FcγRIIa facilitates DENV entry by virtue of the ITAM motif, whereas the swapped version FcγRIIa-ITIM significantly inhibited ADE. Similarly, replacing the inhibitory motif in FcγRIIb with an ITAM (FcγRIIb-ITAM) reconstituted ADE capacity to levels of the wild type activating counterpart, FcγRIIa. Our data suggest that FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb isoforms, as the most abundantly distributed class II Fcγ receptors, differentially influence Ab-mediated DENV infection under ADE conditions both at the level of cellular infection and viral production.
Project description:Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-like transcript-1 (TLT-1) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-baring TREM family protein. In this study, we identified an alternative transcript form of TLT-1, namely TLT-1s, which has very short extracellular immunoglobulin domain consisting of only 202 amino acids. TLT-1s was mainly expressed in macrophages and osteoclast precursor cells. Upon receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand stimulation, TLT-1s mRNA and protein levels were gradually decreased in BMMs. We also showed the TLT-1s is localized to the cytoplasmic membrane in osteoclast precursor cells. TLT-1s silencing strongly enhanced the formation and resorption activity of osteoclast. In addition, forced expression of TLT-1s showed reduced formation of osteoclast. Because ITIM-baring proteins inhibit immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-mediated receptor signaling, we tested whether TLT-1s physically interacted with TREM-2, the ITAM-associated co-stimulatory receptor essential for osteoclast differentiation. We showed that TLT-1s is associated with TREM-2 in osteoclast precursor cells. TLT-1s is also associated with tyrosine Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 and SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase-1 and recruited them to the TREM2-ITAM signaling complex. In addition, knockdown of TLT-1s markedly elevated the intracellular calcium concentration and oscillation in osteoclast precursor cells. In addition, calcium-mediated induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells was also increased by TLT-1s silencing. Furthermore, TREM-2-mediated Akt activation and proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells were also enhanced in TLT-1s silenced cells. In this paper, we found the noble ITIM-baring inhibitory membrane protein; TLT-1s, which regulates ITAM-mediated signaling on osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:FcR-like (FCRL) 2 is a transmembrane protein with immunomodulatory potential that is preferentially expressed by memory B cells in humans. It has two consensus ITIMs in addition to a putative ITAM sequence in its cytoplasmic domain. We have confirmed the cellular distribution of FCRL2 and analyzed its functional potential to show that coligation with the BCR leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of its ITIM motifs and subsequent Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 recruitment to facilitate inhibition of BCR signaling. Mutational analysis indicates that the tyrosine residues in both inhibitory motifs of FCRL2 are required for complete inhibition of BCR signaling, whereas tyrosines in the putative activation motif are dispensable for signal modulation. These findings suggest a negative immunomodulatory function for FCRL2 in the regulation of memory B cells.
Project description:CD22 is a surface immunoglobulin implicated in negative regulation of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling; particularly inhibiting intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i)signals. Its cytoplasmic tail contains six tyrosine residues (Y773/Y783/Y817/Y828/Y843/Y863, designated Y1~Y6 respectively), including three (Y2/5/6) lying within immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) that serve to recruit the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 after BCR activation-induced phosphorylation. The mechanism of inhibiting Ca2+i by CD22 has been poorly understood. Previous study demonstrated that CD22 associated with plasma membrane calcium-ATPase (PMCA) and enhanced its activity (Chen, J. et al. Nat Immunol 2004;5:651-7). The association is dependent on BCR activation-induced cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphorylation, because CD22 with either all six tyrosines mutated to phenylalanines or cytoplasmic tail truncated loses its ability to associate with PMCA. However, which individual or a group of tyrosine residues determine the association and how CD22 and PMCA interacts, are still unclear. In this study, by using a series of CD22 tyrosine mutants, we found that ITIM Y2/5/6 accounts for 34.3~37.1% Ca2+i inhibition but is irrelevant for CD22/PMCA association. Non-ITIM Y4 and its YEND motif contribute to the remaining 69.4~71.7% Ca2+i inhibition and is the binding site for PMCA-associated Grb2. Grb2, independently of BCR cross-linking, is constitutively associated with and directly binds to PMCA in both chicken and human B cells. Knockout of Grb2 by CRISPR/Cas9 completely disrupted the CD22/PMCA association. Thus, our results demonstrate for the first time that in addition to previously-identified ITIM/SHP-1-dependent pathway, CD22 holds a major pathway of negative regulation of Ca2+i signal, which is ITIM/SHP-1-independent, but Y4/Grb2/PMCA-dependent.
Project description:The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptor G6b-B has emerged as a key regulator of platelet homeostasis. However, it remains unclear how it mediates its effects. Tyrosine phosphorylation of ITIM and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) within the cytoplasmic tail of G6b-B provides a docking site for Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases Shp1 and Shp2, which are also critical regulators of platelet production and function. In this study, we investigate the physiological consequences of uncoupling G6b-B from Shp1 and Shp2. To address this, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing a mutant form of G6b-B in which tyrosine residues 212 and 238 within ITIM and ITSM were mutated to phenylalanine. Mice homozygous for the mutation (G6b-B diY/F) were macrothrombocytopenic, as a result of the reduction in platelet production, and had large clusters of megakaryocytes and myelofibrosis at sites of hematopoiesis, similar to those observed in G6b-deficient mice and patients. Platelets from G6b-B diY/F mice were hyporesponsive to collagen, as a result of the significant reduction in the expression of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing collagen receptor complex GPVI-FcR ?-chain, as well as thrombin, which could be partially rescued by costimulating the platelets with adenosine diphosphate. In contrast, platelets from G6b-B diY/F, G6b KO, and megakaryocyte-specific Shp2 KO mice were hyperresponsive to antibody-mediated cross-linking of the hemi-ITAM-containing podoplanin receptor CLEC-2, suggesting that G6b-B inhibits CLEC-2-mediated platelet activation through Shp2. Findings from this study demonstrate that G6b-B must engage with Shp1 and Shp2 to mediate its regulatory effects on platelet homeostasis.