A novel mutation in the WFS1 gene identified in a Taiwanese family with low-frequency hearing impairment.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Wolfram syndrome gene 1 (WFS1) accounts for most of the familial nonsyndromic low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL) which is characterized by sensorineural hearing losses equal to and below 2000 Hz. The current study aimed to contribute to our understanding of the molecular basis of LFSNHL in an affected Taiwanese family. METHODS: The Taiwanese family with LFSNHL was phenotypically characterized using audiologic examination and pedigree analysis. Genetic characterization was performed by direct sequencing of WFS1 and mutation analysis. RESULTS: Pure tone audiometry confirmed that the family members affected with LFSNHL had a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss equal to or below 2000 Hz. The hearing loss threshold of the affected members showed no progression, a characteristic that was consistent with a mutation in the WFS1 gene located in the DFNA6/14/38 locus. Pedigree analysis showed a hereditarily autosomal dominant pattern characterized by a full penetrance. Among several polymorphisms, a missense mutation Y669H (2005T>C) in exon 8 of WFS1 was identified in members of a Taiwanese family diagnosed with LFSNHL but not in any of the control subjects. CONCLUSION: We discovered a novel heterozygous missense mutation in exon 8 of WFS1 (i.e., Y669H) which is likely responsible for the LFSNHL phenotype in this particular Taiwanese family.
Project description:Non-syndromic low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL) affecting only 2000 Hz and below is an unusual type of hearing loss that worsens over time without progressing to profound deafness. This type of LFSNHL may be associated with mild tinnitus but is not associated with vertigo. We have previously reported two families with autosomal dominant LFSNHL linked to adjacent but non-overlapping loci on 4p16, DFNA6 and DFNA14. However, further study revealed that an individual with LFSNHL in the DFNA6 family who had a recombination event that excluded the DFNA14 candidate region was actually a phenocopy, and consequently, DFNA6 and DFNA14 are allelic. LFSNHL appears to be genetically nearly homogeneous, as only one LFSNHL family is known to map to a different chromosome (DFNA1). The DFNA6/14 critical region includes WFS1, the gene responsible for Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, and often, deafness. Herein we report five different heterozygous missense mutations (T699M, A716T, V779M, L829P, G831D) in the WFS1 gene found in six LFSNHL families. Mutations in WFS1 were identified in all LFSNHL families tested, with A716T arising independently in two families. None of the mutations was found in at least 220 control chromosomes with the exception of V779M, which was identified in 1/336 controls. This frequency is consistent with the prevalence of heterozygous carriers for Wolfram syndrome estimated at 0.3-1%. An increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss has been reported in such carriers. Therefore, we conclude that mutations in WFS1 are a common cause of LFSNHL.
Project description:Most familial cases of autosomal dominant low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL) are attributable to mutations in the wolframin syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene at the DFNA6/14/38 locus. WFS1 mutations at this locus were first described in 2001 in six families segregating LFSNHL that was non-progressive below 2,000 Hz; the causative mutations all clustered in the C-terminal domain of the wolframin protein. Mutations in WFS1 also cause Wolfram syndrome (WS), an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder defined by diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and often deafness, while numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in WFS1 have been associated with increased risk for diabetes mellitus, psychiatric illnesses and Parkinson disease. This study was conducted in an American family segregating autosomal dominant LFSNHL. Two hearing impaired family members also had autoimmune diseases-Graves disease (GD) and Crohn disease (CD). Based on the low frequency audioprofile, mutation screening of WFS1 was completed and a novel missense mutation (c.2576G --> A) that results in an arginine-to-glutamine substitution (p.R859Q) was identified in the C-terminal domain of the wolframin protein where most LFSNHL-causing mutations cluster. The family member with GD also carried polymorphisms in WFS1 that have been associated with other autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL) is an uncommon clinical finding. Mutations within three different identified genes (DIAPH1, MYO7A, and WFS1) are known to cause LFSNHL. The majority of hereditary LFSNHL is associated with heterozygous mutations in the WFS1 gene (wolframin protein). The goal of this study was to use genetic analysis to determine if a small American family's hereditary LFSNHL is linked to a mutation in the WFS1 gene and to use VEMP and EcochG testing to further characterize the family's audiovestibular phenotype.The clinical phenotype of the American family was characterized by audiologic testing, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), and electrocochleography (EcochG) evaluation. Genetic characterization was performed by microsatellite analysis and direct sequencing of WFS1 for mutation detection.Sequence analysis of the WFS1 gene revealed a novel heterozygous mutation at c.2054G>C predicting a p.R685P amino acid substitution in wolframin. The c.2054G>C mutation segregates faithfully with hearing loss in the family and is absent in 230 control chromosomes. The p.R685 residue is located within the hydrophilic C-terminus of wolframin and is conserved across species. The VEMP and EcochG findings were normal in individuals segregating the WFS1 c.2054G>C mutation.We discovered a novel heterozygous missense mutation in exon 8 of WFS1 predicting a p.R685P amino acid substitution that is likely to underlie the LFSNHL phenotype in the American family. For the first time, we describe VEMP and EcochG findings for individuals segregating a heterozygous WFS1 mutation.
Project description:Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is genetically heterogeneous, with OPA1 on 3q28 being the most prevalently mutated gene. Additional loci are OPA3, OPA4, and OPA5, located at 19q13.2, 18q12.2, and 22q12.1-q13.1, respectively. Mutations in the WFS1 gene, at 4p16.3, are associated with either optic atrophy (OA) as part of the autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome or with autosomal dominant progressive low frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL) without any ophthalmological abnormalities. Linkage and sequence mutation analyses of the ADOA candidate genes OPA1, OPA3, OPA4, and OPA5, including the genes WFS1, GJB2, and GJB6 associated with recessive inherited OA or dominant LFSNHL, were performed. We identified one novel WFS1 missense mutation E864K, c.2590G-->A in exon 8 that co-segregates with ADOA combined with hearing impairment and impaired glucose regulation. This is the first example of autosomal dominant optic atrophy and hearing loss associated with a WFS1 mutation, supporting the notion that mutations in WFS1 as well as in OPA1 may lead to ADOA combined with impaired hearing.
Project description:A heterozygous mutation in the Wolfram syndrome type 1 gene (WFS1) causes autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hereditary hearing loss, DFNA6/14/38, or Wolfram-like syndrome. To date, more than 40 different mutations have been reported to be responsible for DFNA6/14/38. In the present study, WFS1 variants were screened in a large series of Japanese hearing loss (HL) patients to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of DFNA6/14/38 and Wolfram-like syndrome. Massively parallel DNA sequencing of 68 target genes was performed in 2,549 unrelated Japanese HL patients to identify genomic variations responsible for HL. The detailed clinical features in patients with WFS1 variants were collected from medical charts and analyzed. We successfully identified 13 WFS1 variants in 19 probands: eight of the 13 variants were previously reported mutations, including three mutations (p.A684V, p.K836N, and p.E864K) known to cause Wolfram-like syndrome, and five were novel mutations. Variants were detected in 15 probands (2.5%) in 602 families with presumably autosomal dominant or mitochondrial HL, and in four probands (0.7%) in 559 sporadic cases; however, no variants were detected in the other 1,388 probands with autosomal recessive or unknown family history. Among the 30 individuals possessing variants, marked variations were observed in the onset of HL as well as in the presence of progressive HL and tinnitus. Vestibular symptoms, which had been rarely reported, were present in 7 out of 30 (23%) of the affected individuals. The most prevalent audiometric configuration was low-frequency type; however, some individuals had high-frequency HL. Haplotype analysis in three mutations (p.A716T, p.K836T, and p.E864K) suggested that the mutations occurred at these mutation hot spots. The present study provided new insights into the audiovestibular phenotypes in patients with WFS1 mutations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hereditary hearing loss (HL) is heterogeneous in terms of their phenotypic features, modes of inheritance, and causative gene mutations. The contribution of genetic variants to sporadic HL remains largely expanding. Either recessive or de novo dominant variants could result in an apparently sporadic occurrence of HL. In an attempt to find such variants we recruited 128 Chinese patients with sporadic nonsyndromic sensorineural HL (NSHL) and performed targeted deafness multigene sequencing in these unrelated trios-families to elucidate the molecular basis. METHODS:We analyzed a total of 384 available members (probands and their two parents) from 128 unrelated Chinese families presenting with bilateral sensorineural HL, in which previous screening had found no mutations with the GJB2, SLC26A4, and MT-RNR1 genes. We used a targeted genomic enrichment platform to simultaneously capture exons, splicing sites, and immediate flanking intron sequences of 127 known deafness genes. Sanger sequencing was used to identify probands and their two parents segregating causative variants in the candidate gene. RESULTS:We observed that two heterozygous de novo WFS1 mutations in exon 8: c.2051C>T (p.A684V) and c.2590G>A (p.E864K) in five families. The two de novo WFS1 mutations were found in 3.9% (5/128) of sporadic HL patients. We found that four of the five patients had the same de novo p.A684V mutation, and their audiograms showed symmetrical bilateral and profound sensorineural hearing impairments at all frequencies, but only the proband with de novo p.E864K mutation demonstrated significantly bilateral moderate low-mid frequency sensorineural HL. Our data suggest that this WFS1 p.A684V is likely to be a de novo mutational hot spot. CONCLUSIONS:We found 3.9% (5/128) of sporadic NSHL is caused by de novo WFS1 mutations. Our data provide that the de novo p.E864K mutation is first identified and de novo p.A684V mutation is likely to be a mutational hot spot in WFS1. It is the first study to highlight that WFS1 gene with the two de novo mutations has been indicated to classify the distinct hearing impairment phenotypes. Furthermore, de novo p.A684V serves as a WFS1 mutational hot spot that was found in the Chinese population with sporadic childhood NSHL, and our study also provides pointers toward the necessity for sequencing of asymptomatic parents of a sporadic case with an apparent dominant pathogenic variant.
Project description:PURPOSE: To describe the phenotype of a novel Wolframin (WFS1) mutation in a family with autosomal dominant optic neuropathy and deafness. The study is designed as a retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Seven members of a Dutch family underwent ophthalmological, otological, and genetical examinations in one institution. Fasting serum glucose was assessed in the affected family members. RESULTS: All affected individuals showed loss of neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve at fundoscopy with enlarged blind spots at perimetry. They showed a red-green color vision defect at color vision tests and deviations at visually evoked response tests. The audiograms of the affected individuals showed hearing loss and were relatively flat. The unaffected individuals showed no visual deviations or hearing impairment. The affected family members had no glucose intolerance. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mitochondrial mutations and mutations in the Optic atrophy-1 gene (OPA1) were excluded. In the affected individuals, a novel missense mutation c.2508G>C (p.Lys836Asn) in exon 8 of WFS1 was identified. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the phenotype of a family with autosomal dominant optic neuropathy and hearing impairment associated with a novel missense mutation in WFS1.
Project description:Autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) displays gene-specific progression of hearing loss, which is amenable to sequential audioprofiling. We sought to refine the natural history of ADNSHL by examining audiometric data in 5-year increments. 2175 audiograms were included from four genetic causes of ADNSHL-KCNQ4 (DFNA2), GSDME (DFNA5), WFS1 (DFNA6/14/38), and COCH (DFNA9). Annual threshold deterioration (ATD) was calculated for each gene: for the speech-frequency pure tone average, the ATD, respectively, was 0.72 dB/year, 0.94 dB/year, 0.53 dB/year, and 1.41 dB/year, with the largest drops occurring from ages 45-50 (0.89 dB/year; KCNQ4), 5-10 (1.42 dB/year; GSDME), 40-45 (0.83 dB/year; WFS1), and 50-55 (2.09 dB/year; COCH). 5-year interval analysis of audiograms reveals the gene specific natural history of KCNQ4, GSDME, WFS1 and COCH-related progressive hearing loss. Identifying ages at which hearing loss is most rapid informs clinical care and patient expectations. Natural history data are also essential to define outcomes of clinical trials that test novel therapies designed to correct or ameliorate these genetic forms of hearing loss.
Project description:Alport syndrome (AS) is an inherited disorder characterized by glomerulonephritis and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study was to identify the gene responsible for the glomerulopathy in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant AS using exome sequencing.A 4-generation, 30-member Chinese Han family was enrolled in this study. Exome sequencing was conducted in the proband of the family, and then direct sequencing was performed in family members of the pedigree and 100 normal controls.A novel frameshift mutation, c.3213delA (p.Gly1072GlufsFNx0169), in the collagen type IV alpha-4 gene (COL4A4) was found to be the genetic cause. Neither sensorineural hearing loss nor ocular abnormalities were present in the patients of this family. Other clinical features, such as age of onset, age of ESRD occurring and disease severity, varied among the patients of this family.A novel frameshift mutation, c.3213delA (p.Gly1072GlufsFNx0169) in the COL4A4 gene, was identified in the Chinese pedigree with autosomal dominant AS. Our findings may provide new insights into the cause and diagnosis of AS and also have implications for genetic counselling.
Project description:Low-frequency nonsyndromic hearing loss (LF-NSHL) is a rare, inherited disorder. Here, we report a family with LF-NSHL in whom a missense mutation was found in the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene.Family members underwent audiological and imaging evaluations, including pure tone audiometry and temporal bone computed tomography. Blood samples were collected from two affected and two unaffected subjects. To determine the genetic background of hearing loss in this family, genetic analysis was performed using whole-exome sequencing. Among 553 missense variants, c.2419A???C (p.Ser807Arg) in WFS1 remained after filtering and inspection of whole-exome sequencing data. This missense mutation segregated with affected status and demonstrated an alteration to an evolutionarily conserved amino acid residue. Audiological evaluation of the affected subjects revealed nonprogressive LF-NSHL, with early onset at 10 years of age, but not to a profound level.This is the second report to describe a pathological mutation in WFS1 among Korean patients and the second to describe the mutation in a different ethnic background. Given that the mutation was found in independent families, p.S807R possibly appears to be a "hot spot" in WFS1, which is associated with LF-NSHL.