Vascular anatomy defines sites of indomethacin induced jejunal ulceration along the mesenteric margin.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Indomethacin induces ulceration in the rat jejunum with sparing of the ileum. The ulcers localise between vasa recta along the mesenteric margin of the bowel, observations that have not been fully explained. AIM: To examine the relationship between the localisation of experimental ulcers and the vascular anatomy of the rat small intestine. METHODS: The normal vascular anatomy of the rat jejunum and ileum was studied and compared using arterial carbon ink perfusion. The anatomical localisation of early and advanced lesions induced by indomethacin was examined with particular reference to the vasculature. Mucosal injury induced by feeding vessel ligation for 24 hours or brief ischaemia-reperfusion injury was examined. The existence of anatomically sensitive sites to indomethacin was tested in a two dose study. RESULTS: In the rat jejunum, poorly vascularised sites along the mesenteric margin were highly susceptible to indomethacin induced injury, such sites being absent from the ileum. Villous contraction was a feature of both early indomethacin injury and ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the rat jejunum. Twenty four hour ligation of jejunal vasa brevia selectively induced ischaemic injury along the mesenteric margin. Two doses of indomethacin to rats did not induce greater injury than a single dose. CONCLUSIONS: Results support the hypothesis that the rat jejunum possesses vascularly compromised sites along the mesenteric margin that are susceptible to indomethacin induced injury. Indomethacin may cause ischaemia-reperfusion injury selectively at these sites.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Free radicals are associated with post-ischaemic intestinal injury and contribute to major clinical problems primarily in premature infants. Various antioxidative means and modes of intervention, previously tested, have demonstrated only limited efficacy. AIMS: To study the protective activity of the stable nitroxide radical 4-OH, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TPL) and its respective hydroxylamine (TPL-H) against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: An isolated loop of ileum was created in laboratory male Sabra rats and constantly perfused with warmed normal saline. Intestinal injury was elicited through clamping of the superior mesenteric rat artery followed by reperfusion. Either TPL or TPL-H was given intravenously immediately before ischaemia or reperfusion and continuously afterwards. The rate of mucosal to lumen clearance of para-aminohippurate (PAH) was used to evaluate intestinal mucosal injury. Serum and perfusate levels of both TPL and TPL-H were measured using electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. RESULTS: The increase in intestinal permeability induced by I/R was significantly inhibited by both TPL and TPL-H. The nitroxide was effective also when given immediately before reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Through a continuous exchange, TPL and TPL-H act as self-replenishing antioxidants and thus protect from intestinal injury. This demonstrates the potential of the family of nitroxide antioxidants against oxidative stress in general and I/R injury in particular.
Project description:The effect of rebamipide, a mucosal protective drug, on small intestinal mucosal injury caused by indomethacin was examined using a rat model. Indomethacin administration (10 mg/kg, p.o.) induced intestinal mucosal injury was accompanied by an increase in the numbers of intestinal bacteria particularly Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum and ileum. Rebamipide (30 and 100 mg/kg, p.o., given 5 times) was shown to inhibit the indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury and decreased the number of Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunal mucosa to normal levels. It was also shown that the detection rate of segmented filamentous bacteria was increased by rebamipide. PCR array analysis of genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress and wound healing showed that indomethacin induced upregulation and downregulation of 14 and 3 genes, respectively in the rat jejunal mucosa by more than 5-fold compared to that of normal rats. Rebamipide suppressed the upregulated gene expression of TNF? and Duox2 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study confirmed that disturbance of intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury, and suggests that rebamipide could be used as prophylaxis against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs -induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury, by modulating microbiota and suppressing mucosal inflammation in the small intestine.
Project description:Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is a dynamic enzyme tightly controlled by co- and post-translational lipid modifications, phosphorylation and regulated by protein-protein interactions. Here we have pharmacologically modulated the activation of eNOS, at different post-translational levels, to assess the role of eNOS-derived NO and of these regulatory mechanisms in intestinal injury associated with splanchnic artery occlusion (SAO) shock.SAO shock was induced by clamping both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk for 45 min followed by 30 min of reperfusion. During ischemia, 15 min prior to reperfusion, mice were given geldanamycin, an inhibitor of hsp90 recruitment to eNOS, or LY-294002 an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), an enzyme that initiates Akt-catalysed phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1179. After 30 min of reperfusion, samples of ileum were taken for histological examination or for biochemical studies.Either LY-294002 or geldanamycin reversed the increased activation of eNOS and Akt observed following SAO shock. These molecular effects were mirrored in vivo by an exacerbation of the intestinal damage. Histological damage also correlated with neutrophil infiltration, assessed as myeloperoxidase activity, and with an increased expression of the adhesion proteins: ICAM-I, VCAM, P-selectin and E-selectin.Overall these results suggest that activation of the Akt pathway in ischemic regions of reperfused ileum is a protective event, triggered in order to protect the intestinal tissue from damage induced by ischaemia/reperfusion through a fine tuning of the endothelial NO pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) inhibitor cariporide is known to ameliorate ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by reduction of cytosolic Ca(2+) overload. Leukocyte activation and infiltration also mediates I/R injury but whether cariporide reduces I/R injury by affecting leukocyte activation is unknown. We studied the effect of cariporide on thrombin and I/R induced leukocyte activation and infiltration models and examined P-selectin expression as a potential mechanism for any identified effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: An in vivo rat mesenteric microcirculation microscopy model was used with stimulation by thrombin (0.5 micro ml(-1)) superfusion or ischaemia (by haemorrhagic shock for 60 min) and reperfusion (90 min). KEY RESULTS: Treatment with cariporide (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) significantly reduced leukocyte rolling, adhesion and extravasation after thrombin exposure. Similarly, cariporide reduced leukocyte rolling (54+/-6.2 to 2.4+/-1.0 cells min(-1), P<0.01), adherence (6.3+/-1.9 to 1.2+/-0.4 cells 100 microm(-1), P<0.01) and extravasation (9.1+/-2.1 to 2.4+/-1.1 cells per 20 x 100 microm perivascular space, P<0.05), following haemorrhagic shock induced systemic ischaemia and reperfusion. The cell adhesion molecule P-selectin showed a profound decrease in endothelial expression following cariporide administration in both thrombin and I/R stimulated groups (35.4+/-3.2 vs 14.2+/-4.1% P-selectin positive cells per tissue section, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The NHE inhibitor cariporide is known to limit reperfusion injury by controlling Ca(2+) overload but these data are novel evidence for a vasculoprotective effect of NHE inhibition at all levels of leukocyte activation, an effect which is likely to be mediated at least in part by a reduction of P-selectin expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Injuries caused by ischaemia and ischaemia/reperfusion in the small intestine have been widely accepted as resulting in necrosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether apoptosis also occurs. METHODS: Intestinal epithelium from rats subjected to ischaemia (15-90 minutes) and ischaemia/reperfusion (15 minutes ischaemia followed by 15-75 minutes of reperfusion) was studied using histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biological methods as well as FACS. RESULTS: Mucosal injury was induced by both ischaemia and ischaemia/reperfusion. Detachment of epithelial cells from the villous stroma was an early morphological change indicating mucosal injury. More than 80% of the detached cells exhibited characteristic morphological features of apoptosis (condensation of chromatin and nuclear fragmentation). The remainder demonstrated necrotic features. The apoptotic cells eventually underwent spontaneous degeneration with membrane rupture, a process morphologically identical to necrosis. DNA fragmentation was also confirmed by immunohistochemical methods and agarose gel electrophoresis. CONCLUSION: Apoptosis is a major mode of cell death in the destruction of rat small intestinal epithelial cells induced by ischaemia and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Disruption of epithelial cell-matrix interactions ("anoikis") may play an important part in induction of apoptosis in detached enterocytes.
Project description:The transcriptional effects of urocortin I, urocortin II and tempol were compared to saline treatment in a rat model of in vivo coronary artery occlusion model of ischaemia/reperfusion injury of 25 min ischaemia and 2 hr reperfusion. <br>The treatment groups were as follows (i) sham operation or LAD occlusion with infusion of (ii) saline, (iii) 15 ?g/kg Ucn I, (iv) 15 ?g/kg Ucn II and (v) 100 mg/kg tempo infused just prior to reperfusionl.<br>Following 2 hr reperfusion the left ventricle was removed, snap frozen, followed by RNA extraction.
Project description:Thrombopoietin (Tpo) is known for its ability to stimulate platelet production. However, it is currently unknown whether Tpo plays a physiological function in the heart.We assessed the potential protective role of Tpo in vitro and in vivo in two rat models of myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion. Tpo receptor (c-mpl) message was detected in the heart using RT-PCR, and the Tpo receptor protein was detected using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Tpo treatment immediately before ischaemia reduced myocardial necrosis, apoptosis, and decline in ventricular function following ischaemia/reperfusion in the rat in a concentration- and dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 1.0 ng/mL in vitro and an optimal dose of 0.05 microg/kg iv in vivo. Tpo also reduced infarct size when given after the onset of ischaemia or at reperfusion. Tpo activated JAK-2 (Janus kinase-2) and p44 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) during reperfusion but not prior to ischaemia. Inhibition of JAK-2 (AG-490), p42/44 MAPK (PD98059), mitochondrial K(ATP) channels (5-HD), and sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels (HMR 1098) abolished Tpo-induced resistance to injury from myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion. AG-490, PD98059, 5-HD, and HMR1098 alone had no effect on cardioprotection. Treatment with a single dose of Tpo (0.05 or 1.0 microg/kg iv) did not result in the elevation of platelet count or haematocrit over a 16-day period.A single treatment of Tpo confers cardioprotection through JAK-2, p42/44 MAPK, and K(ATP) channels, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of Tpo in the treatment of injury resulting from myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) inhibitors are known to attenuate myocardial reperfusion injury. However, the exact mechanisms for the cardioprotection remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying the cardioprotection by NCX inhibitors against ischaemia/reperfusion injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 35-min ischaemia/60-min reperfusion or 20-min ischaemia/60-min reperfusion. NCX inhibitors (3-30 microM KB-R7943 (KBR) or 0.3-1 microM SEA0400 (SEA)) were given for 5 min prior to ischaemia (pre-ischaemic treatment) or for 10 min after the onset of reperfusion (post-ischaemic treatment). KEY RESULTS: With 35-min ischaemia/60-min reperfusion, pre- or post-ischaemic treatment with KBR or SEA neither enhanced post-ischaemic contractile recovery nor attenuated ischaemia- or reperfusion-induced Na+ accumulation and damage to mitochondrial respiratory function. With the milder model (20-min ischaemia/reperfusion), pre- or post-ischaemic treatment with 10 microM KBR or 1 microM SEA significantly enhanced the post-ischaemic contractile recovery, associated with reductions in reperfusion-induced Ca2+ accumulation, damage to mitochondrial function, and decrease in myocardial high-energy phosphates. Furthermore, Na+ influx to mitochondria in vitro was enhanced by increased concentrations of NaCl. KBR (10 microM) and 1 microM SEA partially decreased the Na+ influx. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The NCX inhibitors exerted cardioprotective effects during relatively mild ischaemia. The mechanism may be attributable to prevention of mitochondrial damage, possibly mediated by attenuation of Na+ overload in cardiac mitochondria during ischaemia and/or Ca2+ overload via the reverse mode of NCX during reperfusion.
Project description:AIMS:Mitsugumin-53 (MG53/TRIM72) is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that rapidly accumulates at sites of membrane injury and plays an important role in membrane repair of skeletal and cardiac muscle. MG53 has been implicated in cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and serum MG53 provides a biomarker of skeletal muscle injury in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We evaluated the clinical utility of MG53 as a biomarker of myocardial injury. METHODS AND RESULTS:We performed Langendorff ischaemia-reperfusion injury on wild-type and dysferlin-null murine hearts, using dysferlin deficiency to effectively model more severe outcomes from cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury. MG53 released into the coronary effluent correlated strongly and significantly (r = 0.79-0.85, P < 0.0001) with functional impairment after ischaemic injury. We initiated a clinical trial in paediatric patients undergoing corrective heart surgery, the first study of MG53 release with myocardial injury in humans. Unexpectedly, we reveal although MG53 is robustly expressed in rat and mouse hearts, MG53 is scant to absent in human, ovine, or porcine hearts. Absence of MG53 in 11 human heart specimens was confirmed using three separate antibodies to MG53, each subject to epitope mapping and confirmed immunospecificity using MG53-deficient muscle cells. CONCLUSION:MG53 is an effective biomarker of myocardial injury and dysfunction in murine hearts. However, MG53 is not expressed in human heart and therefore does not hold utility as a clinical biomarker of myocardial injury. Although cardioprotective roles for endogenous myocardial MG53 cannot be extrapolated from rodents to humans, potential therapeutic application of recombinant MG53 for myocardial membrane injury prevails.
Project description:Innate mechanisms of inter-organ protection underlie the phenomenon of remote ischaemic preconditioning (RPc) in which episode(s) of ischaemia and reperfusion in tissues remote from the heart reduce myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The uncertainty surrounding the mechanism(s) underlying RPc centres on whether humoral factor(s) produced during ischaemia/reperfusion of remote tissue and released into the systemic circulation mediate RPc, or whether a neural signal is required. While these two hypotheses may not be incompatible, one approach to clarify the potential role of a neural pathway requires targeted disruption or activation of discrete central nervous substrate(s).Using a rat model of myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury in combination with viral gene transfer, pharmaco-, and optogenetics, we tested the hypothesis that RPc cardioprotection depends on the activity of vagal pre-ganglionic neurones and consequently an intact parasympathetic drive. For cell-specific silencing or activation, neurones of the brainstem dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DVMN) were targeted using viral vectors to express a Drosophila allatostatin receptor (AlstR) or light-sensitive fast channelrhodopsin variant (ChIEF), respectively. RPc cardioprotection, elicited by ischaemia/reperfusion of the limbs, was abolished when DVMN neurones transduced to express AlstR were silenced by selective ligand allatostatin or in conditions of systemic muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine. In the absence of remote ischaemia/reperfusion, optogenetic activation of DVMN neurones transduced to express ChIEF reduced infarct size, mimicking the effect of RPc.These data indicate a crucial dependence of RPc cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury upon the activity of a distinct population of vagal pre-ganglionic neurones.