Differential expression of metallothionein 1 and 2 isoforms in breast cancer lines with different invasive potential: identification of a novel nonsilent metallothionein-1H mutant variant.
ABSTRACT: Metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular weight protein with pleiotropic functions, is believed to play an important role in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of functional MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA isoforms in five breast cancer cell lines ranging from noninvasive MCF7 breast cancer cells to highly aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells together with breast myoepithelial cells in vitro by conventional semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The MT-2A isoform was observed to be differentially upregulated in the invasive phenotype. The MT-1E isoform was found to be present in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T) but not detectable in the estrogen receptor-positive cell lines (T47D, MCF7, and ZR75-1 cells). Only the myoepithelial cells exhibited the presence of the MT-1G transcript. Direct sequencing of the RT-PCR products revealed the occurrence of a variant MT-1H isoform with changes in amino acid residues in the protein sequence and notable differences in the predicted secondary protein structure. The observations in this study are relevant to the development of novel approaches to metastatic breast cancer disease, and may herald the search for novel MT mutants and the elucidation of their biological roles.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that pluripotency-associated transcription factors, such as Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2, play a crucial role in the development and malignant progression of various types of tumors. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among females, being a heterogeneous disease, with distinct morphologies, metastatic behavior and therapeutic responses. The expression of Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2 in 3 human breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231, was determined. The expression of Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2 mRNA was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein expression was detected by immunocytohistochemistry. RT-PCR revealed that all three human breast cancer cell lines tested expressed evident Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox-2 mRNA at various levels. Higher levels of Oct3/4 were identified in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells compared with T-47D cells. Higher levels of Nanog were observed in MCF7 and T-47D cells compared with MDA-MB-231 cells and the highest expression of Sox-2 was detected in MCF7 cells. The nuclear localization of Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox-2 was confirmed by immunostaining. Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2 were expressed in human breast cancer cell lines. Further studies are required to characterize the role of Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2 in human breast cancer.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-associated death in women worldwide. microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the cellular processes of breast cancer. However, the crucial roles and underlying mechanisms of miR-539 in breast cancer remain unclear. By RT-qPCR, we found that expression of miR-539 was markedly down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared with that in paired adjacent normal tissues and normal cell lines. The low level of miR-539 expression was positively associated with lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, forced expression of miR-539 inhibited proliferation and migration of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assays indicated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was a direct target of miR-539. Over-expression of miR-539 decreased the EGFR mRNA and protein levels in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. In addition, ectopic over-expression of EGFR partly reversed miR-539-inhibited proliferation as well as migration of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-539 functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by downregulating EGFR, supporting the targeting of the novel miR-539/EGFR axis as a potentially effective therapeutic approach for breast cancer.
Project description:The effect of activation and overexpression of the nuclear receptor PPAR-?/? in human MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative; ER(-)) and MCF7 (estrogen-receptor-positive; ER(+)) breast cancer cell lines was examined. Target gene induction by ligand activation of PPAR-?/? was increased by overexpression of PPAR-?/? compared with controls. Overexpression of PPAR-?/? caused a decrease in cell proliferation in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells compared with controls, whereas ligand activation of PPAR-?/? further inhibited proliferation of MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 cells. Overexpression and/or ligand activation of PPAR-?/? in MDA-MB-231 or MCF7 cells had no effect on experimental apoptosis. Decreased clonogenicity was observed in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 overexpressing PPAR-?/? in response to ligand activation of PPAR-?/? as compared with controls. Ectopic xenografts developed from MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells overexpressing PPAR-?/? were significantly smaller, and ligand activation of PPAR-?/? caused an even greater reduction in tumor volume as compared with controls. Interestingly, the decrease in MDA-MB-231 tumor size after overexpressing PPAR-?/? and ligand activation of PPAR-?/? correlated with increased necrosis. These data show that ligand activation and/or overexpression of PPAR-?/? in two human breast cancer cell lines inhibits relative breast cancer tumorigenicity and provide further support for the development of ligands for PPAR-?/? to specifically inhibit breast carcinogenesis. These new cell-based models will be invaluable tools for delineating the role of PPAR-?/? in breast cancer and evaluating the effects of PPAR-?/? agonists.
Project description:This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the resistance of breast cancer to eribulin. Seven eribulin-resistant breast cancer cell lines (MCF7/E, BT474/E, ZR75-1/E, SKBR3/E, MDA-MB-231/E, Hs578T/E, and MDA-MB-157/E) were established. mRNA and protein expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) and subfamily C member 11 (ABCC11) increased in all eribulin-resistant cell lines compared to the parental cell lines. When ABCB1 or ABCC11 expression was inhibited by small interfering RNA in MCF7/E, BT474/E, and MDA-MB-231/E cells, eribulin sensitivity was partially restored. Moreover, eribulin resistance was attenuated additively by inhibiting ABCB1 and ABCC11 in MCF7/E cells. Additionally, overexpression of exogenous ABCB1 or ABCC11 in HEK293T cells conferred resistance to eribulin. MCF7/E and MDA-MB-231/E cells showed cross-resistance to paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil. Inhibition of ABCB1 partially restored paclitaxel and doxorubicin sensitivity. Partial restoration of fluorouracil sensitivity was induced by inhibiting ABCC11 in MCF7/E and MDA-MB-231/E cells. Both ABCB1 and ABCC11 are involved in the development of eribulin resistance in breast cancer cells in vitro regardless of the breast cancer subtype. Thus, ABCB1 and ABCC11 expression may be used as a biomarker for predicting the response to eribulin in patients with breast cancer. Concomitant inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCC11 might help enhance the antitumor effects of eribulin.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and are dysregulated in cancer. Studies of miRNAs to explore their potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers are of great scientific interest. Here, we investigate the functional properties and expression of the miR-143/145 cluster in breast cancer (BC) in vitro and in vivo. The ER positive MCF7, the HER2 positive SK-BR-3, and the triple negative cell line MDA-MB-231 were used to assess cell proliferation and cell invasion. Expression of miRNA in 108 breast cancers in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study and 44 benign tissue controls were analyzed by microarray and validated by RT-PCR. Further, in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to study the cellular and subcellular distribution of the miRNAs. In vitro, miR-143 promoted proliferation of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas miR-145 and the cotransfection of both miRNAs inhibited proliferation in all three cell lines. The cells' invasive capacity was reduced after transfection and cotransfection of the miRNAs. In line with the tumor suppressive functions in vitro, the expression of miR-143 and miR-145 was lower in malignant compared to benign breast tissue, and lower in the more aggressive tumors with higher tumor grade, loss of ER and the basal-like phenotype. ISH revealed miR-143 to be cytoplasmatic and predominantly expressed in luminal cells in benign tissue, whilst miR-145 was nuclear and with strong staining in myoepithelial cells. Both miRNAs were present in malignant epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts in BC. This study demonstrates that miR-143 and -145 have functional properties and expression patterns typical for tumor suppressors, but the function is influenced by cellular factors such as cell type and miRNA cotransfection. Further, the nuclear functions of miR-145 should be explored for a more complete understanding of the complexity of miRNA regulation and function in BC.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy, and can survive to regenerate new tumors. This is an important reason why various anti- cancer therapies often fail to completely control tumors, although they kill and eliminate the bulk of cancer cells. In this study, we determined whether or not adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) suppression could also be effective in inducing cell death of breast cancer stem-like cells. A sub-population (SP; CD44+/ CD24-) of breast cancer cells has been reported to have stem/progenitor cell properties. We utilized the adeno- ANT2 shRNA virus to inhibit ANT2 expression and then observed the treatment effect in a SP of breast cancer cell line. In this study, MCF7, MDA-MB-231 cells, and breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) mesenchymally-transdifferentiated through E-cadherin knockdown were used. ANT2 expression was high in both stem-like cells and non-stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and was induced and up-regulated by mesenchymal transdifferentiation in MCF10A cells (MCF10A(EMT)). Knockdown of ANT2 by adeno-shRNA virus efficiently induced apoptotic cell death in the stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and MCF10A(EMT). Stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, and MCF10A(EMT) cells exhibited increased drug (doxorubicin) resistance, and expressed a multi-drug resistant related molecule, ABCG2, at a high level. Adeno-ANT2 shRNA virus markedly sensitized the stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, and the MCF10A(EMT) cells to doxorubicin, which was accompanied by down-regulation of ABCG2. Our results suggest that ANT2 suppression by adeno-shRNA virus is an effective strategy to induce cell death and increase the chemosensitivity of stem-like cells in breast cancer.
Project description:In a search for proteins differentially cross-linked to DNA by cisplatin or formaldehyde in normal breast epithelial and breast cancer cell lines, we identified peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) as a protein preferentially cross-linked to DNA in estrogen receptor negative (ER-) MDA-MB-231 but not in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF7 breast cancer cells. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopic analyses showed that PRDX1 was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus of normal and breast cancer cells, with nuclear PRDX1 associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein bodies. We demonstrated that PRDX1 association with the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in MDA-MB-231 but not in MCF7 cells contributed to PRDX1-selective recruitment to MDA-MB-231 genomic DNA. Furthermore, PRDX1 was associated with the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 upstream promoter region at sites occupied by NF-kappaB in ER- but not in ER+ breast cancer cells. PRDX1 knockdown attenuated COX-2 expression by reducing NF-kappaB occupancy at its upstream promoter element in MDA-MB-231 but not in MCF7 cells. A phosphorylated form of PRDX1 was only present in ER- breast cancer cells. Because PRDX1 phosphorylation is known to inhibit its peroxidase activity and to promote PRDX1 oligomerization, we propose that PRDX1 acts as a chaperone to enhance the transactivation potential of NF-kappaB in ER- breast cancer cells.
Project description:Transient receptor potential channels convey signaling information from a number of stimuli to a wide variety of cellular functions, mainly by inducing changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Different members of the TRPC, TRPM and TRPV subfamilies have been reported to play a role in tumorigenesis. Here we show that the estrogen receptor positive and triple negative breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, respectively, exhibit enhanced expression of the TRPC6 channel as compared to the non-tumoral MCF10A cell line. In vitro TRPC6 knockdown using shRNA impaired MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion detected by BrdU incorporation, wound healing and Boyden chamber assays, respectively. Using RNAi-mediated TRPC6 silencing as well as overexpression of the pore-dead dominant-negative TRPC6 mutant we have found that TRPC6 plays a relevant role in the activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry in the breast cancer cell lines but not in non-tumoral breast cells. Finally, we have found that TRPC6 interacts with Orai1 and Orai3 in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and is required for the translocation of Orai1 and Orai3 to the plasma membrane in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells, respectively, upon Ca2+ store depletion. These findings introduce a novel mechanism for the modulation of Ca2+ influx and the development of different cancer hallmarks in breast cancer cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Breast cancer accounts for nearly a quarter of all cancers in women worldwide, and more than 90% of women diagnosed with breast cancer undergo mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery. Retrospective clinical studies have suggested that use of regional anesthesia leads to improved patient outcomes. Laboratory studies have reported that breast cancer cells are inhibited by some local anesthetics at millimolar concentration. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of six common local anesthetics on two human breast cancer cell lines. We used concentrations ranging from those corresponding to plasma levels during regional block by local anesthetic (plasma concentration) to those corresponding to direct infiltration of local anesthetic. METHODS:Human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, were incubated with each of six local anesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, ropivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and chloroprocaine) (10 ?M ~?10 mM) for 6 to 72 h. Assays for cell viability, cytotoxicity, migration, and cell cycle were performed. RESULTS:High concentrations (>?1 mM) of local anesthetics applied to either MDA-MB-231 or MCF7 cells for 48 h significantly inhibited cell viability and induced cytotoxicity. At plasma concentrations (~?10 ?M) for 72 h, none of the local anesthetics affected cell viability or migration in either cell line. However, at 10?×?plasma concentrations, 72-h exposure to bupivacaine, levobupivacaine or chloroprocaine inhibited the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells by >?40% (p?<?0.001). Levobupivacaine also inhibited the viability of MCF7 cells by 50% (p?<?0.001). None of the local anesthetics affected the viability of a non-cancerous breast cell line, MCF10A. MDA-MB-231 cell migration was inhibited by 10?×?plasma concentrations of levobupivacaine, ropivacaine or chloroprocaine and MCF7 cell migration was inhibited by mepivacaine and levobupivacaine (p?<?0.05). Cell cycle analysis showed that the local anesthetics arrest MDA-MB-231 cells in the S phase at both 1?×?and 10?×?plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS:Local anesthetics at high concentrations significantly inhibited breast cancer cell survival. At 10?×?plasma concentrations, the effect of local anesthetics on cancer cell viability and migration depended on the exposure time, specific local anesthetic, specific measurement endpoint and specific cell line.
Project description:Our aim was to evaluate the interaction between breast cancer cells and nodal fibroblasts, by means of their gene expression profile. Fibroblast primary cultures were established from negative and positive lymph nodes from breast cancer patients and a similar gene expression pattern was identified, following cell culture. Fibroblasts and breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231, MDA-MB435, and MCF7) were cultured alone or co-cultured separated by a porous membrane (which allows passage of soluble factors) for comparison. Each breast cancer lineage exerted a particular effect on fibroblasts viability and transcriptional profile. However, fibroblasts from positive and negative nodes had a parallel transcriptional behavior when co-cultured with a specific breast cancer cell line. The effects of nodal fibroblasts on breast cancer cells were also investigated. MDA MB-231 cells viability and migration were enhanced by the presence of fibroblasts and accordingly, MDA-MB435 and MCF7 cells viability followed a similar pattern. MDA-MB231 gene expression profile, as evaluated by cDNA microarray, was influenced by the fibroblasts presence, and HNMT, COMT, FN3K, and SOD2 were confirmed downregulated in MDA-MB231 co-cultured cells with fibroblasts from both negative and positive nodes, in a new series of RT-PCR assays. In summary, transcriptional changes induced in breast cancer cells by fibroblasts from positive as well as negative nodes are very much alike in a specific lineage. However, fibroblasts effects are distinct in each one of the breast cancer lineages, suggesting that the inter-relationships between stromal and malignant cells are dependent on the intrinsic subtype of the tumor.