ATMIN defines an NBS1-independent pathway of ATM signalling.
ABSTRACT: The checkpoint kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) transduces genomic stress signals to halt cell cycle progression and promote DNA repair in response to DNA damage. Here, we report the characterisation of an essential cofactor for ATM, ATMIN (ATM INteracting protein). ATMIN interacts with ATM through a C-terminal motif, which is also present in Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS)1. ATMIN and ATM co-localised in response to ATM activation by chloroquine and hypotonic stress, but not after induction of double-strand breaks by ionising radiation (IR). ATM/ATMIN complex disruption by IR was attenuated in cells with impaired NBS1 function, suggesting competition of NBS1 and ATMIN for ATM binding. ATMIN protein levels were reduced in ataxia telangiectasia cells and ATM protein levels were low in primary murine fibroblasts lacking ATMIN, indicating reciprocal stabilisation. Whereas phosphorylation of Smc1, Chk2 and p53 was normal after IR in ATMIN-deficient cells, basal ATM activity and ATM activation by hypotonic stress and inhibition of DNA replication was impaired. Thus, ATMIN defines a novel NBS1-independent pathway of ATM signalling.
Project description:The Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 (MRN) protein complex and ATMIN protein mediate ATM kinase signaling in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and chromatin changes, respectively. NBS1 and ATMIN directly compete for ATM binding, but the molecular mechanism favoring either NBS1 or ATMIN in response to specific stimuli is enigmatic. Here, we identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5 as a key component of ATM activation in response to IR. UBR5 interacts with ATMIN and catalyzes ubiquitination of ATMIN at lysine 238 in an IR-stimulated manner, which decreases ATMIN interaction with ATM and promotes MRN-mediated signaling. We show that UBR5 deficiency, or mutation of ATMIN lysine 238, prevents ATMIN dissociation from ATM and inhibits ATM and NBS1 foci formation after IR, thereby impairing checkpoint activation and increasing radiosensitivity. Thus, UBR5-mediated ATMIN ubiquitination is a vital event for ATM pathway selection and activation in response to DNA damage.
Project description:Proper development of the immune system is an intricate process dependent on many factors, including an intact DNA damage response. The DNA double-strand break signaling kinase ATM and its cofactor NBS1 are required during T cell development and for the maintenance of genomic stability. The role of a second ATM cofactor, ATMIN (also known as ASCIZ) in T cells is much less clear, and whether ATMIN and NBS1 function in synergy in T cells is unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of ATMIN and NBS1, either alone or in combination, using murine models. We show loss of NBS1 led to a developmental block at the double-positive stage of T cell development, as well as reduced TCR? recombination, that was unexpectedly neither exacerbated nor alleviated by concomitant loss of ATMIN. In contrast, loss of both ATMIN and NBS1 enhanced DNA damage that drove spontaneous peripheral T cell hyperactivation, proliferation as well as excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, leading to a highly inflammatory environment. Intriguingly, the disease causing T cells were largely proficient for both ATMIN and NBS1. In vivo this resulted in severe intestinal inflammation, colitis and premature death. Our findings reveal a novel model for an intestinal bowel disease phenotype that occurs upon combined loss of the DNA repair cofactors ATMIN and NBS1.
Project description:Progressive accumulation of DNA damage is causally involved in cellular senescence and organismal aging. The DNA damage kinase ATM plays a central role in maintaining genomic stability. ATM mutations cause the genetic disorder ataxia telangiectasia, which is primarily characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cancer susceptibility. Although the importance of ATM function to protect against oxidative DNA damage and during aging is well described, the mechanism of ATM activation by these stimuli is not known. Here we identify ATM interactor (ATMIN) as an essential component of the ATM signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress and aging. Embryos lacking ATMIN (atmin(?/?)) died in utero and showed increased numbers of cells positive for phosphorylated histone H2aX, indicative of increased DNA damage. atmin(?/?) mouse embryonic fibroblasts accumulated DNA damage and prematurely entered senescence when cultured at atmospheric oxygen levels (20%), but this defect was rescued by addition of an antioxidant and also by culturing cells at physiological oxygen levels (3%). In response to acute oxidative stress, atmin(?/?) mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed slightly lower levels of ATM phosphorylation and reduced ATM substrate phosphorylation. Conditional deletion of ATMIN in the murine nervous system (atmin(?N)) resulted in reduced numbers of dopaminergic neurons, as does ATM deficiency. ATM activity was observed in old, but not in young, control mice, but aging-induced ATM signaling was impaired by ATMIN deficiency. Consequently, old atmin(?N) mice showed accumulation of DNA damage in the cortex accompanied by gliosis, resulting in increased mortality of aging mutant mice. These results suggest that ATMIN mediates ATM activation by oxidative stress, and thereby ATMIN protects the aging brain by preventing accumulation of DNA damage.
Project description:Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterised by microcephaly, developmental delay, characteristic facial features, immunodeficiency and radiosensitivity. Nbs1, the protein defective in NBS, functions in ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM)-dependent signalling likely facilitating ATM phosphorylation events. While NBS shares overlapping characteristics with ataxia telangiectasia, it also has features overlapping with ATR-Seckel (ATR: ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein) syndrome, a subclass of Seckel syndrome mutated in ATR. We show that Nbs1 also facilitates ATR-dependent phosphorylation. NBS cell lines show a similar defect in ATR phosphorylation of Chk1, c-jun and p-53 in response to UV irradiation- and hydroxyurea (HU)-induced replication stalling. They are also impaired in ubiquitination of FANCD2 after HU treatment, which is ATR dependent. Following HU-induced replication arrest, NBS and ATR-Seckel cells show similarly impaired G2/M checkpoint arrest and an impaired ability to restart DNA synthesis at stalled replication forks. Moreover, NBS cells fail to retain ATR in the nucleus following HU treatment and extraction. Our findings suggest that Nbs1 functions in both ATR- and ATM-dependent signalling. We propose that the NBS clinical features represent the result of these combined defects.
Project description:Using proteomic approaches, we uncovered a DNA damage response (DDR) function for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) through its interaction with the DNA damage sensor MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5. We show that PPAR? promotes ATM signaling and is essential for UBR5 activity targeting ATM interactor (ATMIN). PPAR? depletion increases ATMIN protein independent of transcription and suppresses DDR-induced ATM signaling. Blocking ATMIN in this context restores ATM activation and DNA repair. We illustrate the physiological relevance of PPAR? DDR functions by using pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as a model that has impaired PPAR? signaling related to endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and unresolved DNA damage. In pulmonary arterial ECs (PAECs) from PAH patients, we observed disrupted PPAR?-UBR5 interaction, heightened ATMIN expression, and DNA lesions. Blocking ATMIN in PAH PAEC restores ATM activation. Thus, impaired PPAR? DDR functions may explain the genomic instability and loss of endothelial homeostasis in PAH.
Project description:The checkpoint kinase Chk2 has a key role in delaying cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Upon activation by low-dose ionizing radiation (IR), which occurs in an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent manner, Chk2 can phosphorylate the mitosis-inducing phosphatase Cdc25C on an inhibitory site, blocking entry into mitosis, and p53 on a regulatory site, causing G(1) arrest. Here we show that the ATM-dependent activation of Chk2 by gamma- radiation requires Nbs1, the gene product involved in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), a disorder that shares with AT a variety of phenotypic defects including chromosome fragility, radiosensitivity, and radioresistant DNA synthesis. Thus, whereas in normal cells Chk2 undergoes a time-dependent increased phosphorylation and induction of catalytic activity against Cdc25C, in NBS cells null for Nbs1 protein, Chk2 phosphorylation and activation are both defective. Importantly, these defects in NBS cells can be complemented by reintroduction of wild-type Nbs1, but neither by a carboxy-terminal deletion mutant of Nbs1 at amino acid 590, unable to form a complex with and to transport Mre11 and Rad50 in the nucleus, nor by an Nbs1 mutated at Ser343 (S343A), the ATM phosphorylation site. Chk2 nuclear expression is unaffected in NBS cells, hence excluding a mislocalization as the cause of failed Chk2 activation in Nbs1-null cells. Interestingly, the impaired Chk2 function in NBS cells correlates with the inability, unlike normal cells, to stop entry into mitosis immediately after irradiation, a checkpoint abnormality that can be corrected by introduction of the wild-type but not the S343A mutant form of Nbs1. Altogether, these findings underscore the crucial role of a functional Nbs1 complex in Chk2 activation and suggest that checkpoint defects in NBS cells may result from the inability to activate Chk2.
Project description:The chromosomal instability syndromes Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) share many overlapping phenotypes, including cancer predisposition, radiation sensitivity, cell-cycle checkpoint defects, immunodeficiency, and gonadal dysfunction. The NBS protein Nbs1 is not only a downstream target of AT mutated (ATM) kinase but also acts upstream, promoting optimal ATM activation, ATM recruitment to breaks, and ATM accessibility to substrates. By reconstituting Nbs1 knockout mice with bacterial artificial chromosomes, we have assessed the contribution of distinct regions of Nbs1 to the ATM-dependent DNA damage response. We find that T cell and oocyte development, as well as DNA damage-induced G2/M and S phase checkpoint arrest and radiation survival are dependent on the N-terminal forkhead-associated domain, but not on the principal residues phosphorylated by ATM (S278 and S343) or on the evolutionarily conserved C-terminal region of Nbs1. However, the C-terminal region regulates irradiation-induced apoptosis. These studies provide insight into the complex interplay between Nbs1 and ATM in the DNA damage response.
Project description:The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) is integral to both DNA repair and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage signaling. All three Mre11 complex components are essential for viability at the cellular and organismal levels. To delineate essential and non-essential Mre11 complex functions that are mediated by Nbs1, we used TALEN-based genome editing to derive Nbs1 mutant mice (Nbs1mid mice), which harbor mutations in the Mre11 interaction domain of Nbs1. Nbs1mid alleles that abolished interaction were incompatible with viability. Conversely, a 108-amino-acid Nbs1 fragment comprising the Mre11 interface was sufficient to rescue viability and ATM activation in cultured cells and support differentiation of hematopoietic cells in vivo. These data indicate that the essential role of Nbs1 is via its interaction with Mre11 and that most of the Nbs1 protein is dispensable for Mre11 complex functions and suggest that Mre11 and Rad50 directly activate ATM.
Project description:The hereditary autosomal recessive disease ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is caused by mutation in the DNA damage kinase ATM. ATM's main function is to orchestrate DNA repair, thereby maintaining genomic stability. ATM activity is increased in response to several stimuli, including ionising radiation (IR) and hypotonic stress. DNMT1-associated protein 1 (DMAP1) is a member of the TIP60-p400 histone acetyl transferase (HAT) complex, which acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16) to affect chromatin relaxation and modulate ATM activation. Here we demonstrate that DMAP1 is required for both modes of ATM activation. Knockdown of DMAP1 impaired IR-induced ATM activation and consequently resulted in radiosensitivity and impaired the G2/M checkpoint. Moreover, DMAP1 was also required for efficient ATM signalling in response to hypotonic stress. Overexpression of DMAP1 increased IR-induced ATM substrate phosphorylation, suggesting that DMAP1 function is rate limiting for ATM signalling. DMAP1 associated with TIP60-dependent HAT activity, and depletion of DMAP1 reduced H4K16 acetylation in response to DNA damage. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors rescued IR-induced ATM signalling in Dmap1-depleted cells. These results suggest that DMAP1 is a critical regulator of ATM activity and function.
Project description:The MRE11 complex (MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1) and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase function in the same DNA damage response pathway to effect cell cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis. The functional interaction between the MRE11 complex and ATM has been proposed to require a conserved C-terminal domain of NBS1 for recruitment of ATM to sites of DNA damage. Human Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cells and those derived from multiple mouse models of NBS express a hypomorphic NBS1 allele that exhibits impaired ATM activity despite having an intact C-terminal domain. This indicates that the NBS1 C terminus is not sufficient for ATM function. We derived Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) mice in which the C-terminal ATM interaction domain is deleted. Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) cells exhibit intra-S-phase checkpoint defects, but are otherwise indistinguishable from wild-type cells with respect to other checkpoint functions, ionizing radiation sensitivity and chromosome stability. However, multiple tissues of Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) mice showed a severe apoptotic defect, comparable to that of ATM- or CHK2-deficient animals. Analysis of p53 transcriptional targets and ATM substrates showed that, in contrast to the phenotype of Chk2(-/-) mice, NBS1(DeltaC) does not impair the induction of proapoptotic genes. Instead, the defects observed in Nbs1(DeltaC/DeltaC) result from impaired phosphorylation of ATM targets including SMC1 and the proapoptotic factor, BID.