Individual CREB-target genes dictate usage of distinct cAMP-responsive coactivation mechanisms.
ABSTRACT: CREB is a key mediator of cAMP- and calcium-inducible transcription, where phosphorylation of serine 133 in its Kinase-Inducible Domain (KID) is often equated with transactivation. Phospho-Ser133 is required for CREB to bind the KIX domain of the coactivators CBP and p300 (CBP/p300) in vitro, although the importance of this archetype coactivator interaction for endogenous gene expression is unclear. Here, we show that the CREB interaction with KIX is necessary for only a part of cAMP-inducible transcription and CBP/p300 recruitment. Surprisingly, individual cAMP-inducible genes with CREB bound at their promoters differed in their reliance on KIX and none examined showed complete dependence. Alternatively, we found that arginine 314 (Arg314) in the CREB basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain contributed to CBP/p300 recruitment and KIX-independent CREB transactivation function. This implicates Transducer Of Regulated CREB (TORC), an unrelated cAMP-responsive coactivator that binds via Arg314, and which can bind CBP/p300, in these functions. Interestingly, KIX was also required for the full cAMP induction of a gene that did not require CREB. Thus, individual CREB-target gene context dictates the relative contribution of at least two different cAMP-responsive coactivation mechanisms.
Project description:The cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a signal-dependent transcription factor that exerts its positive effects on gene transcription of a broad range of genes by recruiting coactivators, including CREB-binding protein (CBP), its paralog, p300, and the family of CRTC (CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivators) proteins. Whereas recruitment of CBP/p300 is dependent on CREB phosphorylation at Ser133, recruitment of CRTCs is not. Here we describe how both mechanisms could concurrently drive transcription of CREB targets in a subset of head and neck cancers featuring chromosomal translocations that fuse portions of CRTC1 and CRTC3 genes with that of the Mastermind-like transcriptional coactivator MAML2. We show that a peptide derived from transactivation domain 1 (TAD1) of MAML2 binds to the CBP KIX domain with micromolar affinity. An ?20-residue segment within this peptide, conserved in MAML2 orthologs and paralogs, binds directly to a KIX surface previously shown to bind to MLL1. The 20-residue MAML2 segment shares sequence similarity with MLL1, especially at those positions in direct contact with KIX, and like MLL1, the segment is characterized by the presence of an ?10-residue helix. Because CRTC1/3-MAML2 fusion proteins are constitutively nuclear, like CREB, our results suggest constitutive recruitment of CBP/p300 to CREB targets that could be further enhanced by signals that cause CREB Ser133 phosphorylation.
Project description:CBP [CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein)-binding protein] and p300 play critical roles in transcriptional co-activation, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Multiple transcription factors associate with CBP/p300. With the exception of the SYT oncoprotein, no proteins have been identified that specifically associate with p300, but not CBP. In the present study, we isolated a novel p300-associated protein for which no interaction with CBP was observed by GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down assay using Jurkat cell lysates metabolically labelled with [35S]methionine. This protein bound the KIX (kinase-inducible) domain of p300. Following resolution by two-dimensional acrylamide gel electrophoresis, we identified the KIX-domain-bound protein by MS analysis as PRS1 (phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase subunit 1), a protein essential for nucleoside biosynthesis. This is the first report to demonstrate the existence of a p300 KIX-domain-specific-interacting protein that does not interact with CBP. Thus p300 may play a role in the regulation of DNA synthesis through interactions with PRS1.
Project description:Molecular interactions between the tumor suppressor p53 and the transcriptional coactivators CBP/p300 are critical for the regulation of p53 transactivation and stability. The transactivation domain (TAD) of p53 binds directly to several CBP/p300 domains (TAZ1, TAZ2, NCBD, and KIX). Here we map the interaction between the p53 TAD and the CBP KIX domain using isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy. KIX is a structural domain in CBP/p300 that can simultaneously bind two polypeptide ligands, such as the activation domain of MLL and the kinase-inducible activation domain (pKID) of CREB, using distinct interaction surfaces. The p53 TAD consists of two subdomains (AD1 and AD2); peptides corresponding to the isolated AD1 and AD2 subdomains interact with KIX with relatively low affinity, but a longer peptide containing both subdomains binds KIX tightly. In the context of the full-length p53 TAD, AD1 and AD2 bind synergistically to KIX. Mapping of the chemical shift perturbations onto the structure of KIX shows that isolated AD1 and AD2 peptides bind to both the MLL and pKID sites. Spin-labeling experiments show that the complex of the full-length p53 TAD with KIX is disordered, with the AD1 and AD2 subdomains each interacting with both the MLL and pKID binding surfaces. Phosphorylation of the p53 TAD at Thr18 or Ser20 increases the KIX binding affinity. The affinity is further enhanced by simultaneous phosphorylation of Thr18 and Ser20, and the specificity of the interaction is increased. The p53 TAD simultaneously occupies the two distinct sites that have been identified on the CBP KIX domain and efficiently competes for these sites with other known KIX-binding transcription factors.
Project description:Phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133 in response to hormonal stimuli triggers cellular gene expression via the recruitment of the histone acetylase coactivator paralogs CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300 to the promoter. The NMR structure of the CREB:CBP complex, using relevant interaction domains called KID and KIX, respectively, reveals a shallow hydrophobic groove on the surface of KIX that accommodates an amphipathic helix in phospho (Ser-133) KID. Using an NMR-based screening approach on a preselected small-molecule library, we identified several compounds that bind to different surfaces on KIX. One of these, KG-501 (2-naphthol-AS-E-phosphate), targeted a surface distal to the CREB binding groove that includes Arg-600, a residue that is required for the CREB:CBP interaction. When added to live cells, KG-501 disrupted the CREB: CBP complex and attenuated target gene induction in response to cAMP agonist. These results demonstrate the ability of small molecules to interfere with second-messenger signaling cascades by inhibiting specific protein-protein interactions in the nucleus.
Project description:Signal transduction pathways often use a transcriptional component to mediate adaptive cellular responses. Coactivator proteins function prominently in these pathways as the conduit to the basic transcriptional machinery. Here we present a high-throughput cell-based screening strategy, termed the "coactivator trap," to study the functional interactions of coactivators with transcription factors. We applied this strategy to the cAMP signaling pathway, which utilizes two families of coactivators, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP)/p300 family and the recently identified transducers of regulated CREB activity family (TORCs1-3). In addition to identifying numerous known interactions of these coactivators, this analysis identified NONO (p54(nrb)) as a TORC-interacting protein. RNA interference experiments demonstrate that NONO is necessary for cAMP-dependent activation of CREB target genes in vivo. Furthermore, TORC2 and NONO complex on cAMP-responsive promoters, and NONO acts as a bridge between the CREB/TORC complex and RNA polymerase II. These data demonstrate the utility of the coactivator trap by identification of a component of cAMP-mediated transcription.
Project description:The molecular mechanism of the action of lithium salts in the treatment of bipolar disorder is not well understood. As their therapeutic action requires chronic treatment, adaptive neuronal processes are suggested to be involved. The molecular basis of this are changes in gene expression regulated by transcription factors such as CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein). CREB contains a transactivation domain, in which Ser119 is phosphorylated upon activation, and a bZip (basic leucine zipper domain). The bZip is involved in CREB dimerization and DNA-binding, but also contributes to CREB transactivation by recruiting the coactivator TORC (transducer of regulated CREB). In the present study, the effect of lithium on CRE (cAMP response element)/CREB-directed gene transcription was investigated. Electrically excitable cells were transfected with CRE/CREB-driven luciferase reporter genes. LiCl (6 mM or higher) induced an up to 4.7-fold increase in 8-bromo-cAMP-stimulated CRE/CREB-directed transcription. This increase was not due to enhanced Ser119 phosphorylation or DNA-binding of CREB. Also, the known targets inositol monophosphatase and GSK3beta (glycogen-synthase-kinase 3beta) were not involved as specific GSK3beta inhibitors and inositol replenishment did not mimic and abolish respectively the effect of lithium. However, lithium no longer enhanced CREB activity when the CREB-bZip was deleted or the TORC-binding site inside the CREB-bZip was specifically mutated (CREB-R300A). Otherwise, TORC overexpression conferred lithium responsiveness on CREB-bZip or the CRE-containing truncated rat somatostatin promoter. This indicates that lithium enhances cAMP-induced CRE/CREB-directed transcription, conferred by TORC on the CREB-bZip. We thus support the hypothesis that lithium salts modulate CRE/CREB-dependent gene transcription and suggest the CREB coactivator TORC as a new molecular target of lithium.
Project description:Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) frequently function in protein interaction networks that regulate crucial cellular signaling pathways. Many IDPs undergo transitions from disordered conformational ensembles to folded structures upon binding to their cellular targets. Several possible binding mechanisms for coupled folding and binding have been identified: folding of the IDP after association with the target ("induced fit"), or binding of a prefolded state in the conformational ensemble of the IDP to the target protein ("conformational selection"), or some combination of these two extremes. The interaction of the intrinsically disordered phosphorylated kinase-inducible domain (pKID) of the cAMP-response element binding (CREB) protein with the KIX domain of a general transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) provides an example of the induced-fit mechanism. Here we show by NMR relaxation dispersion experiments that a different intrinsically disordered ligand, the transactivation domain of the transcription factor c-Myb, interacts with KIX at the same site as pKID but via a different binding mechanism that involves elements of conformational selection and induced fit. In contrast to pKID, the c-Myb activation domain has a strong propensity for spontaneous helix formation in its N-terminal region, which binds to KIX in a predominantly folded conformation. The C-terminal region of c-Myb exhibits a much smaller helical propensity and likely folds via an induced-fit process after binding to KIX. We propose that the intrinsic secondary structure propensities of pKID and c-Myb determine their binding mechanisms, consistent with their functions as inducible and constitutive transcriptional activators.
Project description:It remains uncertain how the DNA sequence of mammalian genes influences the transcriptional response to extracellular signals. Here, we show that the number of CREB-binding sites (CREs) affects whether the related histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are required for endogenous gene transcription. Fibroblasts with both CBP and p300 knocked-out had strongly attenuated histone H4 acetylation at CREB-target genes in response to cyclic-AMP, yet transcription was not uniformly inhibited. Interestingly, dependence on CBP/p300 was often different between reporter plasmids and endogenous genes. Transcription in the absence of CBP/p300 correlated with endogenous genes having more CREs, more bound CREB, and more CRTC2 (a non-HAT coactivator of CREB). Indeed, CRTC2 rescued cAMP-inducible expression for certain genes in CBP/p300 null cells and contributed to the CBP/p300-independent expression of other targets. Thus, endogenous genes with a greater local concentration and diversity of coactivators tend to have more resilient-inducible expression. This model suggests how gene expression patterns could be tuned by altering coactivator availability rather than by changing signal input or transcription factor levels.
Project description:The viral oncoprotein Tax mediates transcriptional activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Both Tax and the cellular transcription factor CREB bind to viral cyclic AMP response elements (vCREs) located in the viral promoter. Tax and serine 133 phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) bound to the HTLV-1 promoter facilitate viral transcription via the recruitment of the large cellular coactivators CBP/p300. While the interaction between the phosphorylated kinase inducible domain (pKID) of pCREB and the KIX domain of CBP/p300 has been well characterized, the molecular interactions between KIX, full-length Tax, and pCREB have not been examined. Here we biochemically characterized the interaction between Tax and KIX in a physiologically relevant complex containing pCREB and vCRE DNA. Our data show that Tax and pCREB simultaneously and independently bind two distinct surfaces on the KIX domain: Tax binds KIX at the previously characterized mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) protein interaction surface while pCREB binds KIX at the pKID-KIX interface. These results provide evidence for a model in which Tax and pCREB bind distinct surfaces of KIX for effective CBP/p300 recruitment to the HTLV-1 promoter. We also show that MLL competes with Tax for KIX binding, suggesting a novel mechanism of Tax oncogenesis in which normal MLL function is disrupted by Tax.
Project description:The mammalian CLOCK:BMAL1 transcription factor complex and its coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300 and mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) critically regulate circadian transcription and chromatin modification. Circadian oscillations are regulated by interactions of BMAL1's C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) with the KIX domain of CBP/p300 (activating) and with the clock protein CRY1 (repressing) as well as by the BMAL1 G-region preceding the TAD. Circadian acetylation of Lys537 within the G-region enhances repressive BMAL1-TAD-CRY1 interactions. Here, we characterized the interaction of the CBP-KIX domain with BMAL1 proteins, including the BMAL1-TAD, parts of the G-region, and Lys537 Tethering the small compound 1-10 in the MLL-binding pocket of the CBP-KIX domain weakened BMAL1 binding, and MLL1-bound KIX did not form a ternary complex with BMAL1, indicating that the MLL-binding pocket is important for KIX-BMAL1 interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) models of BMAL1 and BMAL1:KIX complexes revealed that the N-terminal BMAL1 G-region including Lys537 forms elongated extensions emerging from the bulkier BMAL1-TAD:KIX core complex. Fitting high-resolution KIX domain structures into the SAXS-derived envelopes suggested that the G-region emerges near the MLL-binding pocket, further supporting a role of this pocket in BMAL1 binding. Additionally, mutations in the second CREB-pKID/c-Myb-binding pocket of the KIX domain moderately impacted BMAL1 binding. The BMAL1(K537Q) mutation mimicking Lys537 acetylation, however, did not affect the KIX-binding affinity, in contrast to its enhancing effect on CRY1 binding. Our results significantly advance the mechanistic understanding of the protein interaction networks controlling CLOCK:BMAL1- and CBP-dependent gene regulation in the mammalian circadian clock.