Lnk inhibits erythropoiesis and Epo-dependent JAK2 activation and downstream signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (Epo), along with its receptor EpoR, is the principal regulator of red cell development. Upon Epo addition, the EpoR signaling through the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) activates multiple pathways including Stat5, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K)/Akt, and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The adaptor protein Lnk is implicated in cytokine receptor signaling. Here, we showed that Lnk-deficient mice have elevated numbers of erythroid progenitors, and that splenic erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-e) progenitors are hypersensitive to Epo. Lnk(-/-) mice also exhibit superior recovery after erythropoietic stress. In addition, Lnk deficiency resulted in enhanced Epo-induced signaling pathways in splenic erythroid progenitors. Conversely, Lnk overexpression inhibits Epo-induced cell growth in 32D/EpoR cells. In primary culture of fetal liver cells, Lnk overexpression inhibits Epo-dependent erythroblast differentiation and induces apoptosis. Lnk blocks 3 major signaling pathways, Stat5, Akt, and MAPK, induced by Epo in primary erythroblasts. In addition, the Lnk Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is essential for its inhibitory function, whereas the conserved tyrosine near the C-terminus and the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Lnk are not critical. Furthermore, wild-type Lnk, but not the Lnk SH2 mutant, becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated following Epo administration and inhibits EpoR phosphorylation and JAK2 activation. Hence, Lnk, through its SH2 domain, negatively modulates EpoR signaling by attenuating JAK2 activation, and regulates Epo-mediated erythropoiesis.
Project description:Erythropoiesis requires erythropoietin (Epo) and stem cell factor (SCF) signaling via their receptors EpoR and c-Kit. EpoR, like many other receptors involved in hematopoiesis, acts via the kinase Jak2. Deletion of EpoR or Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) causes embryonic lethality as a result of defective erythropoiesis. The contribution of distinct EpoR/Jak2-induced signaling pathways (mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 [Stat5]) to functional erythropoiesis is incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that expression of a constitutively activated Stat5a mutant (cS5) was sufficient to relieve the proliferation defect of Jak2(-/-) and EpoR(-/-) cells in an Epo-independent manner. In addition, tamoxifen-induced DNA binding of a Stat5a-estrogen receptor (ER)* fusion construct enabled erythropoiesis in the absence of Epo. Furthermore, c-Kit was able to enhance signaling through the Jak2-Stat5 axis, particularly in lymphoid and myeloid progenitors. Although abundance of hematopoietic stem cells was 2.5-fold reduced in Jak2(-/-) fetal livers, transplantation of Jak2(-/-)-cS5 fetal liver cells into irradiated mice gave rise to mature erythroid and myeloid cells of donor origin up to 6 months after transplantation. Cytokine- and c-Kit pathways do not function independently of each other in hematopoiesis but cooperate to attain full Jak2/Stat5 activation. In conclusion, activated Stat5 is a critical downstream effector of Jak2 in erythropoiesis/myelopoiesis, and Jak2 functionally links cytokine- with c-Kit-receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.
Project description:JAK2 V617F is a mutant-activated JAK2 kinase found in most polycythemia vera (PV) patients; it skews normal proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and simulates aberrant expansion of erythroid progenitors. JAK2 V617F is known to activate some signaling pathways not normally activated in mature erythroblasts, but there has been no systematic study of signal transduction pathways or gene expression in erythroid cells expressing JAK2 V617F undergoing erythropoietin (Epo)-dependent terminal differentiation. Here we report that expression of JAK2 V617F in murine fetal liver Epo-dependent progenitors allows them to divide approximately six rather than the normal approximately four times in the presence of Epo, delaying their exit from the cell cycle. Over time, the number of red cells formed from each Epo-dependent progenitor increases fourfold, and these cells eventually differentiate into normal enucleated reticulocytes. We report that purified fetal liver Epo-dependent progenitors express many cytokine receptors additional to the EpoR. Expression of JAK2 V617F triggers activation of Stat5, the only STAT normally activated by Epo, as well as activation of Stat1 and Stat3. Expression of JAK2 V617F also leads to transient induction of many genes not normally activated in terminally differentiating erythroid cells and that are characteristic of other hematopoietic lineages. Inhibition of Stat1 activation blocks JAK2 V617F hyperproliferation of erythroid progenitors, and we conclude that Stat1-mediated activation of nonerythroid signaling pathways delays terminal erythroid differentiation and permits extended cell divisions.
Project description:Erythropoiesis is a tightly regulated process. Development of red blood cells occurs through differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into more committed progenitors and finally into erythrocytes. Binding of erythropoietin (Epo) to its receptor (EpoR) is required for erythropoiesis as it promotes survival and late maturation of erythroid progenitors. In vivo and in vitro studies have highlighted the requirement of EpoR signaling through Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) tyrosine kinase and Stat5a/b as a central pathway. Here, we demonstrate that phospholipase C gamma 1 (Plcγ1) is activated downstream of EpoR-Jak2 independently of Stat5. Plcγ1-deficient pro-erythroblasts and erythroid progenitors exhibited strong impairment in differentiation and colony-forming potential. In vivo, suppression of Plcγ1 in immunophenotypically defined HSCs (Lin(-)Sca1(+)KIT(+)CD48(-)CD150(+)) severely reduced erythroid development. To identify Plcγ1 effector molecules involved in regulation of erythroid differentiation, we assessed changes occurring at the global transcriptional and DNA methylation level after inactivation of Plcγ1. The top common downstream effector was H2afy2, which encodes for the histone variant macroH2A2 (mH2A2). Inactivation of mH2A2 expression recapitulated the effects of Plcγ1 depletion on erythroid maturation. Taken together, our findings identify Plcγ1 and its downstream target mH2A2, as a 'non-canonical' Epo signaling pathway essential for erythroid differentiation.
Project description:Gene targeting experiments have shown that the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO), its cognate erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R), and associated Janus tyrosine kinase, JAK2, are all essential for erythropoiesis. Structural-functional and murine knock-in experiments have suggested that EPO-R Tyr-343 is important in EPO-mediated mitogenesis. Although Stat5 binds to EPO-R phosphotyrosine 343, the initial Stat5-deficient mice did not have profound erythroid abnormalities suggesting that additional Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing effectors may bind to EPO-R Tyr-343 and couple to downstream signaling pathways. We have utilized cloning of ligand target (COLT) screening to demonstrate that EPO-R Tyr(P)-343 and Tyr(P)-401 bind to the SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein SH2B1?. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro mixing experiments reveal that EPO-R binds to SH2B1 in an SH2 domain-dependent manner and that the sequence that confers SH2B1 binding to the EPO-R is pYXXL. Previous studies have shown that SH2B1 binds directly to JAK2, but we show that in hematopoietic cells, SH2B1? preferentially associates with the EPO-R. SH2B1 is capable of constitutive association with EPO-R, which is necessary for its optimal SH2-dependent recruitment to EPO-R-Tyr(P)-343/Tyr(P)-401. We also demonstrate that SH2B1 is responsive to EPO stimulation and becomes phosphorylated, most likely on serines/threonines, in an EPO dose- and time-dependent manner. In the absence of SH2B1, we observe enhanced activation of signaling pathways downstream of the EPO-R, indicating that SH2B1 is a negative regulator of EPO signaling.
Project description:Although the role of the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor (EpoR) in erythropoiesis has been known for decades, its role in nonhematopoietic tissues is still not well defined. Klotho has been shown and EPo has been suggested to protect against acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in the kidney. Here we found in rat kidney and in a rat renal tubular epithelial cell line (NRK cells) EpoR transcript and antigen, and EpoR activity signified as EPo-induced phosphorylation of Jak2, ErK, Akt, and Stat5 indicating the presence of functional EpoR. Transgenic overexpression of Klotho or addition of exogenous recombinant Klotho increased kidney EpoR protein and transcript. In NRK cells, Klotho increased EpoR protein, enhanced EPo-triggered phosphorylation of Jak2 and Stat5, the nuclear translocation of phospho-Stat5, and protected NRK cells from hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity. Knockdown of endogenous EpoR rendered NRK cells more vulnerable, and overexpression of EpoR more resistant to peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that EpoR mitigates oxidative damage. Knockdown of EpoR by siRNA abolished Epo-induced Jak2, and Stat5 phosphorylation, and blunted the protective effect of Klotho against peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. Thus in the kidney, EpoR and its activity are downstream effectors of Klotho enabling it to function as a cytoprotective protein against oxidative injury.
Project description:Ligation of erythropoietin (EPO) receptor (EPOR) JAK2 kinase complexes propagates signals within erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) that are essential for red blood cell production. To reveal hypothesized novel EPOR/JAK2 targets, a phosphotyrosine (PY) phosphoproteomics approach was applied. Beyond known signal transduction factors, 32 new targets of EPO-modulated tyrosine phosphorylation were defined. Molecular adaptors comprised one major set including growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2)-associated binding proteins 1-3 (GAB1-3), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), docking protein 1 (DOK1), Src homology 2 domain containing transforming protein 1 (SHC1), and sprouty homologue 1 (SPRY1) as validating targets, and SPRY2, SH2 domain containing 2A (SH2D2A), and signal transducing adaptor molecule 2 (STAM2) as novel candidate adaptors together with an ORF factor designated as regulator of human erythroid cell expansion (RHEX). RHEX is well conserved in Homo sapiens and primates but absent from mouse, rat, and lower vertebrate genomes. Among tissues and lineages, RHEX was elevated in EPCs, occurred as a plasma membrane protein, was rapidly PY-phosphorylated >20-fold upon EPO exposure, and coimmunoprecipitated with the EPOR. In UT7epo cells, knockdown of RHEX inhibited EPO-dependent growth. This was associated with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1,2 (ERK1,2) modulation, and RHEX coupling to GRB2. In primary human EPCs, shRNA knockdown studies confirmed RHEX regulation of erythroid progenitor expansion and further revealed roles in promoting the formation of hemoglobinizing erythroblasts. RHEX therefore comprises a new EPO/EPOR target and regulator of human erythroid cell expansion that additionally acts to support late-stage erythroblast development.
Project description:Sprouty proteins are established modifiers of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling and play important roles in vasculogenesis, bone morphogenesis, and renal uteric branching. Little is understood, however, concerning possible roles for these molecular adaptors during hematopoiesis. Within erythroid lineage, Spry1 was observed to be selectively and highly expressed at CFU-e to erythroblast stages. In analyses of possible functional roles, an Mx1-Cre approach was applied to conditionally delete Spry1. At steady state, Spry1 deletion selectively perturbed erythroid development and led to reticulocytosis plus heightened splenic erythropoiesis. When challenged by hemolysis, Spry1-null mice exhibited worsened anemia and delayed recovery. During short-term marrow transplantation, Spry1-null donor marrow also failed to efficiently rescue the erythron. In each anemia model, however, hyperexpansion of erythroid progenitors was observed. Spry function depends on phosphorylation of a conserved N-terminal PY motif. Through an LC-MS/MS approach, Spry1 was discovered to be regulated via the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), with marked EPO-induced Spry1-PY53 phosphorylation observed. When EPOR signaling pathways were analyzed within Spry1-deficient erythroid progenitors, hyperactivation of not only Erk1,2 but also Jak2 was observed. Studies implicate Spry1 as a novel regulator of erythropoiesis during anemia, transducer of EPOR signals, and candidate suppressor of Jak2 activity.
Project description:Certain concepts concerning EPO/EPOR action modes have been challenged by in vivo studies: Bcl-x levels are elevated in maturing erythroblasts, but not in their progenitors; truncated EPOR alleles that lack a major p85/PI3K recruitment site nonetheless promote polycythemia; and Erk1 disruption unexpectedly bolsters erythropoiesis. To discover novel EPO/EPOR action routes, global transcriptome analyses presently are applied to interrogate EPO/EPOR effects on primary bone marrow-derived CFUe-like progenitors. Overall, 160 EPO/EPOR target transcripts were significantly modulated 2-to 21.8-fold. A unique set of EPO-regulated survival factors included Lyl1, Gas5, Pim3, Pim1, Bim, Trib3 and Serpina 3g. EPO/EPOR-modulated cell cycle mediators included Cdc25a, Btg3, Cyclin-d2, p27-kip1, Cyclin-g2 and CyclinB1-IP-1. EPO regulation of signal transduction factors was also interestingly complex. For example, not only Socs3 plus Socs2 but also Spred2, Spred1 and Eaf1 were EPO-induced as negative-feedback components. Socs2, plus five additional targets, further proved to comprise new EPOR/Jak2/Stat5 response genes (which are important for erythropoiesis during anemia). Among receptors, an atypical TNF-receptor Tnfr-sf13c was up-modulated >5-fold by EPO. Functionally, Tnfr-sf13c ligation proved to both promote proerythroblast survival, and substantially enhance erythroblast formation. The EPOR therefore engages a sophisticated set of transcriptome response circuits, with Tnfr-sf13c deployed as one novel positive regulator of proerythroblast formation.
Project description:Critical signals for erythroblast formation are transduced by activated, tyrosine-phosphorylated erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) complexes. Nonetheless, steady-state erythropoiesis is supported effectively by EpoR alleles that are deficient in cytoplasmic phosphotyrosine sites. To better define core EpoR action mechanisms, signaling capacities of minimal PY-null (EpoR-HM) and PY343-retaining (EpoR-H) alleles were analyzed for the first time in bone marrow-derived erythroblasts. Jak2 activation via each allele was comparable. Stat5 (and several Stat5-response genes) were induced via EpoR-H but not via EpoR-HM. Stat1 and Stat3 activation was nominal for all EpoR forms. For both EpoR-HM and EpoR-H, Akt and p70S6-kinase activation was decreased multifold, and JNK activation was minimal. ERKs, however, were hyperactivated uniquely via EpoR-HM. In vivo, Epo expression in EpoR-HM mice was elevated, while Epo-induced reticulocyte production was diminished. In vitro, EpoR-HM erythroblast maturation also was attenuated (based on DNA content, forward-angle light scatter, and hemoglobinization). These EpoR-HM-specific defects were corrected not only upon PY343 site restoration in EpoR-H, but also upon MEK1,2 inhibition. Core EpoR PY site-independent signals for erythroblast formation therefore appear to be Stat5, Stat1, Stat3, p70S6-kinase, and JNK independent, but ERK dependent. Wild-type signaling capacities, however, depend further upon signals provided via an EpoR/PY343/Stat5 axis.
Project description:Erythropoietin (Epo) and its cognate receptor (EpoR) are required for maintaining adequate levels of circulating erythrocytes during embryogenesis and adulthood. Here, we report the functional characterization of the zebrafish epo and epor genes. The expression of epo and epor was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization, revealing marked parallels between zebrafish and mammalian gene expression patterns. Examination of the hypochromic mutant, weissherbst, and adult hypoxia-treated hearts indicate that zebrafish epo expression is induced by anemia and hypoxia. Overexpression of epo mRNA resulted in severe polycythemia, characterized by a striking increase in the number of cells expressing scl, c-myb, gata1, ikaros, epor, and betae1-globin, suggesting that both the erythroid progenitor and mature erythrocyte compartments respond to epo. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the epor caused a slight decrease in primitive and complete block of definitive erythropoiesis. Abrogation of STAT5 blocked the erythropoietic expansion by epo mRNA, consistent with a requirement for STAT5 in epo signaling. Together, the characterization of zebrafish epo and epor demonstrates the conservation of an ancient program that ensures proper red blood cell numbers during normal homeostasis and under hypoxic conditions.