Cyclin D dysregulation: an early and unifying pathogenic event in multiple myeloma.
ABSTRACT: Two oncogenic pathways have been hypothesized for multiple myeloma (MM) and premalignant monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) tumors: a nonhyperdiploid pathway associated with a high prevalence of IgH translocations and a hyperdiploid pathway associated with multiple trisomies of 8 chromosomes. Cyclin D1, D2, or D3 expression appears to be increased and/or dysregulated in virtually all MM tumors despite their low proliferative capacity. Translocations can directly dysregulate CCND1 (11q13) or CCND3 (6p21), or MAF (16q23) or MAFB (20q11) transcription factors that target CCND2. Biallelic dysregulation of CCND1 occurs in nearly 40% of tumors, most of which are hyperdiploid. Other tumors express increased CCND2, either with or without a t(4;14) translocation. Using gene expression profiling to identify 5 recurrent translocations, specific trisomies, and expression of cyclin D genes, MM tumors can be divided into 8 TC (translocation/cyclin D) groups (11q13, 6p21, 4p16, maf, D1, D1+D2, D2, and none) that appear to be defined by early, and perhaps initiating, oncogenic events. However, despite subsequent progression events, these groups have differing gene expression profiles and also significant differences in the prevalence of bone disease, frequency at relapse, and progression to extramedullary tumor.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation resulting in overexpression of cyclin D1. However, a small subset of cyclin D1- MCL has been recognized, and approximately one-half of them harbor CCND2 translocations while the primary event in cyclin D1-/D2- MCL remains elusive. To identify other potential mechanisms driving MCL pathogenesis, we investigated 56 cyclin D1-/SOX11+ MCL by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), whole-genome/exome sequencing, and gene-expression and copy-number arrays. FISH with break-apart probes identified CCND2 rearrangements in 39 cases (70%) but not CCND3 rearrangements. We analyzed 3 of these negative cases by whole-genome/exome sequencing and identified IGK (n = 2) and IGL (n = 1) enhancer hijackings near CCND3 that were associated with cyclin D3 overexpression. By specific FISH probes, including the IGK enhancer region, we detected 10 additional cryptic IGK juxtapositions to CCND3 (6 cases) and CCND2 (4 cases) in MCL that overexpressed, respectively, these cyclins. A minor subset of 4 cyclin D1- MCL cases lacked cyclin D rearrangements and showed upregulation of CCNE1 and CCNE2. These cases had blastoid morphology, high genomic complexity, and CDKN2A and RB1 deletions. Both genomic and gene-expression profiles of cyclin D1- MCL cases were indistinguishable from cyclin D1+ MCL. In conclusion, virtually all cyclin D1- MCLs carry CCND2/CCND3 rearrangements with immunoglobulin genes, including a novel IGK/L enhancer hijacking mechanism. A subset of cyclin D1-/D2-/D3- MCL with aggressive features has cyclin E dysregulation. Specific FISH probes may allow the molecular identification and diagnosis of cyclin D1- MCL.
Project description:Cyclin D1 overexpression is believed to be essential in the pathogenesis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Hence, the existence of cyclin D1-negative MCL has been controversial and difficult to substantiate. Our previous gene expression profiling study identified several cases that lacked cyclin D1 expression, but had a gene expression signature typical of MCL. Herein, we report the clinical, pathologic, and genetic features of 6 cases of cyclin D1-negative MCL. All 6 cases exhibited the characteristic morphologic features and the unique gene expression signature of MCL but lacked the t(11;14)(q13; q32) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The tumor cells also failed to express cyclin D1 protein, but instead expressed either cyclin D2 (2 cases) or cyclin D3 (4 cases). There was good correlation between cyclin D protein expression and the corresponding mRNA expression levels by gene expression analysis. Using interphase FISH, we did not detect chromosomal translocations or amplifications involving CCND2 and CCND3 loci in these cases. Patients with cyclin D1-negative MCL were similar clinically to those with cyclin D1-positive MCL. In conclusion, cases of cyclin D1-negative MCL do exist and are part of the spectrum of MCL. Up-regulation of cyclin D2 or D3 may substitute for cyclin D1 in the pathogenesis of MCL.
Project description:Knockout and transgenic studies in mice demonstrate that normal somatic tissues redundantly express 3 cyclin D proteins, whereas tumor cells seem dependent on a single overexpressed cyclin D. Thus, selective suppression of the individual cyclin D deregulated in a tumor represents a biologically valid approach to targeted cancer therapy. In multiple myeloma, overexpression of 1 of the cyclin D proteins is a ubiquitous feature, unifying at least 7 different initiating genetic events. We demonstrate here that RNAi of genes encoding cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 (CCND1 and CCND2, respectively) inhibits proliferation and is progressively cytotoxic in human myeloma cells. By screening a chemical library using a cell-based assay for inhibition of CCND2 trans-activation, we identified the plant cytokinin kinetin riboside as an inhibitor of CCND2 trans-activation. Kinetin riboside induced marked suppression of CCND2 transcription and rapidly suppressed cyclin D1 and D2 protein expression in primary myeloma cells and tumor lines, causing cell-cycle arrest, tumor cell-selective apoptosis, and inhibition of myeloma growth in xenografted mice. Mechanistically, kinetin riboside upregulated expression of transcription repressor isoforms of cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) and blocked both trans-activation of CCND2 by various myeloma oncogenes and cis-activation of translocated CCND1, suggesting induction of an overriding repressor activity that blocks multiple oncogenic pathways targeting cyclin D genes. These data support targeted repression of cyclin D genes as a therapeutic strategy for human malignancies.
Project description:The pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) is thought to involve at least two pathways, which generate hyperdiploid (HRD) or nonhyperdiploid (NHRD) tumors, respectively. Apart from chromosome content, the two pathways are distinguished by five primary immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) rearrangements (4p16, FGFR3, and MMSET; 6p21, CCND3; 11q13, CCND1; 16q23, MAF; 20q12, MAFB) that are present mainly in NHRD tumors. To determine the prevalence and structures of IGH, immunoglobulin (IG) light chain, and MYC genomic rearrangements in MM, we have done comprehensive metaphase fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses on 48 advanced MM tumors and 47 MM cell lines. As expected, the prevalence of the five primary IGH rearrangements was nearly 70% in NHRD tumors, but only 12% in HRD tumors. However, IGH rearrangements not involving one of the five primary partners, and IG light chain rearrangements, have a similar prevalence in HRD and NHRD tumors. In addition, MYC rearrangements, which are thought to be late progression events that sometimes do not involve an IG heavy or light chain locus, also have a similar prevalence in HRD and NHRD tumors. In contrast to the primary IGH rearrangements, which usually are simple balanced translocations, these other IG rearrangements usually have complex structures, as previously described for MYC rearrangements in MM. We conclude that IG light chain and MYC rearrangements, as well as secondary IGH rearrangements, make similar contributions to the progression of both HRD and NHRD MM tumors.
Project description:Aberrant regulation of the cell cycle is a typical feature of all forms of cancer. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), it is often associated with the overexpression of cyclin D1 (CCND1). However, it remains unclear how CCND1 expression changes between tumor and normal tissues and whether human papillomavirus (HPV) affects differential CCND1 expression. Here, we evaluated the expression of D-type cyclins in a cohort of 94 HNSCC patients of which 82 were subjected to whole genome expression profiling of primary tumors and paired normal mucosa. Comparative analysis of paired samples showed that CCND1 was upregulated in 18% of HNSCC tumors. Counterintuitively, CCND1 was downregulated in 23% of carcinomas, more frequently in HPV-positive samples. There was no correlation between the change in D-type cyclin expression and patient survival. Intriguingly, among the tumors with downregulated CCND1, one-third showed an increase in cyclin D2 (CCND2) expression. On the other hand, one-third of tumors with upregulated CCND1 showed a decrease in CCND2. Collectively, we have shown that CCND1 was frequently downregulated in HNSCC tumors. Furthermore, regardless of the HPV status, our data suggested that a change in CCND1 expression was alleviated by a compensatory change in CCND2 expression.
Project description:Cyclin D1(-) mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) are not well characterized, in part because of the difficulties in their recognition. SOX11 has been identified recently as a reliable biomarker of MCL that is also expressed in the cyclin D1(-) variant. We investigated 40 lymphomas with MCL morphology and immunophenotype that were negative for cyclin D1 expression/t(11;14)(q13;q32) but positive for SOX11. These tumors presented clinically with generalized lymphadenopathy, advanced stage, and poor outcome (5-year overall survival, 48%). Chromosomal rearrangements of the CCND2 locus were detected in 55% of the cases, with an IG gene as partner in 18 of 22, in particular with light chains (10 IGK@ and 5 IGL@). No mutations in the phosphorylation motifs of CCND1, CCND2, or CCND3 were detected. The global genomic profile and the high complexity of the 32 cyclin D1(-) SOX11(+) MCL patients analyzed by copy number arrays were similar to the conventional cyclin D1/SOX11 MCL. 17p deletions and high Ki67 expression conferred a significantly worse outcome for the patients. This comprehensive characterization of a large series of cyclin D1(-) MCL patients indicates that these tumors are clinically and biologically similar to the conventional cyclin D1(+) MCL and provides a basis for the proper identification and clinical management of these patients.
Project description:Dysregulation of cyclin D2 contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, and can occur through translocations that activate MAF/MAFB or MMSET/FGFR3. However, cyclin D2 induction can also be seen in the absence of such translocations, such as in patients with hyperdiploid disease, through unknown mechanisms. In UniGene cluster data-mining and ECgene analysis, we found that zinc-finger with KRAB and SCAN domains 3 (ZKSCAN3), a novel transcription factor, is overrepresented in this malignancy, and three consensus ZKSCAN3 binding sites were found in the cyclin D2 promoter. Analysis of a panel of myeloma cell lines, primary patient samples and datasets from Oncomine and the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal (MMGP) revealed expression of ZKSCAN3 messenger RNA (mRNA) in a majority of samples. Studies of cell lines by western blotting, and of primary tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry, showed ZKSCAN3 protein expression in a majority, and in a manner that paralleled messenger levels in cell lines. ZKSCAN3 overexpression was associated with increased gene copy number or genomic DNA gain/amplification in a subset based on analysis of data from the MMGP, and from fluorescence in situ hybridization studies of cell lines and primary samples. Overexpression of ZKSCAN3 induced cyclin D2 promoter activity in a MAF/MAFB-independent manner, and to an extent that was influenced by the number of consensus ZKSCAN3 binding sites. Moreover, ZKSCAN3 protein expression correlated with cyclin D2 levels in cell lines and primary samples, and its overexpression induced cyclin D2. Conversely, ZKSCAN3 suppression using small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) reduced cyclin D2 levels, and, importantly, inhibited myeloma cell line proliferation. Finally, ZKSCAN3 was noted to specifically bind to oligonucleotides representing sequences from the cyclin D2 promoter, and to the endogenous promoter itself in myeloma cells. Taken together, the data support the conclusion that ZKSCAN3 induction represents a mechanism by which myeloma cells can induce cyclin D2 dysregulation, and contribute to disease pathogenesis.
Project description:Activation of c-Met signaling and beta-catenin mutations are frequent genetic events observed in liver cancer development. Recently, we demonstrated that activated beta-catenin can cooperate with c-Met to induce liver cancer formation in a mouse model. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) is an important cell cycle regulator that is considered to be a downstream target of beta-catenin. To determine the importance of CCND1 as a mediator of c-Met- and beta-catenin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, we investigated the genetic interactions between CCND1, beta-catenin, and c-Met in liver cancer development using mouse models. We coexpressed CCND1 with c-Met in mice and found CCND1 to cooperate with c-Met to promote liver cancer formation. Tumors induced by CCND1/c-Met had a longer latency period, formed at a lower frequency, and seemed to be more benign compared with those induced by beta-catenin/c-Met. In addition, when activated beta-catenin and c-Met were coinjected into CCND1-null mice, liver tumors developed despite the absence of CCND1. Intriguingly, we observed a moderate accelerated tumor growth and increased tumor malignancy in these CCND1-null mice. Molecular analysis showed an up-regulation of cyclin D2 (CCND2) expression in CCND1-null tumor samples, indicating that CCND2 may replace CCND1 in hepatic tumorigenesis. Together, our results suggest that CCND1 functions as a mediator of beta-catenin during HCC pathogenesis, although other molecules may be required to fully propagate beta-catenin signaling. Moreover, our data suggest that CCND1 expression is not essential for liver tumor development induced by c-Met and beta-catenin.
Project description:The molecular heterogeneity of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) complicates the therapeutic interventions for advanced metastatic disease and thus its management remains a significant challenge. This study investigates the role of the lncRNA CDKN2B-AS1 and miR-141-3p interactions in the progression and metastasis of kidney cancer. Human renal cancer cell lines (ACHN and Caki1), normal RPTEC cells, tissue cohorts, and a series of in vitro assays and in vivo mouse model were used for this study. An overexpression of CDKN2B-AS1 was observed in RCC compared to normal samples in TCGA and our in-house SFVAMC tissue cohorts. Reciprocally, we observed reduced expression of miR-141 in RCC compared to normal in the same cohorts. CDKN2B-AS1 shares regulatory miR-141 binding sites with CCND1 and CCND2 genes. Direct interactions of CDKN2B-AS1/miR-141/Cyclin D1-D2 were confirmed by RNA immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays indicating that CDKN2B-AS1/miR-141/Cyclin D1-D2 acts as a ceRNA network in RCC. Functionally, attenuation of CDKN2B-AS1 and/or overexpression of miR-141 inhibited proliferation, clonogenicity, migration/invasion, induced apoptosis in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in xenograft mouse model. Further, overexpression of CDKN2B-AS1 is positively correlated with poor overall survival of RCC patients. Expression of miR-141 also robustly discriminated malignant from non-malignant tissues and its inhibition in normal RPTEC cells induced pro-cancerous characteristics. CDKN2B-AS1 attenuation or miR-141 overexpression decreased CCND1/CCND2 expression, resulting in reduced RAC1/pPXN that are involved in migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This study, for the first time, deciphered the role of CDKN2B-AS1/miR-141/Cyclin D axis in RCC and highlights this network as a promising therapeutic target for the regulation of EMT driven metastasis in RCC.
Project description:Activating mutations in genes encoding phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway components cause megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome (MPPH, OMIM 603387). Here we report that individuals with MPPH lacking upstream PI3K-AKT pathway mutations carry de novo mutations in CCND2 (encoding cyclin D2) that are clustered around a residue that can be phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?). Mutant CCND2 was resistant to proteasomal degradation in vitro compared to wild-type CCND2. The PI3K-AKT pathway modulates GSK-3? activity, and cells from individuals with PIK3CA, PIK3R2 or AKT3 mutations showed similar CCND2 accumulation. CCND2 was expressed at higher levels in brains of mouse embryos expressing activated AKT3. In utero electroporation of mutant CCND2 into embryonic mouse brains produced more proliferating transfected progenitors and a smaller fraction of progenitors exiting the cell cycle compared to cells electroporated with wild-type CCND2. These observations suggest that cyclin D2 stabilization, caused by CCND2 mutation or PI3K-AKT activation, is a unifying mechanism in PI3K-AKT-related megalencephaly syndromes.