T lymphocytes redirected against the kappa light chain of human immunoglobulin efficiently kill mature B lymphocyte-derived malignant cells.
ABSTRACT: There has been interest in generating T cells expressing chimeric artificial receptors (CARs) targeting CD19/CD20 antigens to treat B-cell lymphomas. If successful, however, this approach would likely impair humoral immunity because T cells may persist long-term. Most low-grade lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells express monoclonal immunoglobulins carrying either kappa or lambda light chains. We, therefore, explored whether T lymphocytes could be genetically modified to target the tumor-associated light chain, sparing B lymphocytes expressing the reciprocal light chain, and consequently reduce impairment of humoral immunity. We found that T lymphocytes expressing the anti-kappa light chain CAR showed cytotoxic activity against Igkappa(+) tumor cell lines and B-CLL cells both in vitro and in vivo. We also found that the incorporation of the CD28 endodomain within the CAR enhanced the in vitro and in vivo expansion of transgenic T cells after tumor-associated antigen stimulation. Free Igkappa(+) did not compromise the ability of redirected T lymphocytes to eliminate Igkappa(+) tumors because these free immunoglobulins served to sustain proliferation of CAR-CD28 transgenic T cells. Thus, adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes targeting the appropriate light chain could be a useful immunotherapy approach to treat B-lymphocyte malignancies that clonally express immunoglobulin without entirely compromising humoral immunity.
Project description:Treatment of B cell malignancies with adoptive transfer of T cells with a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) shows remarkable clinical efficacy. However, long-term persistence of T cells targeting CD19, a pan-B cell marker, also depletes normal B cells and causes severe hypogammaglobulinemia. Here, we developed a strategy to target B cell malignancies more selectively by taking advantage of B cell light Ig chain restriction. We generated a CAR that is specific for the ? light chain (?.CAR) and therefore recognizes ?-restricted cells and spares the normal B cells expressing the nontargeted ? light chain, thus potentially minimizing humoral immunity impairment.We conducted a phase 1 clinical trial and treated 16 patients with relapsed or refractory ?+ non-Hodgkin lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (NHL/CLL) or multiple myeloma (MM) with autologous T cells genetically modified to express ?.CAR (?.CARTs). Other treatments were discontinued in 11 of the 16 patients at least 4 weeks prior to T cell infusion. Six patients without lymphopenia received 12.5 mg/kg cyclophosphamide 4 days before ?.CART infusion (0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 ?.CARTs/m2). No other lymphodepletion was used.?.CART expansion peaked 1-2 weeks after infusion, and cells remained detectable for more than 6 weeks. Of 9 patients with relapsed NHL or CLL, 2 entered complete remission after 2 and 3 infusions of ?.CARTs, and 1 had a partial response. Of 7 patients with MM, 4 had stable disease lasting 2-17 months. No toxicities attributable to ?.CARTs were observed.?.CART infusion is feasible and safe and can lead to complete clinical responses.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00881920.National Cancer Institute (NCI) grants 3P50CA126752 and 5P30CA125123 and Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS) Specialized Centers of Research (SCOR) grant 7018.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most common types of adult acute leukemia. Standard chemotherapies can induce complete remission in selected patients; however, a majority of patients eventually relapse and succumb to the disease. Thus, the development of novel therapeutics for AML is urgently needed. Human C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL-1) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, and its expression is restricted to myeloid cells and the majority of AML blasts. Moreover, CLL-1 is expressed in leukemia stem cells (LSCs), but absent in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which may provide a potential therapeutic target for AML treatment. METHODS:We tested the expression of CLL-1 antigen on peripheral blood cells and bone marrow cells in healthy donor and AML patients. Then, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) containing a CLL1-specific single-chain variable fragment, in combination with CD28, 4-1BB costimulatory domains, and CD3-? signaling domain. We further investigate the function of CLL-1 CAR-T cells. RESULTS:The CLL-1 CAR-T cells specifically lysed CLL-1+ cell lines as well as primary AML patient samples in vitro. Strong anti-leukemic activity was observed in vivo by using a xenograft model of disseminated AML. Importantly, CLL-1+ myeloid progenitor cells and mature myeloid cells were specifically eliminated by CLL-1 CAR-T cells, while normal HSCs were not targeted due to the lack of CLL-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS:CLL-1 CAR-T represents a promising immunotherapy for the treatment of AML.
Project description:Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by an accumulation of mature CD19(+)CD5(+)CD20(dim) B lymphocytes that typically express the B-cell activation marker CD23. In the present study, we cloned and expressed in T lymphocytes a novel chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the CD23 antigen (CD23.CAR). CD23.CAR(+) T cells showed specific cytotoxic activity against CD23(+) tumor cell lines (average lysis 42%) and primary CD23(+) CLL cells (average lysis 58%). This effect was obtained without significant toxicity against normal B lymphocytes, in contrast to CARs targeting CD19 or CD20 antigens, which are also expressed physiologically by normal B lymphocytes. Moreover, CLL-derived CD23.CAR(+) T cells released inflammatory cytokines (1445-fold more TNF-?, 20-fold more TNF-?, and 4-fold more IFN-?). IL-2 was also produced (average release 2681 pg/mL) and sustained the antigen-dependent proliferation of CD23.CAR(+) T cells. Redirected T cells were also effective in vivo in a CLL Rag2(-/-)?(c)(-/-) xenograft mouse model. Compared with mice treated with control T cells, the infusion of CD23.CAR(+) T cells resulted in a significant delay in the growth of the MEC-1 CLL cell line. These data suggest that CD23.CAR(+) T cells represent a selective immunotherapy for the elimination of CD23(+) leukemic cells in patients with CLL.
Project description:The discovery of lymphocytes bearing two light chains in mice carrying self-reactive antibody transgenes has challenged the "one lymphocyte-one antibody" rule. However, the extent and nature of allelically included cells in normal mice is unknown. We show that 10% of mature B cells coexpress both Igkappa alleles. These cells are not the result of failure in allelic exclusion per se, but arise through receptor editing. We find that under physiological conditions, editing occurs both by deletion and by inclusion with equal probability. In addition, we demonstrate that B lymphocytes carrying two B-cell receptors are recruited to germinal center reactions, and thus fully participate in humoral immune responses. Our data measure the scope of allelic inclusion and provide a mechanism whereby autoreactive B cells might "escape" central tolerance.
Project description:Arthritis susceptibility genes were sought by analysis of differential gene expression between pristane-induced arthritis (PIA)-susceptible DA rats and PIA-resistant E3 rats. Inguinal lymph nodes of naïve animals and animals 8 days after pristane injection were analyzed for differential gene expression. mRNA expression was investigated by microarray and real-time PCR, and protein expression was analyzed by flow cytometry or ELISA. Twelve genes were significantly differentially expressed when analyzed by at least two independent methods, and an additional five genes showed a strong a tendency toward differential expression. In naïve DA rats IgE, the bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 (Bst1) and the MHC class II beta-chain (MhcII) were expressed at a higher level, and the immunoglobulin kappa chain (Igkappa) was expressed at a lower level. In pristane-treated DA rats the MHC class II beta-chain, gelatinase B (Mmp9) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase CL100 (Ptpn16) were expressed at a higher level, whereas immunoglobulins, the CD28 molecule (Cd28), the mast cell specific protease 1 (Mcpt1), the carboxylesterase precursor (Ces2), K-cadherin (Cdh6), cyclin G1 (Ccng1), DNA polymerase IV (Primase) and the tumour associated glycoprotein E4 (Tage) were expressed at a lower level. Finally, the differentially expressed mRNA was confirmed with protein expression for some of the genes. In conclusion, the results show that animal models are well suited for reproducible microarray analysis of candidate genes for arthritis. All genes have functions that are potentially important for arthritis, and nine of the genes are located within genomic regions previously associated with autoimmune disease.
Project description:Human leukocyte antigen and/or costimulatory molecules are frequently lacking in metastatic tumor cells, and thus tumor cells are able to escape from the immune system. Although lymphocytes with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a promising approach for overcoming this challenge in cancer immunotherapy, administration of modified T cells alone often demonstrates little efficacy in patients. Therefore, in order to enhance the antitumor activity of immune cells in the cancer microenvironment, we used lymphocytes expressing CAR in combination with a fusion protein of IL-2 that contained the single-chain fragmented antibody (scFv) specific for the carcinoembryonic antigen. Among a series of CAR constructs, with or without a spacer and the intracellular domain of CD28, the CAR construct containing CD8?, CD28, and CD3? most effectively activated and expressed INF-? in CAR-bearing T cells. Furthermore, in comparison with free IL-2, the combination of peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing CAR and the fusion protein containing IL-2 significantly enhanced the antitumor activity against MKN-45 cells, a human gastric cancer cell line. In conclusion, this novel combination therapy of CAR and a fusion protein consisting of a functional cytokine and a fully human scFv may be a promising approach for adoptive cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:On the basis of promising preclinical data demonstrating the eradication of systemic B-cell malignancies by CD19-targeted T lymphocytes in vivo in severe combined immunodeficient-beige mouse models, we are launching phase I clinical trials in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We present here the validation of the bioprocess which we developed for the production and expansion of clinical grade autologous T cells derived from patients with CLL. We demonstrate that T cells genetically modified with a replication-defective gammaretroviral vector derived from the Moloney murine leukemia virus encoding a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeted to CD19 (1928z) can be expanded with Dynabeads CD3/CD28. This bioprocess allows us to generate clinical doses of 1928z+ T cells in approximately 2 to 3 weeks in a large-scale semiclosed culture system using the Wave Bioreactor. These 1928z+ T cells remain biologically functional not only in vitro but also in severe combined immunodeficient-beige mice bearing disseminated tumors. The validation requirements in terms of T-cell expansion, T-cell transduction with the 1928z CAR, biologic activity, quality control testing, and release criteria were met for all 4 validation runs using apheresis products from patients with CLL. Additionally, after expansion of the T cells, the diversity of the skewed Vbeta T-cell receptor repertoire was significantly restored. This validated process will be used in phase I clinical trials in patients with chemorefractory CLL and in patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It can also be adapted for other clinical trials involving the expansion and transduction of patient or donor T cells using any CAR or T-cell receptor.
Project description:Genetic engineering of human T lymphocytes to express tumor-directed chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) can produce antitumor effector cells that bypass tumor immune escape mechanisms that are due to abnormalities in protein-antigen processing and presentation. Moreover, these transgenic receptors can be directed to tumor-associated antigens that are not protein-derived, such as the ganglioside GD2, which is expressed in a high proportion of melanoma cells.We generated chimeric T cells specific for the ganglioside GD2 by joining an extracellular antigen-binding domain derived from the GD2-specific antibody sc14.G2a to cytoplasmic signaling domains derived from the T-cell receptor zeta-chain, with the endodomains of the costimulatory molecules CD28 and OX40. We expressed this CAR in human T cells and assessed the targeting of GD2-positive melanoma tumors in vitro and in a murine xenograft.Upon coincubation with GD2-expressing melanoma cells, CAR-GD2 T lymphocytes incorporating the CD28 and OX40 endodomains secreted significant levels of cytokines in a pattern comparable with the cytokine response obtained by engagement of the native CD3 receptor. These CAR-T cells had antimelanoma activity in vitro and in our xenograft model, increasing the survival of tumor-bearing animals.Redirecting human T lymphocytes to the tumor-associated ganglioside GD2 generates effector cells with antimelanoma activity that should be testable in subjects with disease.
Project description:B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common leukemia in adults, is a clonal expansion of CD5(+)CD19(+) B lymphocytes. Two types of CLLs are being distinguished as carrying either unmutated or somatically mutated immunoglobulins (Igs), which are associated with unfavorable and favorable prognoses, respectively. More than 30% of CLLs can be grouped based on their expression of stereotypic B cell receptors (BCRs), strongly suggesting that distinctive antigens are involved in the development of CLL. Unmutated CLLs, carrying Ig heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes in germline configuration, express low-affinity, poly-, and self-reactive BCRs. However, the antigenic specificity of CLLs with mutated IGHV-genes (M-CLL) remained elusive. In this study, we describe a new subset of M-CLL, expressing stereotypic BCRs highly specific for ?-(1,6)-glucan, a major antigenic determinant of yeasts and filamentous fungi. ?-(1,6)-glucan binding depended on both the stereotypic Ig heavy and light chains, as well as on a distinct amino acid in the IGHV-CDR3. Reversion of IGHV mutations to germline configuration reduced the affinity for ?-(1,6)-glucan, indicating that these BCRs are indeed affinity-selected for their cognate antigen. Moreover, CLL cells expressing these stereotypic receptors proliferate in response to ?-(1,6)-glucan. This study establishes a class of common pathogens as functional ligands for a subset of somatically mutated human B cell lymphomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Subgroups of patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) exhibit suboptimal outcomes after standard therapies, including oral kinase inhibitors. We and others have previously reported on safety and efficacy of autologous CD19-targeted CAR T-cells for these patients; here we report safety and long-term follow-up of CAR T-cell therapy with or without conditioning chemotherapy for patients with R/R CLL and indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). METHODS:We conducted a phase 1 clinical trial investigating CD19-targeted CAR T-cells incorporating a CD28 costimulatory domain (19-28z). Seventeen of 20 patients received conditioning chemotherapy prior to CAR T-cell infusion. Five patients with CLL received ibrutinib at the time of autologous T-cell collection and/or CAR T-cell administration. RESULTS:This analysis included 16 patients with R/R CLL and 4 patients with R/R indolent B-NHL. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) was observed in all 20 patients but grades 3 and 4 CRS and neurological events were uncommon (10% for each). Ex vivo expansion of T-cells and proportions of CD4+/CD8+ CAR T-cells with CD62L+CD127+ immunophenotype were significantly greater in patients on ibrutinib at leukapheresis. Three of 12 evaluable CLL patients receiving conditioning chemotherapy achieved CR (two had minimal residual disease-negative CR). All patients achieving CR remained progression-free at median follow-up of 53 months. CONCLUSION:Conditioning chemotherapy and 19-28z CAR T-cells were acceptably tolerated across investigated dose levels in heavily pretreated patients with R/R CLL and indolent B-NHL, and a subgroup of patients achieved durable CR. Ibrutinib therapy may modulate autologous T-cell phenotype. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466531. FUNDING:Juno Therapeutics.