Developmental and functional significance of the CSF-1 proteoglycan chondroitin sulfate chain.
ABSTRACT: The primary macrophage growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), is homodimeric and exists in 3 biologically active isoforms: a membrane-spanning, cell-surface glycoprotein (csCSF-1) and secreted glycoprotein (sgCSF-1) and proteoglycan (spCSF-1) isoforms. To investigate the in vivo role of the chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain of spCSF-1, we created mice that exclusively express, in a normal tissue-specific and developmental manner, either the secreted precursor of spCSF-1 or the corresponding precursor in which the GAG addition site was mutated. The reproductive, hematopoietic tooth eruption and tissue macrophage defects of CSF-1-deficient, osteopetrotic Csf1(op)/Csf1(op) mice were corrected by transgenic expression of the precursors of either sgCSF-1 or spCSF-1. Furthermore, in contrast to the transgene encoding csCSF-1, both failed to completely correct growth retardation, suggesting a role for csCSF-1 in the regulation of body weight. However, spCSF-1, in contrast to sgCSF-1, completely resolved the osteopetrotic phenotype. Furthermore, in transgenic lines expressing different concentrations of sgCSF-1 or spCSF-1, spCSF-1 more efficiently corrected Csf1(op)/Csf1(op) defects of tooth eruption, eyelid opening, macrophage morphology, and B-cell deficiency than sgCSF-1. These results indicate an important role of the CSF-1 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in in vivo signaling by secreted CSF-1.
Project description:Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis manifests as progressive vascular neointimal expansion throughout the arterial system of allografted solid organs, and eventually compromises graft perfusion and function. Allografts placed in colony stimulating factor (CSF)-1-deficient osteopetrotic (Csf1(op)/Csf1(op)) mice develop very little neointima, a finding attributed to impaired recipient macrophage function. We examined how CSF-1 affects neointima-derived vascular smooth muscle cells, tested the significance of CSF-1 expressed in donor tissue, and evaluated the contribution of secreted versus cell surface CSF-1 isoforms in transplant-associated arteriosclerosis.CSF-1 activated specific signaling pathways to promote migration, survival, and proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Tumor necrosis factor-? addition increased CSF-1 and CSF-1 receptor expression, and tumor necrosis factor-?-driven proliferation was blocked by anti-CSF-1 antibody. In a mouse vascular allograft model, lack of recipient or donor CSF-1 impaired neointima formation; the latter suggests local CSF-1 function within the allograft. Moreover, reconstitution of donor or recipient cell surface CSF-1, without secreted CSF-1, restored neointimal formation.Vascular smooth muscle cells activation, including that mediated by tumor necrosis factor-?, can be driven in an autocrine/juxtacrine manner by CSF-1. These studies provide evidence for local function of CSF-1 in neointimal expansion, and identify CSF-1 signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells, particularly cell surface CSF-1 signaling, as a target for therapeutic strategies in transplant-associated arteriosclerosis.
Project description:CSF-1 is broadly expressed and regulates macrophage and osteoclast development. The action and expression of IL-34, a novel CSF-1R ligand, were investigated in the mouse. As expected, huIL-34 stimulated macrophage proliferation via the huCSF-1R, equivalently to huCSF-1, but was much less active at stimulating mouse macrophage proliferation than huCSF-1. Like muCSF-1, muIL-34 and a muIL-34 isoform lacking Q81 stimulated mouse macrophage proliferation, CSF-1R tyrosine phosphorylation, and signaling and synergized with other cytokines to generate macrophages and osteoclasts from cultured progenitors. However, they respectively possessed twofold and fivefold lower affinities for the CSF-1R and correspondingly, lower activities than muCSF-1. Furthermore, muIL-34, when transgenically expressed in a CSF-1-dependent manner in vivo, rescued the bone, osteoclast, tissue macrophage, and fertility defects of Csf1(op)/(op) mice, suggesting similar regulation of CSF-1R-expressing cells by IL-34 and CSF-1. Whole-mount IL34 in situ hybridization and CSF-1 reporter expression revealed that IL34 mRNA was strongly expressed in the embryonic brain at E11.5, prior to the expression of Csf1 mRNA. QRT-PCR revealed that compared with Csf1 mRNA, IL34 mRNA levels were lower in pregnant uterus and in cultured osteoblasts, higher in most regions of the brain and heart, and not compensatorily increased in Csf1(op/op) mouse tissues. Thus, the different spatiotemporal expression of IL-34 and CSF-1 allows for complementary activation of the CSF-1R in developing and adult tissues.
Project description:VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR-1/Flt-1) is a high-affinity tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor for VEGF and regulates angiogenesis as well as monocyte/macrophage functions. We previously showed that the osteoclast deficiency in osteopetrotic Csf1op/Csf1op (op/op) mice is gradually restored in an endogenous, VEGF-dependent manner. However, the molecular basis of the recovery is still not clear. To examine which VEGFR is important and to clarify how colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and VEGF signals interact in osteoclastogenesis, we introduced a VEGFR-1 signaling deficiency (Flt1(TK)-/-) into op/op mice. The original Flt1(TK)-/- mice showed mild osteoclast reduction without bone marrow suppression. The double mutant (op/opFlt1(TK)-/-) mice, however, exhibited very severe osteoclast deficiency and did not have numbers of osteoclasts sufficient to form the bone marrow cavity. The narrow bone marrow cavity in the op/opFlt1(TK)-/- mice was gradually replaced with fibrous tissue, resulting in severe marrow hypoplasia and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In addition to osteoclasts, osteoblasts also decreased in number in the op/opFlt1(TK)-/- mice. These results strongly suggest that the interaction of signals by means of VEGFR-1 and the CSF-1 receptor plays a predominant role not only in osteoclastogenesis but also in the maintenance of bone marrow functions.
Project description:The toothless (tl) mutation in the rat is a naturally occurring, autosomal recessive mutation resulting in a profound deficiency of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and peritoneal macrophages. The failure to resorb bone produces severe, unrelenting osteopetrosis, with a highly sclerotic skeleton, lack of marrow spaces, failure of tooth eruption, and other pathologies. Injections of CSF-1 improve some, but not all, of these. In this report we have used polymorphism mapping, sequencing, and expression studies to identify the genetic lesion in the tl rat. We found a 10-base insertion near the beginning of the open reading of the Csf1 gene that yields a truncated, nonfunctional protein and an early stop codon, thus rendering the tl rat CSF-1(null). All mutants were homozygous for the mutation and all carriers were heterozygous. No CSF-1 transcripts were identified in rat mRNA that would avoid the mutation via alternative splicing. The biology and actions of CSF-1 have been elucidated by many studies that use another naturally occurring mutation, the op mouse, in which a single base insertion also disrupts the reading frame. The op mouse has milder osteoclastopenia and osteopetrosis than the tl rat and recovers spontaneously over the first few months of life. Thus, the tl rat provides a second model in which the functions of CSF-1 can be studied. Understanding the similarities and differences in the phenotypes of these two models will be important to advancing our knowledge of the many actions of CSF-1.
Project description:The brain contains numerous mononuclear phagocytes called microglia. These cells express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for the macrophage growth factor colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1R). Using a CSF-1R-GFP reporter mouse strain combined with lineage defining antibody staining we show in the postnatal mouse brain that CSF-1R is expressed only in microglia and not neurons, astrocytes or glial cells. To study CSF-1R function we used mice homozygous for a null mutation in the Csflr gene. In these mice microglia are >99% depleted at embryonic day 16 and day 1 post-partum brain. At three weeks of age this microglial depletion continues in most regions of the brain although some contain clusters of rounded microglia. Despite the loss of microglia, embryonic brain development appears normal but during the post-natal period the brain architecture becomes perturbed with enlarged ventricles and regionally compressed parenchyma, phenotypes most prominent in the olfactory bulb and cortex. In the cortex there is increased neuronal density, elevated numbers of astrocytes but reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes. Csf1r nulls rarely survive to adulthood and therefore to study the role of CSF-1R in olfaction we used the viable null mutants in the Csf1 (Csf1(op)) gene that encodes one of the two known CSF-1R ligands. Food-finding experiments indicate that olfactory capacity is significantly impaired in the absence of CSF-1. CSF-1R is therefore required for the development of microglia, for a fully functional olfactory system and the maintenance of normal brain structure.
Project description:The colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor (CSF-1R) directly regulates the development of Paneth cells (PC) and influences proliferation and cell fate in the small intestine (SI). In the present study, we have examined the role of CSF-1 and the CSF-1R in the large intestine, which lacks PC, in the steady state and in response to acute inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). As previously shown in mouse, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of CSF-1R expression showed that the receptor is baso-laterally expressed on epithelial cells of human colonic crypts, indicating that this expression pattern is shared between species. Colons from Csf1r null and Csf1(op/op) mice were isolated and sectioned for IHC identification of enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells and proliferating cells. Both Csf1r(-/-) and Csf1(op/op) mice were found to have colon defects in enterocytes and enteroendocrine cell fate, with excessive goblet cell staining and reduced cell proliferation. In addition, the gene expression profiles of the cell cycle genes, cyclinD1, c-myc, c-fos, and c-myb were suppressed in Csf1r(-/-) colonic crypt, compared with those of WT mice and the expression of the stem cell marker gene Lgr5 was markedly reduced. However, analysis of the proliferative responses of immortalized mouse colon epithelial cells (lines; Immorto-5 and YAMC) indicated that CSF-1R is not a major regulator of colonocyte proliferation and that its effects on proliferation are indirect. In an examination of the acute inflammatory response, Csf1r(+/-) male mice were protected from the adverse affects of DSS-induced colitis compared with WT mice, while Csf1r(+/-) female mice were significantly less protected. These data indicate that CSF-1R signaling plays an important role in colon homeostasis and stem cell gene expression but that the receptor exacerbates the response to inflammatory challenge in male mice.
Project description:Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed by inflammatory cells. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that it stimulates collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. Here we report the effects of recombinant human IL-4 on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and proteoglycan synthesis in normal dermal fibroblasts from adult donors. IL-4 (10 and 100 units/ml) induced a dose-dependent increase of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulphate incorporation into total GAGs. The analysis of the different GAG fractions indicated the enhanced synthesis of dermatan/chondroitin sulphates. IL-4 had no effect on hyaluronan synthesis. The increase of sulphated GAG synthesis was correlated with an increase of proteoglycans in the culture medium. Decorin was identified as the major chondroitin/dermatan sulphate-containing proteoglycan in the culture medium of fibroblasts. Its synthesis was strongly stimulated by IL-4. Both the core-protein synthesis and mRNA expression were enhanced, indicating that the cytokine acted, at least in part, at the pre-translational level. These results indicate that IL-4 is able to modulate not only collagen, but also proteoglycan, production by human fibroblasts. Their implications in physiopathological processes such as wound healing or fibrosis is suggested.
Project description:Aggrecan is a member of the chondroitin sulphate (CS) proteoglycan family, which also includes versican/PG-M, neurocan and brevican. Members of this family exhibit structural similarity: a G1 domain at the N-terminus and a G3 domain at the C-terminus, with a central sequence for modification by CS chains. A unique feature of aggrecan is the insertion of three additional domains, an inter-globular domain (IGD), a G2 domain and a keratan sulphate (KS) domain (sequence modified by KS chains), between the G1 domain and the CS domain (sequence modified by CS chains). The G1 and G3 domains have been implicated in product secretion, but G2, although structurally similar to the tandem repeats of G1, performs an unknown function. To define the functions of each aggrecan domain in product processing, we cloned and expressed these domains in various combinations in COS-7 cells. The results indicated that the G3 domain enhanced product secretion, alone or in combination with the KS or CS domain, and promoted glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain attachment. Constructs containing the G1 domain were not secreted. Addition of a CS domain sequence to G1 reduced this inhibition, but GAG chain attachment was still decreased. The potential GAG chain attachment site in the IGD was occupied by GAGs, and IGD product was secreted efficiently. The KS domain was modified by GAG chains and secreted. Finally, the G2 domain was expressed but not secreted, and inhibited secretion of the IGD when expressed as an IGD-G2 combination.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Muscularis propria macrophages lie close to cells that regulate gastrointestinal motor function, including interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and myenteric neurons. In animal models of diabetic gastroparesis, development of delayed gastric emptying has been associated with loss of macrophages that express cytoprotective markers and reduced networks of ICC. Mice with long-term diabetes and normal gastric emptying have macrophages that express anti-inflammatory markers and have normal gastric ICC. Mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis spontaneous mutation in the colony-stimulating factor 1 gene (Csf1op/op) do not have macrophages; when they are given streptozotocin to induce diabetes, they do not develop delayed gastric emptying. We investigated whether population of the gastric muscularis propria of diabetic Csf1op/op mice with macrophages is necessary to change gastric emptying, ICC, and myenteric neurons and investigated the macrophage-derived factors that determine whether diabetic mice do or do not develop delayed gastric emptying. METHODS:Wild-type and Csf1op/op mice were given streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Some Csf1op/op mice were given daily intraperitoneal injections of CSF1 for 7 weeks; gastric tissues were collected and cellular distributions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. CD45+, CD11b+, F4/80+ macrophages were dissociated from gastric muscularis propria, isolated by flow cytometry and analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cultured gastric muscularis propria from Csf1op/op mice was exposed to medium that was conditioned by culture with bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild-type mice. RESULTS:Gastric muscularis propria from Csf1op/op mice given CSF1 contained macrophages; 11 of 15 diabetic mice given CSF1 developed delayed gastric emptying and had damaged ICC. In non-diabetic Csf1op/op mice, administration of CSF1 reduced numbers of gastric myenteric neurons but did not affect the proportion of nitrergic neurons or ICC. In diabetic Csf1op/op mice given CSF1 that developed delayed gastric emptying, the proportion of nitrergic neurons was the same as in non-diabetic wild-type controls. Medium conditioned by macrophages previously exposed to oxidative injury caused damage to ICC in cultured gastric muscularis propria from Csf1op/op mice; neutralizing antibodies against IL6R or TNF prevented this damage to ICC. CD45+, CD11b+, and F4/80+ macrophages isolated from diabetic wild-type mice with delayed gastric emptying expressed higher levels of messenger RNAs encoding inflammatory markers (IL6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and lower levels of messenger RNAs encoding markers of anti-inflammatory cells (heme oxygenase 1, arginase 1, and FIZZ1) than macrophages isolated from diabetic mice with normal gastric emptying. CONCLUSIONS:In studies of Csf1op/op and wild-type mice with diabetes, we found delayed gastric emptying to be associated with increased production of inflammatory factors, and reduced production of anti-inflammatory factors, by macrophages, leading to loss of ICC.
Project description:Proteoglycans synthesized by rat chondrosarcoma cells in culture are secreted into the culture medium through a pericellular matrix. The appearance of [35S]sulphate in secreted proteoglycan after a 5 min pulse was rapid (half-time, t 1/2 less than 10 min), but that of [3H]serine into proteoglycan measured after a 15 min pulse was much slower (t 1/2 120 min). The incorporation of [3H]serine into secreted protein was immediately inhibited by 1 mM-cycloheximide, but the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into proteoglycans was only inhibited gradually(t 1/2 79 min), suggesting the presence of a large intracellular pool of proteoglycan that did not carry sulphated glycosaminoglycans. Cultures were pulsed with [3H]serine and [35S]sulphate and chased for up to 6 h in the presence of 1 mM-cycloheximide. Analysis showed that cycloheximide-chased cells secreted less than 50% of the [3H]serine in proteoglycan of control cultures and the rate of incorporation into secreted proteoglycan was decreased (from t 1/2 120 min to t 1/2 80 min). Under these conditions cycloheximide interfered with the flow of proteoglycan protein core along the route of intracellular synthesis leading to secretion, as well as inhibiting further protein core synthesis. The results suggested that the newly synthesized protein core of proteoglycan passes through an intracellular pool for about 70-90 min before the chondroitin sulphate chains are synthesized on it, and it is then rapidly secreted from the cell. Proteoglycan produced by cultures incubated in the presence of cycloheximide and labelled with [35S]sulphate showed an increase with time of both the average proteoglycan size and the length of the constituent chondroitin sulphate chain. However, the proportion of synthesized proteoglycans able to form stable aggregates did not alter.