Activation-induced cytidine deaminase action is strongly stimulated by mutations of the THO complex.
ABSTRACT: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a B cell enzyme essential for Ig somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination. AID acts on ssDNA, and switch regions of Ig genes, a target of AID, form R-loops that contain ssDNA. Nevertheless, how AID action is specifically targeted to particular DNA sequences is not clear. Because mutations altering cotranscriptional messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) formation such as those in THO/TREX in yeast promote R-loops, we investigated whether the cotranscriptional assembly of mRNPs could affect AID targeting. Here we show that AID action is transcription-dependent in yeast and that strong and transcription-dependent hypermutation and hyperrecombination are induced by AID if cells are deprived of THO. In these strains AID-induced mutations occurred preferentially at WRC motifs in the nontranscribed DNA strand. We propose that a suboptimal cotranscriptional mRNP assembly at particular DNA regions could play an important role in Ig diversification and genome dynamics.
Project description:To get further insight into the effect that THO/TREX and R-loops have in transcription-associated recombination and transcription, we analyzed the ability to form R-loops of hpr1-101, a THO mutation that impairs transcription and mRNP biogenesis without triggering hyper-recombination. Human AID, a cytidine deaminase that acts on ssDNA displaced by RNA-DNA hybrids, strongly induced both hyper-recombination and hyper-mutation in hpr1-101, similar to hpr1Delta mutants. However, in contrast to hpr1Delta, AID-induced mutations in hpr1-101 occur at similar frequencies in both the transcribed and non-transcribed strands, implying that the enhanced AID action in these mutants is not caused by co-transcriptional R-loops. These results indicate for the first time that THO has a transcriptional function that is not mediated by R-loops, providing a new perspective for the understanding of the coupling of transcription with mRNP biogenesis and export.
Project description:THO is a protein complex that functions in cotranscriptional mRNP formation. Yeast THO1 and SUB2 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were identified as multicopy suppressors of the expression defects of the hpr1Delta mutant of THO. Here we show that multicopy THO1 suppresses the mRNA accumulation and export defects and the hyperrecombination phenotype of THO mutants but not those of sub2Delta, thp1Delta, or spt4Delta. Similarly, Sub2 overexpression suppresses the RNA export defect of hpr1Delta. Tho1 is a conserved RNA binding nuclear protein that specifically binds to transcribed chromatin in a THO- and RNA-dependent manner and genetically interacts with the shuttling hnRNP Nab2. The ability of Tho1 to suppress hpr1Delta resides in its C-terminal half, which contains the RNA binding activity and is located after a SAP/SAF (scaffold-associated protein/scaffold-associated factor) domain. Altogether, these results suggest that Tho1 is an hnRNP that, similarly to Sub2, assembles onto the nascent mRNA during transcription and participates in mRNP biogenesis and export. Overexpression of Tho1 or Sub2 may provide alternative ways for mRNP formation and export in the absence of a functional THO complex.
Project description:Transcription of the switch (S) regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), triggering class switch recombination (CSR), as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of THO, a conserved nuclear complex involved in mRNP biogenesis. Such R-loops trigger genome instability and facilitate deamination by human AID. To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs) which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). AID-induced translocations were strongly enhanced in yeast THO null mutants, consistent with the idea that AID-mediated DSBs depend on R-loop formation. Our study not only provides new clues to understand the role of mRNP biogenesis in preventing genome rearrangements and the mechanism of AID-mediated genome instability, but also shows that, once uracil residues are produced by AID-mediated deamination, these are processed into DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements by the general and conserved DNA repair functions present from yeast to human cells.
Project description:R-loops, formed by co-transcriptional DNA-RNA hybrids and a displaced DNA single strand (ssDNA), fulfill certain positive regulatory roles but are also a source of genomic instability. One key cellular mechanism to prevent R-loop accumulation centers on the conserved THO/TREX complex, an RNA-binding factor involved in transcription elongation and RNA export that contributes to messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) assembly, but whose precise function is still unclear. To understand how THO restrains harmful R-loops, we searched for new THO-interacting factors. We found that human THO interacts with the Sin3A histone deacetylase complex to suppress co-transcriptional R-loops, DNA damage, and replication impairment. Functional analyses show that histone hypo-acetylation prevents accumulation of harmful R-loops and RNA-mediated genomic instability. Diminished histone deacetylase activity in THO- and Sin3A-depleted cell lines correlates with increased R-loop formation, genomic instability, and replication fork stalling. Our study thus uncovers physical and functional crosstalk between RNA-binding factors and chromatin modifiers with a major role in preventing R-loop formation and RNA-mediated genome instability.
Project description:Transcription is a major obstacle for replication fork (RF) progression and a cause of genome instability. Part of this instability is mediated by cotranscriptional R loops, which are believed to increase by suboptimal assembly of the nascent messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP). However, no clear evidence exists that heterogeneous nuclear RNPs (hnRNPs), the basic mRNP components, prevent R-loop stabilization. Here we show that yeast Npl3, the most abundant RNA-binding hnRNP, prevents R-loop-mediated genome instability. npl3? cells show transcription-dependent and R-loop-dependent hyperrecombination and genome-wide replication obstacles as determined by accumulation of the Rrm3 helicase. Such obstacles preferentially occur at long and highly expressed genes, to which Npl3 is preferentially bound in wild-type cells, and are reduced by RNase H1 overexpression. The resulting replication stress confers hypersensitivity to double-strand break-inducing agents. Therefore, our work demonstrates that mRNP factors are critical for genome integrity and opens the option of using them as therapeutic targets in anti-cancer treatment.
Project description:Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is the gene rearrangement process by which B lymphocytes change the Ig heavy chain constant region to permit a switch of Ig isotype from IgM to IgG, IgA, or IgE. At the DNA level, CSR occurs via generation and joining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) at intronic switch regions located just upstream of each of the heavy chain constant regions. Activation-induced deaminase (AID), a B cell specific enzyme, catalyzes cytosine deaminations (converting cytosines to uracils) as the initial DNA lesions that eventually lead to DSBs and CSR. Progress on AID structure integrates very well with knowledge about Ig class switch region nucleic acid structures that are supported by functional studies. It is an ideal time to review what is known about the mechanism of Ig CSR and its relation to somatic hypermutation. There have been many comprehensive reviews on various aspects of the CSR reaction and regulation of AID expression and activity. This review is focused on the relation between AID and switch region nucleic acid structures, with a particular emphasis on R-loops.
Project description:Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) by deaminating C?U during transcription of Ig-variable (V) and Ig-switch (S) region DNA, which is essential to produce high-affinity antibodies. Here we report the crystal structure of a soluble human AID variant at 2.8Å resolution that favors targeting WRC motifs (W=A/T, R=A/G) in vitro, and executes Ig V SHM in Ramos B-cells. A specificity loop extending away from the active site to accommodate two purine bases next to C, differs significantly in sequence, length, and conformation from APOBEC proteins Apo3A and Apo3G, which strongly favor pyrimidines at -1 and -2 positions. Individual amino acid contributions to specificity and processivity were measured in relation to a proposed ssDNA binding cleft. This study provides a structural basis for residue contributions to DNA scanning properties unique to AID, and for disease mutations in human HIGM-2 syndrome.
Project description:Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a single-stranded (ss) DNA-specific cytidine deaminase that initiates Ig heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) and Ig somatic hypermutation (SHM) by deaminating cytidines within, respectively, IgH switch (S) regions and Ig variable region (V) exons. AID that is phosphorylated on serine residue 38 interacts with replication protein A (RPA), a ssDNA binding protein, to promote deamination of transcribed double-stranded DNA in vitro, which, along with other evidence, suggests that AID may similarly gain access to transcribed S regions and V exons in vivo. However, the physiological role of AID phosphorylation at serine residue 38 (S38), and even the requirement for the S38 residue, with respect to CSR or SHM has been debated. To address this issue, we used gene targeting to generate an endogenous mouse AID locus that produces AID in which S38 is substituted with alanine (AID(S38A)), a mutant form of AID that retains similar catalytic activity on ssDNA as WT AID (AID(WT)). B cells homozygous for the AID(S38A) mutation show substantially impaired CSR and SHM, correlating with inability of AID(S38A) to interact with endogenous RPA. Moreover, mice haploinsufficient for AID(S38A) have even more severely impaired CSR when compared with mice haploinsufficient for AID(WT), with CSR levels reduced to nearly background levels. These results unequivocally demonstrate that integrity of the AID S38 phosphorylation site is required for normal CSR and SHM in mice and strongly support a role for AID phosphorylation at S38 and RPA interaction in regulating CSR and SHM.
Project description:Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) generates antibody diversity in B cells by initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) during transcription of immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and switch region (IgS) DNA. Using single-molecule FRET, we show that AID binds to transcribed dsDNA and translocates unidirectionally in concert with RNA polymerase (RNAP) on moving transcription bubbles, while increasing the fraction of stalled bubbles. AID scans randomly when constrained in an 8 nt model bubble. When unconstrained on single-stranded (ss) DNA, AID moves in random bidirectional short slides/hops over the entire molecule while remaining bound for ? 5 min. Our analysis distinguishes dynamic scanning from static ssDNA creasing. That AID alone can track along with RNAP during transcription and scan within stalled transcription bubbles suggests a mechanism by which AID can initiate SHM and CSR when properly regulated, yet when unregulated can access non-Ig genes and cause cancer.
Project description:Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) and Apobec 3G (Apo3G) cause mutational diversity by initiating mutations on regions of single-stranded (ss) DNA. Expressed in B cells, AID deaminates C ? U in actively transcribed immunoglobulin (Ig) variable and switch regions to initiate the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) that are essential for antibody diversity. Apo3G expressed in T cells catalyzes C deaminations on reverse transcribed cDNA causing HIV-1 retroviral inactivation. When operating properly, AID- and Apo3G-initiated mutations boost human fitness. Yet, both enzymes are potentially powerful somatic cell "mutators". Loss of regulated expression and proper genome targeting can cause human cancer. Here, we review well-established biological roles of AID and Apo3G. We provide a synopsis of AID partnering proteins during SHM and CSR, and describe how an Apo2 crystal structure provides "surrogate" insight for AID and Apo3G biochemical behavior. However, large gaps remain in our understanding of how dC deaminases search ssDNA to identify trinucleotide motifs to deaminate. We discuss two recent methods to analyze ssDNA scanning and deamination. Apo3G scanning and deamination is visualized in real-time using single-molecule FRET, and AID deamination efficiencies are determined with a random walk analysis. AID and Apo3G encounter many candidate deamination sites while scanning ssDNA. Generating mutational diversity is a principal aim of AID and an important ancillary property of Apo3G. Success seems likely to involve hit and miss deamination motif targeting, biased strongly toward miss.