The May-Hegglin anomaly gene MYH9 is a negative regulator of platelet biogenesis modulated by the Rho-ROCK pathway.
ABSTRACT: The gene implicated in the May-Hegglin anomaly and related macrothrombocytopenias, MYH9, encodes myosin-IIA, a protein that enables morphogenesis in diverse cell types. Defective myosin-IIA complexes are presumed to perturb megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation or generation of proplatelets. We observed that Myh9(-/-) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate into MKs that are fully capable of proplatelet formation (PPF). In contrast, elevation of myosin-IIA activity, by exogenous expression or by mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of its regulatory myosin light chain (MLC), significantly attenuates PPF. This effect occurs only in the presence of myosin-IIA and implies that myosin-IIA influences thrombopoiesis negatively. MLC phosphorylation in MKs is regulated by Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), and consistent with our model, ROCK inhibition enhances PPF. Conversely, expression of AV14, a constitutive form of the ROCK activator Rho, blocks PPF, and this effect is rescued by simultaneous expression of a dominant inhibitory MLC form. Hematopoietic transplantation studies in mice confirm that interference with the putative Rho-ROCK-myosin-IIA pathway selectively decreases the number of circulating platelets. Our studies unveil a key regulatory pathway for platelet biogenesis and hint at Sdf-1/CXCL12 as one possible extracellular mediator. The unexpected mechanism for Myh9-associated thrombocytopenia may lead to new molecular approaches to manipulate thrombopoiesis.
Project description:Dynamin 3 (DNM3) is a member of a family of motor proteins that participate in a number of membrane rearrangements such as cytokinesis, budding of transport vesicles, phagocytosis, and cell motility. Recently, DNM3 was implicated as having a role in megakaryocyte (MK) development. To further investigate the functional role of DNM3 during megakaryocytopoiesis, we introduced sequence-specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) into developing MKs. The results showed that knockdown of DNM3 inhibited a stage of MK development that involved progenitor amplification. This was evident by significant decreases in the number of colony forming unit-megakaryocytes, the total number of nucleated cells, and the number of CD41(+) and CD61(+) MKs produced in culture. Using a styrl membrane dye to quantify the demarcation membrane system (DMS) of terminally differentiated MKs, we found that DNM3 co-localized with the DMS and that DNM3 lentiviral shRNAs precluded the formation of the DMS. Knockdown of dynamin 3 in murine MKs also caused a decrease in the number of morphologically large MKs and the overall size of large MKs was decreased relative to controls. MK protein lysates were used in overlay blots to show that both DNM3 and actin bind to nonmuscle myosin IIA (MYH9). Consistent with these observations, immunofluorescence studies of MKs and proplatelet processes showed co-localization of DNM3 with MYH9. Overall, these studies demonstrate that DNM3 not only participates in MK progenitor amplification, but is also involved in cytoplasmic enlargement and the formation of the DMS.
Project description:Actomyosin contractility, crucial for several physiological processes including migration, is controlled by the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC). Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) and Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) are predominant kinases that phosphorylate MLC. However, the distinct roles of these kinases in regulating actomyosin contractility and their subsequent impact on the migration of healthy and malignant skin cells is poorly understood. We observed that blockade of ROCK in healthy primary keratinocytes (HPKs) and epidermal carcinoma cell line (A-431 cells) resulted in loss of migration, contractility, focal adhesions, stress fibres, and changes in morphology due to reduction in phosphorylated MLC levels. In contrast, blockade of MLCK reduced migration, contractile dynamics, focal adhesions and phosphorylated MLC levels of HPKs alone and had no effect on A-431 cells due to the negligible MLCK expression. Using genetically modified A-431 cells expressing phosphomimetic mutant of p-MLC, we show that ROCK dependent phosphorylated MLC controls the migration, focal adhesion, stress fibre organization and the morphology of the cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that ROCK is the major kinase of MLC phosphorylation in both HPKs and A-431 cells, and regulates the contractility and migration of healthy as well as malignant skin epithelial cells.
Project description:A 33-year-old white woman arrived at the hospital to undergo a hysterectomy due to uterine fibroids. Blood smear review identified macrothrombocytopenia and Döhle body-like cytoplasmic leukocyte inclusions. Genetic testing identified a mutation in exon 39 of the myosin heavy chain gene (MHY9; OMIM 160775), which confirmed the diagnosis of May-Hegglin anomaly. May-Hegglin anomaly is one of a spectrum of MYH9 disorders that also includes Sebastian, Epstein, and Fechtner syndromes. Herein, we describe the clinical and laboratory presentation of a patient with May-Hegglin anomaly and provide an update on the molecular findings and a discussion of the genotypic-phenotypic correlations in this potentially underdiagnosed disorder.
Project description:May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) and Fechtner (FTNS) and Sebastian (SBS) syndromes are autosomal dominant platelet disorders that share macrothrombocytopenia and characteristic leukocyte inclusions. FTNS has the additional clinical features of nephritis, deafness, and cataracts. Previously, mutations in the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9), which encodes nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYHIIA), were identified in all three disorders. The spectrum of mutations and the genotype-phenotype and structure-function relationships in a large cohort of affected individuals (n=27) has now been examined. Moreover, it is demonstrated that MYH9 mutations also result in two other FTNS-like macrothrombocytopenia syndromes: Epstein syndrome (EPS) and Alport syndrome with macrothrombocytopenia (APSM). In all five disorders, MYH9 mutations were identified in 20/27 (74%) affected individuals. Four mutations, R702C, D1424N, E1841K, and R1933X, were most frequent. R702C and R702H mutations were only associated with FTNS, EPS, or APSM, thus defining a region of MYHIIA critical in the combined pathogenesis of macrothrombocytopenia, nephritis, and deafness. The E1841K, D1424N, and R1933X coiled-coil domain mutations were common to both MHA and FTNS. Haplotype analysis using three novel microsatellite markers revealed that three E1841K carriers--one with MHA and two with FTNS--shared a common haplotype around the MYH9 gene, suggesting a common ancestor. The two new globular-head mutations, K371N and R702H, as well as the recently identified MYH9 mutation, R705H, which results in DFNA17, were modeled on the basis of X-ray crystallographic data. Altogether, our data suggest that MHA, SBS, FTNS, EPS, and APSM comprise a phenotypic spectrum of disorders, all caused by MYH9 mutations. On the basis of our genetic analyses, the name "MYHIIA syndrome" is proposed to encompass all of these disorders.
Project description:The intestinal epithelial apical junctional complex, which includes tight and adherens junctions, contributes to the intestinal barrier function via their role in regulating paracellular permeability. Myosin light chain II (MLC-2), has been shown to be a critical regulatory protein in altering paracellular permeability during gastrointestinal disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphorylation of MLC-2 is a biochemical marker for perijunctional actomyosin ring contraction, which increases paracellular permeability by regulating the apical junctional complex. The phosphorylation of MLC-2 is dominantly regulated by myosin light chain kinase- (MLCK-) and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase- (ROCK-) mediated pathways. In this review, we aim to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the role of MLCK- and ROCK-mediated pathways in the regulation of the intestinal barrier during normal homeostasis and digestive diseases. Additionally, we will also suggest potential therapeutic targeting of MLCK- and ROCK-associated pathways in gastrointestinal disorders that compromise the intestinal barrier.
Project description:Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. We demonstrate that myosin IIA was required for neuronal contraction, while myosin IIB was required for neuronal outgrowth in normal conditions. During H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis, myosin IIA, rather than IIB, interacted with actin filaments to generate contractile forces that lead to morphological changes. Moreover, myosin IIA knockout using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) reduced H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and the associated morphological changes. We further demonstrate that caspase-3/Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1) dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) was required for the formation of the myosin IIA-actin complex. Meanwhile, either inhibition of myosin II ATPase with blebbistatin or knockdown of myosin IIA with siRNA reversely attenuated caspase-3 activation, suggesting a positive feedback loop during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive feedback loop of caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway. This study unravels the biochemical and mechanistic mechanisms during oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be applicable for the development of therapies for CNS diseases.
Project description:We show constitutive activation of Rho kinase (ROCK) in cells bearing oncogenic forms of KIT, FLT3, and BCR-ABL, which is dependent on PI3K and Rho GTPase. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of ROCK in oncogene-bearing cells impaired their growth as well as the growth of acute myeloid leukemia patient-derived blasts and prolonged the life span of mice bearing myeloproliferative disease. Downstream from ROCK, rapid dephosphorylation or loss of expression of myosin light chain resulted in enhanced apoptosis, reduced growth, and loss of actin polymerization in oncogene-bearing cells leading to significantly prolonged life span of leukemic mice. In summary we describe a pathway involving PI3K/Rho/ROCK/MLC that may contribute to myeloproliferative disease and/or acute myeloid leukemia in humans.
Project description:The MYH9 gene encodes the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA, a widely expressed cytoplasmic myosin that participates in a variety of processes requiring the generation of intracellular chemomechanical force and translocation of the actin cytoskeleton. Non-muscle myosin IIA functions are regulated by phosphorylation of its 20?kDa light chain, of the heavy chain, and by interactions with other proteins. Variants of MYH9 cause an autosomal-dominant disorder, termed MYH9-related disease, and may be involved in other conditions, such as chronic kidney disease, non-syndromic deafness, and cancer. This review discusses the structure of the MYH9 gene and its protein, as well as the regulation and physiologic functions of non-muscle myosin IIA with particular reference to embryonic development. Moreover, the review focuses on current knowledge about the role of MYH9 variants in human disease.
Project description:The RhoA GTPase plays a vital role in assembly of contractile actin-myosin filaments (stress fibers) and of associated focal adhesion complexes of adherent monolayer cells in culture. GEF-H1 is a microtubule-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates RhoA upon release from microtubules. The overexpression of GEF-H1 deficient in microtubule binding or treatment of HeLa cells with nocodazole to induce microtubule depolymerization results in Rho-dependent actin stress fiber formation and contractile cell morphology. However, whether GEF-H1 is required and sufficient to mediate nocodazole-induced contractility remains unclear. We establish here that siRNA-mediated depletion of GEF-H1 in HeLa cells prevents nocodazole-induced cell contraction. Furthermore, the nocodazole-induced activation of RhoA and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) that mediates phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC) is impaired in GEF-H1-depleted cells. Conversely, RhoA activation and contractility are rescued by reintroduction of siRNA-resistant GEF-H1. Our studies reveal a critical role for a GEF-H1/RhoA/ROCK/MLC signaling pathway in mediating nocodazole-induced cell contractility.
Project description:The proliferation and differentiation of cultured epithelial cells may be modified by Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibition and extracellular Ca2+ concentration. However, it was not known whether a combination would influence the behavior of cultured epithelial cells through changes in the phosphorylation of non-muscle myosin light chain II (MLC). Here we show that the combination of ROCK inhibition with Ca2+ elevation regulated the phosphorylation of MLC and improved both cell expansion and cell-cell adhesion during the culture of human nasal mucosal epithelial cell sheets. During explant culture, Ca2+ enhanced the adhesion of nasal mucosal tissue, while ROCK inhibition downregulated MLC phosphorylation and promoted cell proliferation. During cell sheet culture, an elevation of extracellular Ca2+ promoted MLC phosphorylation and formation of cell-cell junctions, allowing the harvesting of cell sheets without collapse. Moreover, an in vitro grafting assay revealed that ROCK inhibition increased the expansion of cell sheets three-fold (an effect maintained when Ca2+ was also elevated), implying better wound healing potential. We suggest that combining ROCK inhibition with elevation of Ca2+ could facilitate the fabrication of many types of cell graft.