RAD18 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase independently suppress the access of nonhomologous end joining to double-strand breaks and facilitate homologous recombination-mediated repair.
ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 gene is essential for postreplication repair but is not required for homologous recombination (HR), which is the major double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in yeast. Accordingly, yeast rad18 mutants are tolerant of camptothecin (CPT), a topoisomerase I inhibitor, which induces DSBs by blocking replication. Surprisingly, mammalian cells and chicken DT40 cells deficient in Rad18 display reduced HR-dependent repair and are hypersensitive to CPT. Deletion of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), a major DSB repair pathway in vertebrates, in rad18-deficient DT40 cells completely restored HR-mediated DSB repair, suggesting that vertebrate Rad18 regulates the balance between NHEJ and HR. We previously reported that loss of NHEJ normalized the CPT sensitivity of cells deficient in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Concomitant deletion of Rad18 and PARP1 synergistically increased CPT sensitivity, and additional inactivation of NHEJ normalized this hypersensitivity, indicating their parallel actions. In conclusion, higher-eukaryotic cells separately employ PARP1 and Rad18 to suppress the toxic effects of NHEJ during the HR reaction at stalled replication forks.
Project description:The prominent role of Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins involves homologous recombination (HR) repair. Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase1 (PARP1) functions in multiple cellular processes including DNA repair and PARP inhibition is an emerging targeted therapy for cancer patients deficient in HR. Here we show that PARP1 activation in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in response to genotoxic or oxidative stress attenuates HSPC exhaustion. Mechanistically, PARP1 controls the balance between HR and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in double strand break (DSB) repair by preventing excessive NHEJ. Disruption of the FA core complex skews PARP1 function in DSB repair and led to hyper-active NHEJ in Fanca(-/-) or Fancc(-/-) HSPCs. Re-expression of PARP1 rescues the hyper-active NHEJ phenotype in Brca1(-/-)Parp1(-/-) but less effective in Fanca(-/-)Parp1(-/-) cells. Inhibition of NHEJ prevents myeloid/erythroid pathologies associated with synthetic lethality. Our results suggest that hyper-active NHEJ may select for "synthetic lethality" resistant and pathological HSPCs.
Project description:Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most harmful DNA lesions. Cells utilize two main pathways for DSB repair: homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). NHEJ can be subdivided into the KU-dependent classical NHEJ (c-NHEJ) and the more error-prone KU-independent backup-NHEJ (b-NHEJ) pathways, involving the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). However, in the absence of these factors, cells still seem able to adequately maintain genome integrity, suggesting the presence of other b-NHEJ repair factors or pathways independent from KU and PARPs. The outcome of DSB repair by NHEJ pathways can be investigated by using artificial sequence-specific nucleases such as CRISPR/Cas9 to induce DSBs at a target of interest. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 for DSB induction at the Arabidopsis cruciferin 3 (CRU3) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) genes. DSB repair outcomes via NHEJ were analyzed using footprint analysis in wild-type plants and plants deficient in key factors of c-NHEJ (ku80), b-NHEJ (parp1 parp2), or both (ku80 parp1 parp2). We found that larger deletions of >20 bp predominated after DSB repair in ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, corroborating with a role of KU in preventing DSB end resection. Deletion lengths did not significantly differ between ku80 and ku80 parp1 parp2 mutants, suggesting that a KU- and PARP-independent b-NHEJ mechanism becomes active in these mutants. Furthermore, microhomologies and templated insertions were observed at the repair junctions in the wild type and all mutants. Since these characteristics are hallmarks of polymerase ?-mediated DSB repair, we suggest a possible role for this recently discovered polymerase in DSB repair in plants.
Project description:Camptothecin (CPT) and its analogues are chemotherapeutic agents that covalently and reversibly link DNA Topoisomerase I to its nicked DNA intermediate eliciting the formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) during replication. The repair of these DSB involves multiple DNA damage response and repair proteins. Here we demonstrate that CPT-induced DNA damage promotes functional interactions between BRCA2, FANCD2, Rad18, and Rad51 to repair the replication-associated DSB through homologous recombination (HR). Loss of any of these proteins leads to equal disruption of HR repair, causes chromosomal aberrations and sensitizes cells to CPT. Rad18 appears to function upstream in this repair pathway as its downregulation prevents activation of FANCD2, diminishes BRCA2 and Rad51 protein levels, formation of nuclear foci of all three proteins and recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks in response to CPT. Taken together this work further elucidates the complex interplay of DNA repair proteins in the repair of replication-associated DSB.
Project description:Vertebrate cells have evolved two major pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ). To investigate the role of DNA ligase IV (Lig4) in DSB repair, we knocked out the Lig4 gene (LIG4) in the DT40 chicken B-lymphocyte cell line. The LIG4(-/-) cells showed a marked sensitivity to X-rays, bleomycin, and VP-16 and were more x-ray-sensitive in G(1) than late S or G(2)/M, suggesting a critical role of Lig4 in DSB repair by NHEJ. In support of this notion, HR was not impaired in LIG4(-/-) cells. LIG4(-/-) cells were more x-ray-sensitive when compared with KU70(-/-) DT40 cells, particularly at high doses. Strikingly, however, the x-ray sensitivity of KU70(-/-)/LIG4(-/-) double-mutant cells was essentially the same as that of KU70(-/-) cells, showing that Lig4 deficiency has no effect in the absence of Ku. These results indicate that Lig4 is exclusively required for the Ku-dependent NHEJ pathway of DSB repair and that other DNA ligases (I and III) do not substitute for this function. Our data may explain the observed severe phenotype of Lig4-deficient mice as compared with Ku-deficient mice.
Project description:Parp-1 and Parp-2 are activated by DNA breaks and have been implicated in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). Their involvement in double-strand break (DSB) repair mediated by homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) remains unclear. We addressed this question using chicken DT40 cells, which have the advantage of carrying only a PARP-1 gene but not a PARP-2 gene. We found that PARP-1(-/-) DT40 mutants show reduced levels of HR and are sensitive to various DSB-inducing genotoxic agents. Surprisingly, this phenotype was strictly dependent on the presence of Ku, a DSB-binding factor that mediates NHEJ. PARP-1/KU70 double mutants were proficient in the execution of HR and displayed elevated resistance to DSB-inducing drugs. Moreover, we found deletion of Ligase IV, another NHEJ gene, suppressed the camptothecin of PARP-1(-/-) cells. Our results suggest a new critical function for Parp in minimizing the suppressive effects of Ku and the NHEJ pathway on HR.
Project description:Camptothecin (CPT) and related chemotherapeutic drugs induce formation of DNA Topoisomerase I (Top1) covalent or cleavage complexes (Top1ccs) that block leading-strand DNA synthesis and elicit DNA Double Stranded Breaks (DSB) during S phase. The Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway is implicated in tolerance of CPT-induced DNA damage yet the mechanism of FA pathway activation by Top1 poisons has not been studied. We show here that the FA core complex protein FANCA and monoubiquitinated FANCD2 (an effector of the FA pathway) are rapidly mobilized to chromatin in response to CPT treatment in several human cancer cell lines and untransformed primary human dermal fibroblasts. FANCD2 depletion using siRNA leads to impaired recovery from CPT-induced inhibition or DNA synthesis, persistence of ?H2AX (a DSB marker) and reduced cell survival following CPT treatment. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Rad18 is necessary for CPT-induced recruitment of FANCA and FANCD2 to chromatin. Moreover, Rad18-depletion recapitulates the DNA synthesis and survival defects of FANCD2-deficiency in CPT-treated cells. It is well-established that Rad18 promotes FA pathway activation and DNA damage tolerance in response to bulky DNA lesions via a mechanism involving PCNA monoubiquitination. In contrast, PCNA monoubiquitination is not involved in Rad18-mediated FA pathway activation or cell survival following acquisition of CPT-induced DSB. Moreover, while Rad18 is implicated in recombinational repair of DSB via an E3 ligase-independent mechanism, we demonstrate that Rad18 E3 ligase activity is essential for appropriate FA pathway activation and DNA damage tolerance after CPT treatment. Taken together, our results define a novel pathway of Rad18-dependent DSB repair that is dissociable from known Rad18-mediated DNA repair mechanisms based on its independence from PCNA ubiquitination and requirement for E3 ligase activity.
Project description:Nucleoside analogues (NAs) have been the most frequently used treatment option for chronic hepatitis B patients. However, they may have genotoxic potentials due to their interference with nucleic acid metabolism. Entecavir, a deoxyguanosine analog, is one of the most widely used oral antiviral NAs against hepatitis B virus. It has reported that entecavir gave positive responses in both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assays. However the genotoxic mechanism of entecavir remains elusive. To evaluate the genotoxic mechanisms, we analyzed the effect of entecavir on a panel of chicken DT40 B-lymphocyte isogenic mutant cell line deficient in DNA repair and damage tolerance pathways. Our results showed that Parp1-/- mutant cells defective in single-strand break (SSB) repair were the most sensitive to entecavir. Brca1-/-, Ubc13-/- and translesion-DNA-synthesis deficient cells including Rad18-/- and Rev3-/- were hypersensitive to entecavir. XPA-/- mutant deficient in nucleotide excision repair was also slightly sensitive to entecavir. ?-H2AX foci forming assay confirmed the existence of DNA damage by entecavir in Parp1-/-, Rad18-/- and Brca1-/- mutants. Karyotype assay further showed entecavir-induced chromosomal aberrations, especially the chromosome gaps in Parp1-/-, Brca1-/-, Rad18-/- and Rev3-/- cells when compared with wild-type cells. These genetic comprehensive studies clearly identified the genotoxic potentials of entecavir and suggested that SSB and postreplication repair pathways may suppress entecavir-induced genotoxicity.
Project description:Loss of a functional mismatch repair (MMR) system in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells is associated with microsatellite instability and increased sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitors. In this study, we have investigated whether a defect in double-strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) could explain why MMR-deficient CRC cells are hypersensitive to camptothecin (CPT), a topoisomerase I inhibitor. To evaluate the efficiency and the fidelity of DSB repair, we have transiently transfected plasmids containing cohesive or non-complementary ends in cells with various MMR defects. We have observed that the repair efficiency of DSB with cohesive and non-complementary ends is comparable in all cell lines. In contrast to the MMR-proficient cell line HT29, the MMR-deficient cell lines were highly accurate in repairing DSB with cohesive ends, but this characteristic could not be directly assigned to the primary MMR deficiency. Furthermore, CPT treatment had no detectable effect on the repair of cohesive ends but significantly decreased the repair efficiency of non-complementary DSB. In conclusion, although our observations show that DSB repair efficiency by NHEJ decreases upon treatment with CPT, which possibly contributes to its cytotoxicity, it is quite unlikely that it accounts for the hypersensitivity of MMR-deficient cells to topoisomerase inhibitors.
Project description:In mammalian cells, chromatin poly(ADP-ribos)ylation (PARylation) at sites of DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) is mediated by two highly related enzymes, PARP1 and PARP2. However, enzyme-specific genetic interactions with other DSB repair factors remain largely undefined. In this context, it was previously shown that mice lacking PARP1 and H2AX, a histone variant that promotes DSB repair throughout the cell cycle, or the core nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factor Ku80 are not viable, while mice lacking PARP1 and the noncore NHEJ factor DNA-PKcs are severely growth retarded and markedly lymphoma-prone. Here, we have examined the requirement for PARP2 in these backgrounds. We find that, like PARP1, PARP2 is essential for viability in mice lacking H2AX. Moreover, treatment of H2AX-deficient primary fibroblasts or B lymphocytes with PARP inhibitors leads to activation of the G2/M checkpoint and accumulation of chromatid-type breaks in a lineage- and gene-dose dependent manner. In marked contrast to PARP1, loss of PARP2 does not result in additional phenotypes in growth, development or tumorigenesis in mice lacking either Ku80 or DNA-PKcs. Altogether these findings highlight specific nonoverlapping functions of PARP1 and PARP2 at H2AX-deficient chromatin during replicative phases of the cell cycle and uncover a unique requirement for PARP1 in NHEJ-deficient cells.
Project description:Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) likely initiates immunoglobulin gene-conversion (GC) by deaminating cytidines within the V-region of chicken B-cells. However, the intervening DNA lesion required to initiate GC remains elusive. GC could be initiated by a single strand break or a double strand break (DSB). To distinguish between these possibilities, we examined GC in the chicken DT40 B cell line deficient in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). It is known that the NHEJ and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways compete for DSBs. In light of this, if a DSB is the major intermediate, deficiency in NHEJ should result in increased levels of GC. Here we show that DNA-PKcs(-/-/-) and Ku70(-/-) DT40 cells had 5- to 10-fold higher levels of GC relative to wildtype DT40 as measured by surface IgM reversion and sequencing of the V-region. These data suggest that a DSB is the major DNA lesion that initiates GC.