Crystal structure of the top domain of African horse sickness virus VP7: comparisons with bluetongue virus VP7.
ABSTRACT: The baculovirus-expressed core protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized in the presence of 2.8 M urea. The X-ray structure has been solved to a 2.3-Angstroms (1 Angstrom = 0.1 nm) resolution with an Rfactor of 19.8%. The structure of AHSV VP7 reveals that during crystallization, the two-domain protein is cleaved and only the top domain remains. A similar problem was encountered previously with bluetongue virus (BTV) VP7 (whose structure has been reported), showing that the connections between the top and the bottom domains are rather weak for these two distinct orbiviruses. The top domains of both BTV and AHSV VP7 are trimeric and structurally very similar. The electron density maps show that they both possess an extra electron density feature along their molecular threefold axes, which is most likely due to an unidentified ion. The characteristics of the molecular surface of BTV and AHSV VP7 suggest why AHSV VP7 is much less soluble than BTV VP7 and indicate the possibility of attachment to the cell via attachment of an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the top domain of VP7 to a cellular integrin for both of these orbiviruses.
Project description:Orbiviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses that have profound economic and veterinary significance, 3 of the most important being African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). Currently, vaccination and vector control are used as preventative measures; however, there are several problems with the current vaccines. Comparing viral amino acid sequences, we obtained an AHSV-BTV-EHDV consensus sequence for VP5 (viral protein 5) and for VP7 (viral protein 7) and generated homology models for these proteins. The structures and sequences were analyzed for amino acid sequence conservation, entropy, surface accessibility, and epitope propensity, to computationally determine whether consensus sequences still possess potential epitope regions. In total, 5 potential linear epitope regions on VP5 and 11 on VP7, as well as potential discontinuous B-cell epitopes, were identified and mapped onto the homology models created. Regions identified for VP5 and VP7 could be important in vaccine design against orbiviruses.
Project description:The detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) antigens in formalin-fixed tissues has been challenging; therefore, only a limited number of studies on suitable immunohistochemical approaches have been reported. This study details the successful application of antibodies for the immunohistochemical detection of BTV in BSR variant baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-BSR) and infected sheep lungs that were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE). BTV reactive antibodies raised against non-structural (NS) proteins 1, 2, and 3/3a and viral structural protein 7 (VP7) were first evaluated on FFPE BTV-infected cell pellets for their ability to detect BTV serotype 1 (BTV-1). Antibodies that were successful in immunolabelling BTV-1 infected cell pellets were further tested, using similar methods, to determine their broader immunoreactivity against a diverse range of BTV and other orbiviruses. Antibodies specific for NS1, NS2, and NS3/3a were able to detect all BTV isolates tested, and the VP7 antibody cross-reacted with all BTV isolates, except BTV-15. The NS1 antibodies were BTV serogroup-specific, while the NS2, NS3/3a, and VP7 antibodies demonstrated immunologic cross-reactivity to related orbiviruses. These antibodies also detected viral antigens in BTV-3 infected sheep lung. This study demonstrates the utility of FFPE-infected cell pellets for the development and validation of BTV immunohistochemistry.
Project description:Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the genus Orbivirus (Reoviridae family), causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. Reverse genetics systems for these orbiviruses with their ten-segmented genome of double stranded RNA have been developed. Initially, two subsequent transfections of in vitro synthesized capped run-off RNA transcripts resulted in the recovery of BTV. Reverse genetics has been improved by transfection of expression plasmids followed by transfection of ten RNA transcripts. Recovery of AHSV was further improved by use of expression plasmids containing optimized open reading frames.Plasmids containing full length cDNA of the 10 genome segments for T7 promoter-driven production of full length run-off RNA transcripts and expression plasmids with optimized open reading frames (ORFs) were used. BTV and AHSV were rescued using reverse genetics. The requirement of each expression plasmid and capping of RNA transcripts for reverse genetics were studied and compared for BTV and AHSV. BTV was recovered by transfection of VP1 and NS2 expression plasmids followed by transfection of a set of ten capped RNAs. VP3 expression plasmid was also required if uncapped RNAs were transfected. Recovery of AHSV required transfection of VP1, VP3 and NS2 expression plasmids followed by transfection of capped RNA transcripts. Plasmid-driven expression of VP4, 6 and 7 was also needed when uncapped RNA transcripts were used. Irrespective of capping of RNA transcripts, NS1 expression plasmid was not needed for recovery, although NS1 protein is essential for virus propagation. Improvement of reverse genetics for AHSV was clearly demonstrated by rescue of several mutants and reassortants that were not rescued with previous methods.A limited number of expression plasmids is required for rescue of BTV or AHSV using reverse genetics, making the system much more versatile and generally applicable. Optimization of reverse genetics enlarge the possibilities to rescue virus mutants and reassortants, and will greatly benefit the control of these important diseases of livestock and companion animals.
Project description:Bluetongue virus is the "type" species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Twenty four distinct bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been recognized for decades, any of which is thought to be capable of causing "bluetongue" (BT), an insect-borne disease of ruminants. However, two further BTV serotypes, BTV-25 (Toggenburg orbivirus, from Switzerland) and BTV-26 (from Kuwait) have recently been identified in goats and sheep, respectively. The BTV genome is composed of ten segments of linear dsRNA, encoding 7 virus-structural proteins (VP1 to VP7) and four distinct non-structural (NS) proteins (NS1 to NS4). We report the entire BTV-26 genome sequence (isolate KUW2010/02) and comparisons to other orbiviruses. Highest identity levels were consistently detected with other BTV strains, identifying KUW2010/02 as BTV. The outer-core protein and major BTV serogroup-specific antigen "VP7" showed 98% aa sequence identity with BTV-25, indicating a common ancestry. However, higher level of variation in the nucleotide sequence of Seg-7 (81.2% identity) suggests strong conservation pressures on the protein of these two strains, and that they diverged a long time ago. Comparisons of Seg-2, encoding major outer-capsid component and cell-attachment protein "VP2" identified KUW2010/02 as 26th BTV, within a 12th Seg-2 nucleotype [nucleotype L]. Comparisons of Seg-6, encoding the smaller outer capsid protein VP5, also showed levels of nt/aa variation consistent with identification of KUW2010/02 as BTV-26 (within a 9th Seg-6 nucleotype - nucleotype I). Sequence data for Seg-2 of KUW2010/02 were used to design four sets of oligonucleotide primers for use in BTV-26, type-specific RT-PCR assays. Analyses of other more conserved genome segments placed KUW2010/02 and BTV-25/SWI2008/01 closer to each other than to other "eastern" or "western" BTV strains, but as representatives of two novel and distinct geographic groups (topotypes). Our analyses indicate that all of the BTV genome segments have evolved under strong purifying selection.
Project description:Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, within the family Reoviridae. The VP7 protein of BTV is used for developing group-specific serological assays. To prepare monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VP7 of the 25th serotype BTV, the RNA S7 encoding VP7 was cloned into prokaryotic expression vectors pET-28a (+) and pGEX-6P-1 to generate recombinant plasmids. The recombinant protein VP7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), respectively. The results of SDS-PAGE revealed that the VP7 was expressed and the molecular mass of recombinant fusion protein pET-28a (+)/VP7 and pGEX-6P-1/VP7 was approximately 44?kDa and 64 kDa, respectively. The Western blot analysis indicated that the recombinant VP7 possessed good immunoreactivity. After purification, pET-28a (+)/VP7 was used to immunize BALB/c mice, while pGEX-6P-1/VP7 was used to screen for well-to-well MAb-secreting hybridomas. The hybridoma cell line 3H7 against recombinant VP7 that secreted MAbs was obtained. The isotype of 3H7 was identified as IgG1. The purification of recombinant VP7 protein and the monoclonal antibody will have potential applications on competitive ELISA format for BT-specific serum detection method.
Project description:Purpose:The Orbivirus Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically significant disease that affects mainly wild and domestic ruminants. BTV is most often seen symptomatically in sheep, but is easily carried by goats, cattle, and wild ruminants. To date there are several problems with the vaccines currently available for BTV, and one of the most promising candidates to increase vaccine efficacy is a protein-based vaccine, for which viral protein 7 (VP7) is a great candidate to be included in it. In order to further these studies, the stability of BTV VP7 in common vaccine additives needs to be investigated. Materials and Methods:Recombinant BTV VP7 was expressed in a bacterial cell system and purified before being analysed using spectroscopic techniques including far-ultraviolet (UV) circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. BTV was analysed in a number of different buffer conditions. Results:We report here that BTV VP7 maintains its native secondary structure until at least 52? and native-like tertiary structure to at least 80?. Far-UV circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission spectra indicate significant secondary and tertiary structure remaining even at 90?, respectively. Six M guanidinium chloride is able to unfold BTV VP7 while 8 M urea could not. Conclusion:Twenty percent glycerol and 300 mM sodium chloride appear to have a protective effect on BTV VP7's structure, as significantly more structure is seen at 90? when compared to BTV VP7 without the addition of these chemicals. Both glycerol and sodium chloride are common vaccine additives.
Project description:Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by blood-feeding insects (Culicoides sp.) and causes hemorrhagic diseases in livestock. BTV is a nonenveloped, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus with two capsids: a well-studied, stable core enclosing the dsRNA genome and a highly unstable, poorly studied coat responsible for host cell attachment and entry. Here, based on cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM), we report a 7-A resolution structure of the infectious BTV virion, including the coat proteins. We show that unlike other dsRNA viruses, the VP2 attachment trimer has a triskelion shape composed of three tip domains branching from a central hub domain. We identify three putative sialic acid-binding pockets in the hub and present supporting biochemical data indicating sugar moiety binding is important for BTV infection. Despite being a nonenveloped virus, the putative VP5 membrane penetration trimer, located slightly inward of the VP2 attachment trimer, has a central coiled-coil alpha-helical bundle, similar to the fusion proteins of many enveloped viruses (e.g., HIV, herpesviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, and influenza virus). Moreover, mapping of the amino acid sequence of VP5 to the secondary structural elements identified by cryoEM locates 15 amphipathic alpha-helical regions on the external surface of each VP5 trimer. The cryoEM density map also reveals few, weak interactions between the VP5 trimer and both the outer-coat VP2 trimer and the underlying core VP7 trimer, suggesting that the surface of VP5 could unfurl like an umbrella during penetration and shedding of the coat to release the transcriptionally active core particle.
Project description:Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are orbiviruses that infect both livestock and wild ruminants. Antigenic cross-reactivity between BTV and EHDV often results in serologic misdiagnosis. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (c-ELISAs) show increased sensitivity and specificity for the identification of these viral diseases; however, the preparation of cell culture-derived viral antigen for these tests is laborious and variable from batch to batch, and the resulting antigen may be infectious. To overcome these problems, the genes coding for a structural protein, VP7, of BTV and EHDV were cloned into baculovirus and the recombinant proteins were expressed in Sf9 cultured insect cells. Recombinant viral proteins released into the baculovirus-infected Sf9 cell culture supernatant were used in antigen capture c-ELISAs (Ag Cap c-ELISA) tests that specifically detected antibody in the serum of cattle experimentally infected with BTV and EHDV. The diagnostic utility of the Ag Cap c-ELISA was demonstrated by comparison with a commercial c-ELISA. The Ag Cap c-ELISA offers the advantages of using an easily produced, easily standardized, noninfectious antigen that does not require further purification or concentration.
Project description:Intragenic recombination has been described in various RNA viruses as a mechanism to increase genetic diversity, resulting in increased virulence, expanded host range, or adaptability to a changing environment. Orbiviruses are no exception to this, with intragenic recombination previously detected in the type species, bluetongue virus (BTV). African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Oribivirus genus in the family Reoviridae. Genetic recombination through reassortment has been described in AHSV, but not through homologous intragenic recombination. The influence of the latter on the evolution of AHSV was investigated by analyzing the complete genomes of more than 100 viruses to identify evidence of recombination. Segment-1, segment-6, segment-7, and segment-10 showed evidence of intragenic recombination, yet only one (Segment-10) of these events was manifested in subsequent lineages. The other three hybrid segments were as a result of recombination between field isolates and the vaccine derived live attenuated viruses (ALVs).
Project description:Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family that causes a hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. Its control has been achieved by inactivated-vaccines that have proven to protect against homologous BTV challenge although unable to induce long-term immunity. Therefore, a more efficient control strategy needs to be developed. Recombinant adenovirus vectors are lead vaccine candidates for protection of several diseases, mainly because of their potency to induce potent T cell immunity. Here we report the induction of humoral and T-cell mediated responses able to protect animals against BTV challenge by recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) expressing either VP7, VP2 or NS3 BTV proteins. First we used the IFNAR(-/-) mouse model system to establish a proof of principle, and afterwards we assayed the protective efficacy in sheep, the natural host of BTV. Mice were completely protected against BTV challenge, developing humoral and BTV-specific CD8+- and CD4+-T cell responses by vaccination with the different rAd5. Sheep vaccinated with Ad5-BTV-VP2 and Ad5-BTV-VP7 or only with Ad5-BTV-VP7 and challenged with BTV showed mild disease symptoms and reduced viremia. This partial protection was achieved in the absence of neutralizing antibodies but strong BTV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in those sheep vaccinated with Ad5-BTV-VP7. These data indicate that rAd5 is a suitable vaccine vector to induce T cell immunity during BTV vaccination and provide new data regarding the relevance of T cell responses in protection during BTV infection.