Synthesis and SAR of conformationally restricted inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.
ABSTRACT: A series of conformationally restricted inhibitors of human soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been developed. Inhibition potency of the described compounds ranges from 4.2 microM to 1.1 nM against recombinant sEH. N-(1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-(adamant-1-yl) urea (5a) was found to be a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 7.0 nM) that was also orally bioavailable in canines.
Project description:A series of inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) containing one or two thiourea groups has been developed. Inhibition potency of the described compounds ranges from 50??M to 7.2?nM. 1,7-(Heptamethylene)bis[(adamant-1-yl)thiourea] (6f) was found to be the most potent sEH inhibitor, among the thioureas tested. The inhibitory activity of the thioureas against the human sEH is closer to the value of activity against rat sEH rather than murine sEH. While being less active, thioureas are up to 7-fold more soluble than ureas, which makes them more bioavailable and thus promising as sEH inhibitors.
Project description:A series of inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) containing two urea groups has been developed. Inhibition potency of the described compounds ranges from 2.0 ?M to 0.4 nM. 1,6-(Hexamethylene)bis[(adamant-1-yl)urea] (3b) was found to be a potent slow tight binding inhibitor (IC50=0.5 nM) with a strong binding to sEH (Ki=3.1 nM) and a moderately long residence time on the enzyme (koff=1.05 × 10(-3) s(-1); t1/2=11 min).
Project description:A series of N,N'-disubstituted ureas having a conformationally restricted cis- or trans-1,4-cyclohexane alpha to the urea were prepared and tested as soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. This series of compounds showed low nanomolar to picomolar activities against recombinant human sEH. Both isomers showed similar potencies, but the trans isomers were more metabolically stable in human hepatic microsomes. Furthermore, these new potent inhibitors show a greater metabolic stability in vivo than previously described sEH inhibitors. We demonstrated that trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid 13g (t-AUCB, IC50 = 1.3 +/- 0.05 nM) had excellent oral bioavailability (98%, n = 2) and blood area under the curve in dogs and was effective in vivo to treat hypotension in lipopolysaccharide challenged murine models.
Project description:Inspired by previously discovered enhanced analgesic efficacy between soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, we designed, synthesized and characterized 21 novel sEH/PDE4 dual inhibitors. The best of these displayed good efficacy in in vitro assays. Further pharmacokinetic studies of a subset of four selected compounds led to the identification of a bioavailable dual inhibitor N-(4-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)-1-propionylpiperidine-4-carboxamide (MPPA). In a lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory pain rat model, MPPA rapidly increased in the blood ( Tmax = 30 min; Cmax = 460 nM) after oral administration of 3 mg/kg and reduced inflammatory pain with rapid onset of action correlating with blood levels over a time course of 4 h. Additionally, MPPA does not alter self-motivated exploration of rats with inflammatory pain or the withdrawal latency in control rats.
Project description:The inhibition of the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a promising new therapy in the treatment of hypertension, inflammation, and other disorders. However, the problems of limited water solubility, high melting point, and low metabolic stability complicated the development of 1,3-disubstituted urea-based sEH inhibitors. The current study explored the introduction of the substituted piperazino group as the tertiary pharmacophore, which resulted in substantial improvements in pharmacokinetic parameters over previously reported 1-adamantylurea based inhibitors while retaining high potency. The SAR studies revealed that the meta- or para-substituted phenyl spacer and N(4)-acetyl or sulfonyl substituted piperazine were optimal structures for achieving high potency and good physical properties. The 1-(4-(4-(4-acetylpiperazin-1-yl)butoxy)phenyl)-3-adamantan-1-yl urea (29c) demonstrated excellent in vivo pharmacokinetic properties in mice: T1/2 =14 h, Cmax = 84 nM, AUC = 40?200 nM·min, and IC50 = 7.0 nM against human sEH enzyme.
Project description:Recently, dibenzylurea-based potent soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors were identified in Pentadiplandra brazzeana, a plant in the order Brassicales. In an effort to generalize the concept, we hypothesized that plants that produce benzyl glucosinolates and corresponding isothiocyanates also produce these dibenzylurea derivatives. Our overall aim here was to examine the occurrence of urea derivatives in Brassicales, hoping to find biologically active urea derivatives from plants. First, plants in the order Brassicales were analyzed for the presence of 1, 3-dibenzylurea (compound 1), showing that three additional plants in the order Brassicales produce the urea derivatives. Based on the hypothesis, three dibenzylurea derivatives with sEH inhibitory activity were isolated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) roots. Topical application of one of the identified compounds (compound 3, human sEH IC50 = 222 nM) effectively reduced pain in rat inflammatory pain model, and this compound was bioavailable after oral administration in mice. The biosynthetic pathway of these urea derivatives was investigated using papaya (Carica papaya) seed as a model system. Finally, a small collection of plants from the Brassicales order was grown, collected, extracted and screened for sEH inhibitory activity. Results show that several plants of the Brassicales order could be potential sources of urea-based sEH inhibitors.
Project description:The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), responsible for the hydrolysis of various fatty acid epoxides to their corresponding 1,2-diols, is becoming an attractive pharmaceutical target. These fatty acid epoxides, particularly epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), play an important role in human homeostatic and inflammation processes. Therefore, inhibition of human sEH, which stabilizes EETs in vivo, brings several beneficial effects to human health. Although there are several catalytic assays available to determine the potency of sEH inhibitors, measuring the in vitro inhibition constant (K(i)) for these inhibitors using catalytic assay is laborious. In addition, k(off), which has been recently suggested to correlate better with the in vivo potency of inhibitors, has never been measured for sEH inhibitors. To better measure the potency of sEH inhibitors, a reporting ligand, 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-3-(1-(2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetyl) piperidin-4-yl)urea (ACPU), was designed and synthesized. With ACPU, we have developed a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based competitive displacement assay using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence from sEH. In addition, the resulting assay allows us to measure the K(i) values of very potent compounds to the picomolar level and to obtain relative k(off) values of the inhibitors. This assay provides additional data to evaluate the potency of sEH inhibitors.
Project description:The P450 eicosanoids epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are produced in brain and perform important biological functions, including protection from ischemic injury. The beneficial effect of EETs, however, is limited by their metabolism via soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We tested the hypothesis that sEH inhibition is protective against ischemic brain damage in vivo by a mechanism linked to enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF). We determined expression and distribution of sEH immunoreactivity (IR) in brain, and examined the effect of sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester (AUDA-BE) on CBF and infarct size after experimental stroke in mice. Mice were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of AUDA-BE (10 mg/kg) or vehicle at 30 mins before 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or at reperfusion, in the presence and absence of P450 epoxygenase inhibitor N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanamide (MS-PPOH). Immunoreactivity for sEH was detected in vascular and non-vascular brain compartments, with predominant expression in neuronal cell bodies and processes. 12-(3-Adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester was detected in plasma and brain for up to 24 h after intraperitoneal injection, which was associated with inhibition of sEH activity in brain tissue. Finally, AUDA-BE significantly reduced infarct size at 24 h after MCAO, which was prevented by MS-PPOH. However, regional CBF rates measured by iodoantipyrine (IAP) autoradiography at end ischemia revealed no differences between AUDA-BE- and vehicle-treated mice. The findings suggest that sEH inhibition is protective against ischemic injury by non-vascular mechanisms, and that sEH may serve as a therapeutic target in stroke.
Project description:The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of epoxy-fatty acids, signaling molecules involved in numerous biologies. Toward finding novel inhibitors of sEH, a library of known drugs was tested for inhibition of sEH. We found that fulvestrant, an anticancer agent, is a potent (KI=26 nM) competitive inhibitor of sEH. From this observation, we found that alkyl-sulfoxides represent a new kind of pharmacophore for the inhibition of sEH.
Project description:In vertebrates, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes natural epoxy-fatty acids (EpFAs), which are chemical mediators modulating inflammation, pain, and angiogenesis. Chick embryos are used to study angiogenesis, particularly its role in cardiovascular biology and pathology. To find potent and bio-stable inhibitors of the chicken sEH (chxEH) a library of human sEH inhibitors was screened. Derivatives of 1(adamantan-1-yl)-3-(trans-4-phenoxycyclohexyl) urea were found to be very potent tight binding inhibitors (KI <150pM) of chxEH while being relatively stable in chicken liver microsomes, suggesting their usefulness to study the role of EpFAs in chickens.