Increased production of xylanase by expression of a truncated version of the xyn11A gene from Nonomuraea flexuosa in Trichoderma reesei.
ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that the Nonomuraea flexuosa Xyn11A polypeptides devoid of the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) have better thermostability than the full-length xylanase and are effective in bleaching of pulp. To produce an enzyme preparation useful for industrial applications requiring high temperature, the region encoding the CBM was deleted from the N. flexuosa xyn11A gene and the truncated gene was expressed in Trichoderma reesei. The xylanase sequence was fused to the T. reesei mannanase I (Man5A) signal sequence or 3' to a T. reesei carrier polypeptide, either the Man5A core/hinge or the cellulose binding domain (CBD) of cellobiohydrolase II (Cel6A, CBHII). The gene and fusion genes were expressed using the cellobiohydrolase 1 (cel7A, cbh1) promoter. Single-copy isogenic transformants in which the expression cassette replaced the cel7A gene were cultivated and analyzed. The transformants expressing the truncated N. flexuosa xyn11A produced clearly increased amounts of both the xylanase/fusion mRNA and xylanase activity compared to the corresponding strains expressing the full-length N. flexuosa xyn11A. The transformant expressing the cel6A CBD-truncated N. flexuosa xyn11A produced about 1.9 g liter-1 of the xylanase in laboratory-scale fermentations. The xylanase constituted about 25% of the secreted proteins. The production of the truncated xylanase did not induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. However, the UPR was induced when the full-length N. flexuosa xyn11A with an exact fusion to the cel7A terminator was expressed. We suggest that the T. reesei folding/secretion machinery is not able to cope properly with the bacterial CBM when the mRNA of the full-length N. flexuosa xyn11A is efficiently translated.
Project description:A bacterial xylanase gene, Nonomuraea flexuosa xyn11A, was expressed in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei from the strong cellobiohydrolase 1 promoter as fusions to a variety of carrier polypeptides. By using single-copy isogenic transformants, it was shown that production of this xylanase was clearly increased (up to 820 mg/liter) when it was produced as a fusion protein with a carrier polypeptide having an intact domain structure compared to the production (150 to 300 mg/liter) of fusions to the signal sequence alone or to carriers having incomplete domain structures. The carriers tested were the T. reesei mannanase I (Man5A, or MANI) core-hinge and a fragment thereof and the cellulose binding domain of T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II (Cel6A, or CBHII) with and without the hinge region(s) and a fragment thereof. The flexible hinge region was shown to have a positive effect on both the production of Xyn11A and the efficiency of cleavage of the fusion polypeptide. The recombinant Xyn11A produced had properties similar to those of the native xylanase. It constituted 6 to 10% of the total proteins secreted by the transformants. About three times more of the Man5A core-hinge carrier polypeptide than of the recombinant Xyn11A was observed. Even in the best Xyn11A producers, the levels of the fusion mRNAs were only approximately 10% of the level of cel7A (cbh1) mRNA in the untransformed host strain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is an essential process for the production of fermentable sugars for industrial use. A better understanding of fungal cellulase systems will provide clues for maximizing the hydrolysis of target biomass. Talaromyces cellulolyticus is a promising fungus for cellulase production and efficient biomass hydrolysis. Several cellulolytic enzymes purified from T. cellulolyticus were characterized in earlier studies, but the core enzymes critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass remain unknown. RESULTS:Six cellulolytic enzymes critical for the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose were purified from T. cellulolyticus culture supernatant using an enzyme assay based on synergistic hydrolysis of Avicel. The purified enzymes were identified by their substrate specificities and analyses of trypsin-digested peptide fragments and were classified into the following glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families: GH3 (?-glucosidase, Bgl3A), GH5 (endoglucanase, Cel5A), GH6 (cellobiohydrolase II, Cel6A), GH7 (cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase, Cel7A and Cel7B, respectively), and GH10 (xylanase, Xyl10A). Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) with mixtures of the purified enzymes showed that Cel5A, Cel7B, and Xyl10A each had synergistic effects with a mixture of Cel6A and Cel7A. Cel5A seemed to be more effective in the synergistic hydrolysis of the PCS than Cel7B. The ratio of Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, and Xyl10A was statistically optimized for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan in the presence of Bgl3A. The resultant mixture achieved higher PCS glucan hydrolysis at lower enzyme loading than a culture filtrate from T. cellulolyticus or a commercial enzyme preparation, demonstrating that the five enzymes play a role as core enzymes in the hydrolysis of PCS glucan. CONCLUSIONS:Core cellulolytic enzymes in the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system were identified to Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, Xyl10A, and Bgl3A and characterized. The optimized mixture of these five enzymes was highly effective for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan, providing a foundation for future improvement of the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system.
Project description:Reaction conditions for the reducing-end-specific derivatization of cellulose substrates with the fluorogenic compound, anthranilic acid, have been established. Hydrolysis of fluorescence-labelled celluloses by cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei was consistent with the active-site titration kinetics (burst kinetics), which allowed the quantification of the processivity of the enzyme. The processivity values of 88+/-10, 42+/-10 and 34+/-2.0 cellobiose units were found for Cel7A acting on labelled bacterial cellulose, bacterial microcrystalline cellulose and endoglucanase-pretreated bacterial cellulose respectively. The anthranilic acid derivatization also provides an alternative means for estimating the average degree of polymerization of cellulose and, furthermore, allows the quantitative monitoring of the production of reducing end groups on solid cellulose on hydrolysis by cellulases. Hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose by cellulases from T. reesei revealed that, by contrast with endoglucanase Cel5A, neither cellobiohydrolases Cel7A nor Cel6A produced detectable amounts of new reducing end groups on residual cellulose.
Project description:We have measured the hydrolyses of alpha- and beta-cellobiosyl fluorides by the Cel6A [cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII)] enzymes of Humicola insolens and Trichoderma reesei, which have essentially identical crystal structures [Varrot, Hastrup, Schülein and Davies (1999) Biochem. J. 337, 297-304]. The beta-fluoride is hydrolysed according to Michaelis-Menten kinetics by both enzymes. When the approximately 2.0% of beta-fluoride which is an inevitable contaminant in all preparations of the alpha-fluoride is hydrolysed by Cel7A (CBHI) of T. reesei before initial-rate measurements are made, both Cel6A enzymes show a sigmoidal dependence of rate on substrate concentration, as well as activation by cellobiose. These kinetics are consistent with the classic Hehre resynthesis-hydrolysis mechanism for glycosidase-catalysed hydrolysis of the 'wrong' glycosyl fluoride for both enzymes. The Michaelis-Menten kinetics of alpha-cellobiosyl fluoride hydrolysis by the T. reesei enzyme, and its inhibition by cellobiose, previously reported [Konstantinidis, Marsden and Sinnott (1993) Biochem. J. 291, 883-888] are withdrawn. (1)H NMR monitoring of the hydrolysis of alpha-cellobiosyl fluoride by both enzymes reveals that in neither case is alpha-cellobiosyl fluoride released into solution in detectable quantities, but instead it appears to be hydrolysed in the enzyme active site as soon as it is formed.
Project description:The interaction between cellulase enzymes and their substrates is of central importance to several technological and scientific challenges. Here we report that the binding of cellulose binding modules (CBM) from Trichoderma reesei cellulases Cel6A and Cel7A show a major difference in how they interact with substrates originating from wood compared to bacterial cellulose. We found that the CBM from TrCel7A recognizes the two substrates differently and as a consequence shows an unexpected way of binding. We show that the substrate has a large impact on the exchange rate of the studied CBM, and moreover, CBM-TrCel7A seems to have an additional mode of binding on wood derived cellulose but not on cellulose originating from bacterial source. This mode is not seen in double CBM (DCBM) constructs comprising both CBM-TrCel7A and CBM-TrCel6A. The linker length of DCBMs affects the binding properties, and slows down the exchange rates of the proteins and thus, can be used to analyze the differences between the single CBM. These results have impact on the cellulase research and offer new understanding on how these industrially relevant enzymes act.
Project description:Background:Molecular-scale mechanisms of the enzymatic breakdown of cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars are still poorly understood, with a need for independent measurements of enzyme kinetic parameters. We measured binding times of cellobiohydrolase Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (Cel7A) on celluloses using wild-type Cel7A (WTintact), the catalytically deficient mutant Cel7A E212Q (E212Qintact) and their proteolytically isolated catalytic domains (CD) (WTcore and E212Qcore, respectively). The binding time distributions were obtained from time-resolved, super-resolution images of fluorescently labeled enzymes on cellulose obtained with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Results:Binding of WTintact and E212Qintact on the recalcitrant algal cellulose (AC) showed two bound populations: ~?85% bound with shorter residence times of <?15 s while ~?15% were effectively immobilized. The similarity between binding times of the WT and E212Q suggests that the single point mutation in the enzyme active site does not affect the thermodynamics of binding of this enzyme. The isolated catalytic domains, WTcore and E212Qcore, exhibited three binding populations on AC: ~?75% bound with short residence times of ~?15 s (similar to the intact enzymes), ~?20% bound for <?100 s and ~?5% that were effectively immobilized. Conclusions:Cel7A binding to cellulose is driven by the interactions between the catalytic domain and cellulose. The cellulose-binding module (CBM) and linker increase the affinity of Cel7A to cellulose likely by facilitating recognition and complexation at the substrate interface. The increased affinity of Cel7A to cellulose by the CBM and linker comes at the cost of increasing the population of immobilized enzyme on cellulose. The residence time (or inversely the dissociation rates) of Cel7A on cellulose is not catalysis limited.
Project description:Cellulase enzymes cleave glycosidic bonds in cellulose to produce cellobiose via either retaining or inverting hydrolysis mechanisms, which are significantly pH-dependent. Many fungal cellulases function optimally at pH ~5, and their activities decrease dramatically at higher or lower pH. To understand the molecular-level implications of pH in cellulase structure, we use a hybrid, solvent-based, constant pH molecular dynamics method combined with pH-based replica exchange to determine the pK(a) values of titratable residues of a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 6 cellobiohydrolase (Cel6A) and a GH family 7 cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) from the fungus Hypocrea jecorina. For both enzymes, we demonstrate that a bound substrate significantly affects the pKa values of the acid residues at the catalytic center. The calculated pK(a) values of catalytic residues confirm their proposed roles from structural studies and are consistent with the experimentally measured apparent pKa values. Additionally, GHs are known to impart a strained pucker conformation in carbohydrate substrates in active sites for catalysis, and results from free energy calculations combined with constant pH molecular dynamics suggest that the correct ring pucker is stable near the optimal pH for both Cel6A and Cel7A. Much longer molecular dynamics simulations of Cel6A and Cel7A with fixed protonation states based on the calculated pK(a) values suggest that pH affects the flexibility of tunnel loops, which likely affects processivity and substrate complexation. Taken together, this work demonstrates several molecular-level effects of pH on GH enzymes important for cellulose turnover in the biosphere and relevant to biomass conversion processes.
Project description:The high viscosities/yield stresses of lignocellulose slurries makes their industrial processing a significant challenge. However, little is known regarding the degree to which liquefaction and its enzymatic requirements are specific to a substrate's physicochemical and rheological properties. In the work reported here, the substrate- and rheological regime-specificities of liquefaction of various substrates were assessed using real-time in-rheometer viscometry and offline oscillatory rheometry when hydrolyzed by combinations of cellobiohydrolase (Trichoderma reesei Cel7A), endoglucanase (Humicola insolens Cel45A), glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 xylanase, and GH family 11 xylanase. In contrast to previous work that has suggested that endoglucanase activity dominates enzymatic liquefaction, all of the enzymes were shown to have at least some liquefaction capacity depending on the substrate and reaction conditions. The contribution of individual enzymes was found to be influenced by the rheological regime; in the concentrated regime, the cellobiohydrolase outperformed the endoglucanase, achieving 2.4-fold higher yield stress reduction over the same timeframe, whereas the endoglucanase performed best in the semi-dilute regime. It was apparent that the significant differences in rheology and liquefaction mechanisms made it difficult to predict the liquefaction capacity of an enzyme or enzyme cocktail at different substrate concentrations.
Project description:The three-dimensional structure of the catalytic core of the family 6 cellobiohydrolase II, Cel6A (CBH II), from Humicola insolens has been determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 1.92 A. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the homologous Trichoderma reesei CBH II as a search model. The H. insolens enzyme displays a high degree of structural similarity with its T. reesei equivalent. The structure features both O- (alpha-linked mannose) and N-linked glycosylation and a hexa-co-ordinate Mg2+ ion. The active-site residues are located within the enclosed tunnel that is typical for cellobiohydrolase enzymes and which may permit a processive hydrolysis of the cellulose substrate. The close structural similarity between the two enzymes implies that kinetics and chain-end specificity experiments performed on the H. insolens enzyme are likely to be applicable to the homologous T. reesei enzyme. These cast doubt on the description of cellobiohydrolases as exo-enzymes since they demonstrated that Cel6A (CBH II) shows no requirement for non-reducing chain-ends, as had been presumed. There is no crystallographic evidence in the present structure to support a mechanism involving loop opening, yet preliminary modelling experiments suggest that the active-site tunnel of Cel6A (CBH II) is too narrow to permit entry of a fluorescenyl-derivatized substrate, known to be a viable substrate for this enzyme.
Project description:Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A) is a cellobiohydrolase that hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose into cellobiose. Here we directly observed the reaction cycle (binding, surface movement, and dissociation) of single-molecule intact TrCel6A, isolated catalytic domain (CD), cellulose-binding module (CBM), and CBM and linker (CBM-linker) on crystalline cellulose I? The CBM-linker showed a binding rate constant almost half that of intact TrCel6A, whereas those of the CD and CBM were only one-tenth of intact TrCel6A. These results indicate that the glycosylated linker region largely contributes to initial binding on crystalline cellulose. After binding, all samples showed slow and fast dissociations, likely caused by the two different bound states due to the heterogeneity of cellulose surface. The CBM showed much higher specificity to the high affinity site than to the low affinity site, whereas the CD did not, suggesting that the CBM leads the CD to the hydrophobic surface of crystalline cellulose. On the cellulose surface, intact molecules showed slow processive movements (8.8 ± 5.5 nm/s) and fast diffusional movements (30-40 nm/s), whereas the CBM-Linker, CD, and a catalytically inactive full-length mutant showed only fast diffusional movements. These results suggest that both direct binding and surface diffusion contribute to searching of the hydrolysable point of cellulose chains. The duration time constant for the processive movement was 7.7 s, and processivity was estimated as 68 ± 42. Our results reveal the role of each domain in the elementary steps of the reaction cycle and provide the first direct evidence of the processive movement of TrCel6A on crystalline cellulose.