Zidovudine resistance is suppressed by mutations conferring resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to foscarnet.
ABSTRACT: Both foscarnet (PFA) and zidovudine (AZT) select for drug-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the interactions between the mutations causing such resistance are unknown. The introduction of the previously identified PFA resistance mutation W to G at codon 88 (W88G), E89K, L92I, or Q161L into an HIV-1 strain having the four known AZT resistance mutations completely reversed high-level AZT resistance. Two additional PFA resistance mutations, W88S and S156A, partially suppressed AZT resistance. Phenotypic reversion of AZT resistance by W88S, W88G, E89K, L921, and S156A was associated with a concomitant suppression of PFA resistance. The degree to which PFA resistance mutations reversed AZT resistance was directly correlated with each mutation's ability to confer high-level PFA resistance (> or = 5.0-fold) and AZT hypersusceptibility in a wild-type genetic background. Highly PFA-resistant HIV- 1 strains were hypersusceptible to AZT; conversely, AZT-resistant strains with M41L and T215Y; M41L, L210W, and T215Y; or M41L, D67N, K70R, and T215Y mutations were 2.2- to 2.5-fold hypersusceptible to PFA. Prolonged in vitro selection of wild-type or AZT-resistant HIV-1 strains with the combination AZT and PFA failed to generate coresistant virus, indicating that dual resistance was relatively difficult to achieve. Strains selected by passage in PFA plus AZT were phenotypically PFA resistant and AZT susceptible despite multiple reverse transcriptase mutations known to confer AZT resistance. These data show that PFA resistance mutations can phenotypically reverse AZT resistance and that AZT and PFA resistance might be mutually exclusive. The reciprocal interactions between AZT and PFA resistance-conferring mutations have implications for structure-function studies of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Project description:Recent work indicates that mutations in the C-terminal domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) increase 3'-azido-3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) resistance. Because it is not known whether AZT selects for mutations outside of the polymerase domain of RT, we carried out in vitro experiments in which HIV-1(LAI) or AZT-resistant HIV-1(LAI) (M41L/L210W/T215Y) was passaged in MT-2 cells in increasing concentrations of AZT. The first resistance mutations to appear in HIV-1(LAI) were two polymerase domain thymidine analog mutations (TAMs), D67N and K70R, and two novel mutations, A371V in the connection domain and Q509L in the RNase H domain, that together conferred up to 90-fold AZT resistance. Thereafter, the T215I mutation appeared but was later replaced by T215F, resulting in a large increase in AZT resistance ( approximately 16,000-fold). Mutations in the connection and RNase H domains were not selected starting with AZT-resistant virus (M41L/L210W/T215Y). The roles of A371V and Q509L in AZT resistance were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis: A371V and Q509L together increased AZT resistance approximately 10- to 50-fold in combination with TAMs (M41L/L210W/T215Y or D67N/K70R/T215F) but had a minimal effect without TAMs (1.7-fold). A371V and Q509L also increased cross-resistance with TAMs to lamivudine and abacavir, but not stavudine or didanosine. These results provide the first evidence that mutations in the connection and RNase H domains of RT can be selected in vitro by AZT and confer greater AZT resistance and cross-resistance to nucleoside RT inhibitors in combination with TAMs in the polymerase domain.
Project description:Although anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapies have become more sophisticated and more effective, drug resistance continues to be a major problem. Zidovudine (azidothymidine; AZT) was the first nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI) approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infections and is still being used, particularly in the developing world. This drug targets the conversion of single-stranded RNA to double-stranded DNA by HIV-1 RT. However, resistance to the drug quickly appeared both in viruses replicating in cells in culture and in patients undergoing AZT monotherapy. The primary resistance pathway selects for mutations of T215 that change the threonine to either a tyrosine or a phenylalanine (T215Y/F); this resistance pathway involves an ATP-dependent excision mechanism. The pseudo-sugar ring of AZT lacks a 3' OH; RT incorporates AZT monophosphate (AZTMP), which blocks the end of the viral DNA primer. AZT-resistant forms of HIV-1 RT use ATP in an excision reaction to unblock the 3' end of the primer strand, allowing its extension by RT. The T215Y AZT resistance mutation is often accompanied by two other mutations, M41L and L210W. In this study, the roles of these mutations, in combination with T215Y, were examined to determine whether they affect polymerization and excision by HIV-1 RT. The M41L mutation appears to help restore the DNA polymerization activity of RT containing the T215Y mutation and also enhances AZTMP excision. The L210W mutation plays a similar role, but it enhances excision by RTs that carry the T215Y mutation when ATP is present at a low concentration.
Project description:Six structures of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) containing combinations of resistance mutations for zidovudine (AZT) (M41L and T215Y) or lamivudine (M184V) have been determined as inhibitor complexes. Minimal conformational changes in the polymerase or nonnucleoside RT inhibitor sites compared to the mutant RTMC (D67N, K70R, T215F, and K219N) are observed, indicating that such changes may occur only with certain combinations of mutations. Model building M41L and T215Y into HIV-1 RT-DNA and docking in ATP that is utilized in the pyrophosphorolysis reaction for AZT resistance indicates that some conformational rearrangement appears necessary in RT for ATP to interact simultaneously with the M41L and T215Y mutations.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) develops resistance to 3'-azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) by acquiring mutations in reverse transcriptase that enhance the ATP-mediated excision of AZT monophosphate from the 3' end of the primer. The excision reaction occurs at the dNTP-binding site, uses ATP as a pyrophosphate donor, unblocks the primer terminus and allows reverse transcriptase to continue viral DNA synthesis. The excision product is AZT adenosine dinucleoside tetraphosphate (AZTppppA). We determined five crystal structures: wild-type reverse transcriptase-double-stranded DNA (RT-dsDNA)-AZTppppA; AZT-resistant (AZTr; M41L D67N K70R T215Y K219Q) RT-dsDNA-AZTppppA; AZTr RT-dsDNA terminated with AZT at dNTP- and primer-binding sites; and AZTr apo reverse transcriptase. The AMP part of AZTppppA bound differently to wild-type and AZTr reverse transcriptases, whereas the AZT triphosphate part bound the two enzymes similarly. Thus, the resistance mutations create a high-affinity ATP-binding site. The structure of the site provides an opportunity to design inhibitors of AZT-monophosphate excision.
Project description:Long-term use of combination therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV-1) provides strong selective pressure on the virus, and HIV-1 variants that are resistant to multiple inhibitors have been isolated. HIV-1 variants containing amino acid substitutions within the coding region of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), such as the 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)-resistant variant AZT-R (M41L/D67N/K70R/T215Y/K219Q) and a variant containing an insertion in the fingers domain (S69SGR70/T215Y), are resistant to the nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) AZT because of an increase in the level of excision of AZT monophosphate (AZTMP) from the primer. While rare, variants have also been isolated which contain deletions in the RT coding region. One such virus, described by Imamichi et al. (J. Virol 74:10958-10964, 2000; J. Virol. 74:1023-1028, 2000; J. Virol. 75:3988-3992, 2001), contains numerous amino acid substitutions and a deletion of codon 67, which we have designated the Delta67 complex of mutations. We have expressed and purified HIV-1 RT containing these mutations. We compared the polymerase and pyrophosphorolysis (excision) activity of an RT with the Delta67 complex of mutations to wild-type RT and the two other AZT-resistant variants described above. All of the AZT-resistant variants we tested excise AZTMP and 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA [tenofovir]) from the end of a primer more efficiently than wild-type RT. Although the variant RTs excised d4TMP less efficiently than AZTMP and PMPA, they were able to excise d4TMP more efficiently than wild-type RT. HIV-1 RT containing the Delta67 complex of mutations was not able to excise as broad a range of NRTIs as the fingers insertion variant SSGR/T215Y, but it was able to polymerize efficiently with low concentrations of deoxynucleoside triphosphates and seems to be able to excise AZTMP and PMPA at lower ATP concentrations than AZT-R or SSGR/T215Y, suggesting that a virus containing the Delta67 complex of mutations would replicate reasonably well in quiescent cells, even in the presence of AZT.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) contains four structural motifs (A, B, C, and D) that are conserved in polymerases from diverse organisms. Motif B interacts with the incoming nucleotide, the template strand, and key active-site residues from other motifs, suggesting that motif B is an important determinant of substrate specificity. To examine the functional role of this region, we performed "random scanning mutagenesis" of 11 motif B residues and screened replication-competent mutants for altered substrate analog sensitivity in culture. Single amino acid replacements throughout the targeted region conferred resistance to lamivudine and/or hypersusceptibility to zidovudine (AZT). Substitutions at residue Q151 increased the sensitivity of HIV-1 to multiple nucleoside analogs, and a subset of these Q151 variants was also hypersusceptible to the pyrophosphate analog phosphonoformic acid (PFA). Other AZT-hypersusceptible mutants were resistant to PFA and are therefore phenotypically similar to PFA-resistant variants selected in vitro and in infected patients. Collectively, these data show that specific amino acid replacements in motif B confer broad-spectrum hypersusceptibility to substrate analog inhibitors. Our results suggest that motif B influences RT-deoxynucleoside triphosphate interactions at multiple steps in the catalytic cycle of polymerization.
Project description:Single amino acid deletions in the ?3-?4 hairpin loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) have been identified in heavily treated patients. The deletion of Asp-67 together with mutations T69G and K70R (?67 complex) are usually associated with thymidine analog resistance mutations (TAMs) (e.g. M41L, T215Y, etc.) while the deletion of Thr-69 (?69) is rarely found in isolates containing TAMs. Here, we show that the complex ?67/T69G/K70R enhances ATP-dependent phosphorolytic activity on primers terminated with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) or 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T) both in the presence or absence of TAMs (i.e. M41L/T215Y), while ?69 (or the complex S68G/?69/K70G) antagonize the effects of TAMs in ATP-mediated excision. These effects are consistent with AZT susceptibility data obtained with recombinant HIV-1 bearing the relevant RTs. Molecular dynamics studies based on models of wild-type HIV-1 RT and mutant ?69, ?67/T69G/K70R, and D67N/K70R RTs support a relevant role for Lys/Arg-70 in the excision reaction. In ?69 RT, the side chain of Lys-70 locates away from the putative pyrophosphate binding site. Therefore, its participation in interactions required for the excision reaction is unlikely. Our theoretical studies also suggest a role for Lys-219 in thymidine analog excision/discrimination. However, pre-steady-state kinetics revealed only minor differences in selectivity of AZT-triphosphate versus dTTP between deletion-containing RTs and their homologous enzymes having the K219E mutation. K219E reduced both ATP- and pyrophosphate-mediated excision of primers terminated with thymidine analogues, only when introduced in RTs bearing ?69 or S68G/?69/K70G, providing further biochemical evidence that explains the lack of association of ?69 and TAMs in HIV-1 isolates.
Project description:We analyzed a multi-drug resistant (MR) HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), subcloned from a patient-derived subtype CRF02_AG, harboring 45 amino acid exchanges, amongst them four thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) relevant for high-level AZT (azidothymidine) resistance by AZTMP excision (M41L, D67N, T215Y, K219E) as well as four substitutions of the AZTTP discrimination pathway (A62V, V75I, F116Y and Q151M). In addition, K65R, known to antagonize AZTMP excision in HIV-1 subtype B was present. Although MR-RT harbored the most significant amino acid exchanges T215Y and Q151M of each pathway, it exclusively used AZTTP discrimination, indicating that the two mechanisms are mutually exclusive and that the Q151M pathway is obviously preferred since it confers resistance to most nucleoside inhibitors. A derivative was created, additionally harboring the TAM K70R and the reversions M151Q as well as R65K since K65R antagonizes excision. MR-R65K-K70R-M151Q was competent of AZTMP excision, whereas other combinations thereof with only one or two exchanges still promoted discrimination. To tackle the multi-drug resistance problem, we tested if the MR-RTs could still be inhibited by RNase H inhibitors. All MR-RTs exhibited similar sensitivity toward RNase H inhibitors belonging to different inhibitor classes, indicating the importance of developing RNase H inhibitors further as anti-HIV drugs.
Project description:Drug-naive patients infected with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who initiate antiretroviral therapy show a shorter time to virologic failure than patients infected with wild-type (WT) viruses. Resistance-related HIV genotypes not commonly seen in treated patients, which likely result from reversion or loss of primary resistance mutations, have also been recognized in drug-naive persons. Little work has been done to characterize the patterns of mutations in these viruses and the frequency of occurrence, their association with phenotypic resistance, and their effect on fitness and evolution of resistance. Through the analysis of resistance mutations in 1082 newly diagnosed antiretroviral-naive persons from the United States, we found that 35 of 48 (72.9%) persons infected with HIV-1 containing thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) had viruses that lacked a primary mutation (T215Y/F, K70R, or Q151M). Of these viruses, 9 (25.7%) had only secondary TAMs (D67N, K219Q, M41L, or F77L), and all were found to be sensitive to zidovudine (AZT) and other drugs. To assess the impact of secondary TAMs on the evolution of AZT resistance, we generated recombinant viruses from cloned plasma-derived reverse transcriptase sequences. Two viruses had D67N, three had D67N and K219Q/E, and three were WT. Four site-directed mutants with D67N, K219Q, K219E, and D67N/K219Q were also made in HIV-1(HXB2). In vitro selection of AZT resistance showed that viruses with D67N and/or K219Q/E acquired AZT resistance mutations more rapidly than WT viruses (36 days compared to 54 days; P = 0.003). To investigate the factors associated with the rapid selection of AZT mutations in these viruses, we evaluated fitness differences among HXB2(WT) and HXB2(D67N) or HXB2(D67N/K219Q) in the presence of AZT. Both HXB2(D67N/K219Q) and HXB2(D67N) were more fit than HXB2(WT) in the presence of either low or high AZT concentrations, likely reflecting low-level resistance to AZT that is not detectable by phenotypic testing. In the absence of AZT, the fitness cost conferred by D67N or K219Q was modest. Our results demonstrate that viruses with unique patterns of TAMs, including D67N and/or K219Q/E, are commonly found among newly diagnosed persons and illustrate the expanding diversity of revertant viruses in this population. The modest fitness cost conferred by D67N and K219Q supports persistence of these mutants in the untreated population and highlights the potential for secondary transmission. The faster evolution of these mutants toward AZT resistance is consistent with the higher viral fitness in the presence of AZT and shows that these viruses are phenotypically different from WT HIV-1. Our study emphasizes the need for clinical studies to better define the impact of these mutants on treatment responses and evolution of resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: WHO-guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings recommend complex maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis comprising antenatal zidovudine (AZT), nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD) at labor onset and AZT/lamivudine (3TC) during labor and one week postpartum. Data on resistance development selected by this regimen is not available. We therefore analyzed the emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in Tanzanian women following complex prophylaxis. METHOD: 1395 pregnant women were tested for HIV-1 at Kyela District Hospital, Tanzania. 87/202 HIV-positive women started complex prophylaxis. Blood samples were collected before start of prophylaxis, at birth and 1-2, 4-6 and 12-16 weeks postpartum. Allele-specific real-time PCR assays specific for HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D were developed and applied on samples of mothers and their vertically infected infants to quantify key resistance mutations of AZT (K70R/T215Y/T215F), NVP (K103N/Y181C) and 3TC (M184V) at detection limits of <1%. RESULTS: 50/87 HIV-infected women having started complex prophylaxis were eligible for the study. All women took AZT with a median duration of 53 days (IQR 39-64); all women ingested NVP-SD, 86% took 3TC. HIV-1 resistance mutations were detected in 20/50 (40%) women, of which 70% displayed minority species. Variants with AZT-resistance mutations were found in 11/50 (22%), NVP-resistant variants in 9/50 (18%) and 3TC-resistant variants in 4/50 women (8%). Three women harbored resistant HIV-1 against more than one drug. 49/50 infants, including the seven vertically HIV-infected were breastfed, 3/7 infants exhibited drug-resistant virus. CONCLUSION: Complex prophylaxis resulted in lower levels of NVP-selected resistance as compared to NVP-SD, but AZT-resistant HIV-1 emerged in a substantial proportion of women. Starting AZT in pregnancy week 14 instead of 28 as recommended by the current WHO-guidelines may further increase the frequency of AZT-resistance mutations. Given its impact on HIV-transmission rate and drug-resistance development, HAART for all HIV-positive pregnant women should be considered.