Genetic map of the calicivirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus as deduced from in vitro translation studies.
ABSTRACT: The 7.5-kb plus-stranded genomic RNA of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus contains two open reading frames of 7 kb (ORF1) and 351 nucleotides (ORF2) that cover nearly 99% of the genome. The aim of the present study was to identify the proteins encoded in these open reading frames. To this end, a panel of region-specific antisera was generated by immunization of rabbits with bacterially expressed fusion proteins that encompass in total 95% of the ORF1 polyprotein and almost the complete ORF2 polypeptide. The antisera were used to analyze the in vitro translation products of purified virion RNA of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. Our studies show that the N-terminal half of the ORF1 polyprotein is proteolytically cleaved to yield three nonstructural proteins of 16, 23, and 37 kDa (p16, p23, and p37, respectively). In addition, a cleavage product of 41 kDa which is composed of VPg and a putative nonstructural protein of approximately 30 kDa was identified. Together with the results of previous studies which identified a trypsin-like cysteine protease (TCP) of 15 kDa, a putative RNA polymerase (pol) of 58 kDa, and the major capsid protein VP60, our data establish the following gene order in ORF1: NH2-p16-p23-p37 (helicase)-p30-VPg-TCP-pol-VP60-COOH. Immunoblot analyses showed that a minor structural protein of 10 kDa is encoded in ORF2. The data provide the first complete genetic map of a calicivirus. The map reveals a remarkable similarity between caliciviruses and picornaviruses with regard to the number and order of the genes that encode the nonstructural proteins.
Project description:In this study, we report the characterization of a novel calicivirus (CV), the Tulane virus (TV), which was isolated from stool samples of captive juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of the Tulane National Primate Research Center. The complete genome of TV contains 6,714 nucleotides plus a poly(A) tail and is organized into three open reading frames (ORFs) that encode the nonstructural (NS) polyprotein (ORF1); the capsid protein (ORF2), with an estimated molecular mass of 57.9 kDa; and a possible minor structural protein (ORF3), with an isoelectric point (pI) of 10.0 and a calculated molecular mass of 22.8 kDa. The NS polyprotein revealed all typical CV amino acid motifs, including GXXGXGKT (NTPase), EYXEX (Vpg), GDCG (protease), and GLPSG and YGDD (polymerase). Phylogenetic trees constructed for the NS polyprotein, NTPase, protease, polymerase, and capsid protein sequences consistently placed the TV on a branch rooted with Norovirus, but with distances equal to those between other genera. The TV can be cultured in a monkey kidney cell line (LLC-MK2) with the appearance of typical cytopathic effect. TV exhibits a typical CV morphology, with a diameter of 36 nm, and has a buoyant density of 1.37 g/ml. According to these physicochemical and genetic characteristics, TV represents a new CV genus for which we propose the name "Recovirus" (rhesus enteric CV). Although the pathogenicity of TV in rhesus macaques remains to be elucidated, the likelihood of TV causing intestinal infection and the availability of a tissue culture system make this virus a valuable surrogate for human CVs.
Project description:Feline calicivirus (FCV) nonstructural proteins are translated as part of a large polyprotein that undergoes autocatalytic processing by the virus-encoded 3C-like proteinase. In this study, we mapped three new cleavage sites (E(46)/A(47), E(331)/D(332), and E(685)/N(686)) recognized by the virus proteinase in the N-terminal part of the open reading frame 1 (ORF1) polyprotein to complete the processing map. Taken together with two sites we identified previously (E(960)/A(961) and E(1071)/S(1072)), the FCV ORF1 polyprotein contains five cleavage sites that define the borders of six proteins with calculated molecular masses of 5.6, 32, 38.9, 30.1, 12.7, and 75.7 kDa, which we designated p5.6, p32, p39 (NTPase), p30, p13 (VPg), and p76 (Pro-Pol), respectively. Mutagenesis of the E to A in each of these cleavage sites in an infectious FCV cDNA clone was lethal for the virus, indicating that these cleavages are essential in a productive virus infection. Mutagenesis of two cleavage sites (E(1345)/T(1346) and E(1419)/G(1420)) within the 75.7-kDa Pro-Pol protein previously mapped in bacterial expression studies was not lethal.
Project description:The genome of Sapovirus (SaV), a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans and swine, contains either two or three open reading frames (ORFs). Functional motifs characteristic to the 2C-like NTPase (NTPase), VPg, 3C-like protease (Pro), 3D-like RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol), and capsid protein (VP1) are encoded in the ORF1 polyprotein, which is afterwards cleaved into the nonstructural and structural proteins. We recently determined the complete genome sequence of a novel human SaV strain, Mc10, which has two ORFs. To investigate the proteolytic cleavage of SaV ORF1 and the function of protease on the cleavage, both full-length and truncated forms of the ORF1 polyprotein either with or without mutation in (1171)Cys to Ala of the GDCG motif were expressed in an in vitro coupled transcription-translation system. The translation products were analyzed directly by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or by immunoprecipitation with region-specific antibodies. The ORF1 polyprotein was processed into at least 10 major proteins: p11, p28, p35, p32, p14, p70, p60, p66, p46, and p120. Seven of these products were arranged in the following order: NH(2)-p11-p28-p35(NTPase)-p32-p14(VPg)-p70(Pro-Pol)-p60(VP1)-COOH. p66, p46 and p120 were precursors of p28-p35 (NTPase), p32-p14 (VPg), and p32-p14 (VPg)-p70 (Pro-Pol), respectively. Mutagenesis in the 3C-like protease motif fully abolished the proteolytic activity. The cleavage map of SaV ORF1 is similar to those of other heretofore known members of the family Caliciviridae, especially to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, a member of the genus Lagovirus.
Project description:The MD145-12 strain (GII/4) is a member of the genus Norovirus in the Caliciviridae and was detected in a patient with acute gastroenteritis in a Maryland nursing home. The open reading frame 1 (ORF1) (encoding the nonstructural polyprotein) was cloned as a consensus sequence into various expression vectors, and a proteolytic cleavage map was determined. The virus-encoded cysteine proteinase mediated at least five cleavages (Q(330)/G(331), Q(696)/G(697), E(875)/G(876), E(1008)/A(1009), and E(1189)/G(1190)) in the ORF1 polyprotein in the following order: N-terminal protein; nucleoside triphosphatase; 20-kDa protein (p20); virus protein, genome linked (VPg); proteinase (Pro); polymerase (Pol). A time course analysis of proteolytic processing of the MD145-12 ORF1 polyprotein in an in vitro coupled transcription and translation assay allowed the identification of stable precursors and final mapped cleavage products. Stable precursors included p20VPg (analogous to the 3AB of the picornaviruses) and ProPol (analogous to the 3CD of the picornaviruses). Less stable processing intermediates were identified as p20VPgProPol, p20VPgPro, and VPgPro. The MD145-12 Pro and ProPol proteins were expressed in bacteria as active forms of the proteinase and used to further characterize their substrate specificities in trans cleavage assays. The MD145-12 Pro was able to cleave its five mapped cleavage sites in trans and, in addition, could mediate trans cleavage of the Norwalk virus (GI/I) ORF1 polyprotein into a similar proteolytic processing profile. Taken together, our data establish a model for proteolytic processing in the noroviruses that is consistent with nonstructural precursors and products identified in studies of caliciviruses that replicate in cell culture systems.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The ORF1 of hepatitis E virus (HEV) encodes a nonstructural polyprotein of approximately 186 kDa that has putative domains for four enzymes: a methyltransferase, a papain-like cysteine protease, a RNA helicase and a RNA dependent RNA polymerase. In the absence of a culture system for HEV, the ORF1 expressed using bacterial and mammalian expression systems has shown an approximately 186 kDa protein, but no processing of the polyprotein has been observed. Based on these observations, it was proposed that the ORF1 polyprotein does not undergo processing into functional units. We have studied ORF1 polyprotein expression and processing through a baculovirus expression vector system because of the high level expression and post-translational modification abilities of this system. RESULTS:The baculovirus expressed ORF1 polyprotein was processed into smaller fragments that could be detected using antibodies directed against tags engineered at both ends. Processing of this approximately 192 kDa tagged ORF1 polyprotein and accumulation of lower molecular weight species took place in a time-dependent manner. This processing was inhibited by E-64d, a cell-permeable cysteine protease inhibitor. MALDI-TOF analysis of a 35 kDa processed fragment revealed 9 peptide sequences that matched the HEV methyltransferase (MeT), the first putative domain of the ORF1 polyprotein. Antibodies to the MeT region also revealed an ORF1 processing pattern identical to that observed for the N-terminal tag. CONCLUSION:When expressed through baculovirus, the ORF1 polyprotein of HEV was processed into smaller proteins that correlated with their proposed functional domains. Though the involvement of non-cysteine protease(s) could not be be ruled out, this processing mainly depended upon a cysteine protease.
Project description:Murine norovirus (MNV) is presently the only member of the genus Norovirus in the Caliciviridae that can be propagated in cell culture. The goal of this study was to elucidate the proteolytic processing strategy of MNV during an authentic replication cycle in cells. A proteolytic cleavage map of the ORF1 polyprotein was generated, and the virus-encoded 3C-like (3CL) proteinase (Pro) mediated cleavage at five dipeptide cleavage sites, 341E/G342, Q705/N706, 870E/G871, 994E/A995, and 1177Q/G1178, that defined the borders of six proteins with the gene order p38.3 (Nterm)-p39.6 (NTPase)-p18.6-p14.3 (VPg)-p19.2 (Pro)-p57.5 (Pol). Bacterially expressed MNV 3CL Pro was sufficient to mediate trans cleavage of the ORF1 polyprotein containing the mutagenized Pro sequence into products identical to those observed during cotranslational processing of the authentic ORF1 polyprotein in vitro and to those observed in MNV-infected cells. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of proteins produced in virus-infected cells demonstrated efficient cleavage of the proteinase-polymerase precursor. Evidence for additional processing of the Nterm protein in MNV-infected cells by caspase 3 was obtained, and Nterm sequences 118DRPD121 and 128DAMD131 were mapped as caspase 3 cleavage sites by site-directed mutagenesis. The availability of the MNV nonstructural polyprotein cleavage map in concert with a permissive cell culture system should facilitate studies of norovirus replication.
Project description:Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) ORF1 encodes the nonstructural polyprotein wherein a role of PCP-domain in ORF1 proteolysis and/or RNA replication still remains contested. A series of ORF1 mutants of HEV-SAR55 replicon were constructed and tested for viability in S10-3 cells. Six of PCP-'cysteine' (C457A, C459A, C471A, C472A, C481A and C483A) and three 'histidine' (H443L, H497L and H590L) mutants were lethal. Further, a highly conserved 'glycine-triad' (G815-G816-G817) in downstream X-domain, homologous to rubella virus protease-substrate (G1299-G1300-G1301) was identified where two of X-mutants (G816V and G817V) turned lethal. However, all ORF1 sequential nucleotide-mutants conserving the amino acids were viable, which clearly showed post-translational regulation of HEV replication by PCP- and X-domains. Moreover, while vector-expressed ORF1-fusion polyprotein yielded a ~191 kDa band in vitro, it produced ~78 and ~35 kDa fragments ex vivo. Collectively, the indispensability and functional effects of 'PCP-catalytic' and 'X-substrate' residues on HEV replication strongly supported a viral protease.
Project description:Noroviruses (NoV) are members of the family Caliciviridae. The human NoV open reading frame 1 (ORF1) encodes a 200-kDa polyprotein which is cleaved by the viral 20-kDa 3C-like protease (Pro, NS6) into 6 nonstructural proteins that are necessary for viral replication. The NoV ORF1 polyprotein is processed in a specific order, with "early" sites (NS1/2-3 and NS3-4) being cleaved rapidly and three "late" sites (NS4-5, NS5-6, and NS6-7) processed subsequently and less efficiently. Previously, we demonstrated that the NoV polyprotein processing order is directly correlated with the efficiency of the enzyme, which is regulated by the primary amino acid sequences surrounding ORF1 cleavage sites. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides representing the NS2-3 and NS6-7 ORF1 cleavage sites, we now demonstrate that the amino acids spanning positions P4 to P2' (P4-P2') surrounding each site comprise the core sequence controlling NoV protease enzyme efficiency. Furthermore, the NoV polyprotein self-processing order can be altered by interchanging this core sequence between NS2-3 and any of the three late sites in in vitro transcription-translation assays. We also demonstrate that the nature of the side chain at the P3 position for the NS1/2-3 (Nterm/NTPase) site confers significant influence on enzyme catalysis (kcat and kcat/Km), a feature overlooked in previous structural studies. Molecular modeling provides possible explanations for the P3 interactions with NoV protease.Noroviruses (NoV) are the prevailing cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide and pose a significant financial burden on health care systems. Proteolytic processing of the viral nonstructural polyprotein is required for norovirus replication. Previously, the core sequence of amino acids surrounding the scissile bonds responsible for governing the relative processing order had not been determined. Using both FRET-based peptides and full-length NoV polyprotein, we have successfully demonstrated that the core sequences spanning positions P4-P2' surrounding the NS2-3, NS4-5, NS5-6, and NS6-7 cleavage sites contain all of the structural information necessary to control processing order. We also provide insight into a previously overlooked role for the NS2-3 P3 residue in enzyme efficiency. This article builds upon our previous studies on NoV protease enzymatic activities and polyprotein processing order. Our work provides significant additional insight into understanding viral polyprotein processing and has important implications for improving the design of inhibitors targeting the NoV protease.
Project description:Astroviruses have been widely described in mammalian and avian species. Here, we report a complete genome sequence of a novel porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) isolated from a porcine fecal sample in China. The genome consists of 6,611 nucleotides, excluding the 3' poly(A) tail, and has two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 maps between nucleotide positions 19 and 4211 and encodes a 1,396-amino-acid (aa) polyprotein precursor consisting of nonstructural protein and putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and ORF2 maps between nucleotide positions 4202 and 6531 and encodes a 775-aa polyprotein which is a capsid precursor protein. The genome sequence of the virus was distinct enough from those of the known PoAstVs to be considered a novel sequence. Phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted amino acid sequence of the complete capsid region showed that this strain may be a novel porcine astrovirus.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), as the pathogeny of Rabbit haemorrhagic disease, can cause a highly infectious and often fatal disease only affecting wild and domestic rabbits. Recent researches revealed that it, as one number of the Caliciviridae, has some specialties in its genome, its reproduction and so on. RESULTS: In this report, we firstly analyzed its genome and two open reading frameworks (ORFs) from this aspect of codon usage bias. Our researches indicated that mutation pressure rather than natural is the most important determinant in RHDV with high codon bias, and the codon usage bias is nearly contrary between ORF1 and ORF2, which is maybe one of factors regulating the expression of VP60 (encoding by ORF1) and VP10 (encoding by ORF2). Furthermore, negative selective constraints on the RHDV whole genome implied that VP10 played an important role in RHDV lifecycle. CONCLUSIONS: We conjectured that VP10 might be beneficial for the replication, release or both of virus by inducing infected cell apoptosis initiate by RHDV. According to the results of the principal component analysis for ORF2 of RSCU, we firstly separated 30 RHDV into two genotypes, and the ENC values indicated ORF1 and ORF2 were independent among the evolution of RHDV.