Genomotyping of Pseudomonas putida strains using P. putida KT2440-based high-density DNA microarrays: implications for transcriptomics studies.
ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is the only fully sequenced P. putida strain. Thus, for transcriptomics and proteomics studies with other P. putida strains, the P. putida KT2440 genomic database serves as standard reference. The utility of KT2440 whole-genome, high-density oligonucleotide microarrays for transcriptomics studies of other Pseudomonas strains was investigated. To this end, microarray hybridizations were performed with genomic DNAs of subcultures of P. putida KT2440 (DSM6125), the type strain (DSM291(T)), plasmid pWW0-containing KT2440-derivative strain mt-2 (DSM3931), the solvent-tolerant P. putida S12, and several other Pseudomonas strains. Depending on the strain tested, 22 to 99% of all genetic elements were identified in the genomic DNAs. The efficacy of these microarrays to study cellular function was determined for all strains included in the study. The vast majority of DSM6125 genes encoding proteins of primary metabolism and genes involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds were identified in the genomic DNA of strain S12: a prerequisite for reliable transcriptomics analyses. The genomotypic comparisons between Pseudomonas strains were used to construct highly discriminative phylogenetic relationships. DSM6125 and DSM3931 were indistinguishable and clustered together with strain S12 in a separate group, distinct from DSM291(T). Pseudomonas monteilii (DSM14164) clustered well with P. putida strains.
Project description:Microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas putida, utilize specific physical properties of cellular membrane constituents, mainly glycerophospholipids, to (re-)adjust the membrane barrier to environmental stresses. Building a basis for membrane composition/function studies, we inventoried the glycerophospholipids of different Pseudomonas and challenged membranes of growing cells with n-butanol. Using a new high-resolution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method, 127 glycerophospholipid species [e.g. phosphatidylethanolamine PE(32:1)] with up to five fatty acid combinations were detected. The glycerophospholipid inventory consists of 305 distinct glycerophospholipids [e.g. PE(16:0/16:1)], thereof 14 lyso-glycerophospholipids, revealing conserved compositions within the four investigated pseudomonads P. putida KT2440, DOT-T1E, S12 and Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120. Furthermore, we addressed the influence of environmental conditions on the glycerophospholipid composition of Pseudomonas via long-time exposure to the sublethal n-butanol concentration of 1% (v/v), focusing on: (i) relative amounts of glycerophospholipid species, (ii) glycerophospholipid head group composition, (iii) fatty acid chain length, (iv) degree of saturation and (v) cis/trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids. Observed alterations consist of changing head group compositions and for the solvent-sensitive strain KT2440 diminished fatty acid saturation degrees. Minor changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of the solvent-tolerant strains P. putida S12 and Pseudomonas sp. VLB120 suggest different strategies of the investigated Pseudomonas to maintain the barrier function of cellular membranes.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida S12 is highly tolerant of organic solvents in saturating concentrations, rendering this microorganism suitable for the industrial production of various aromatic compounds. Previous studies revealed that P. putida S12 contains the single-copy 583-kbp megaplasmid pTTS12. pTTS12 carries several important operons and gene clusters facilitating P. putida S12 survival and growth in the presence of toxic compounds or other environmental stresses. We wished to revisit and further scrutinize the role of pTTS12 in conferring solvent tolerance. To this end, we cured the megaplasmid from P. putida S12 and conclusively confirmed that the SrpABC efflux pump is the major determinant of solvent tolerance on the megaplasmid pTTS12. In addition, we identified a novel toxin-antitoxin module (proposed gene names slvT and slvA, respectively) encoded on pTTS12 which contributes to the solvent tolerance phenotype and is important for conferring stability to the megaplasmid. Chromosomal introduction of the srp operon in combination with the slvAT gene pair created a solvent tolerance phenotype in non-solvent-tolerant strains, such as P. putida KT2440, Escherichia coli TG1, and E. coli BL21(DE3).IMPORTANCE Sustainable alternatives for high-value chemicals can be achieved by using renewable feedstocks in bacterial biocatalysis. However, during the bioproduction of such chemicals and biopolymers, aromatic compounds that function as products, substrates, or intermediates in the production process may exert toxicity to microbial host cells and limit the production yield. Therefore, solvent tolerance is a highly preferable trait for microbial hosts in the biobased production of aromatic chemicals and biopolymers. In this study, we revisit the essential role of megaplasmid pTTS12 from solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 for molecular adaptation to an organic solvent. In addition to the solvent extrusion pump (SrpABC), we identified a novel toxin-antitoxin module (SlvAT) which contributes to short-term tolerance in moderate solvent concentrations, as well as to the stability of pTTS12. These two gene clusters were successfully expressed in non-solvent-tolerant strains of P. putida and Escherichia coli strains to confer and enhance solvent tolerance.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida is a gram-negative rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium that is found throughout various environments. Members of the species P. putida show a diverse spectrum of metabolic activities, which is indicative of their adaptation to various niches, which includes the ability to live in soils and sediments contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Pseudomonas putida strains are also found as plant growth-promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. The genome sequences of several P. putida species have become available and provide a unique tool to study the specific niche adaptation of the various P. putida strains. In this review, we compare the genomes of four P. putida strains: the rhizospheric strain KT2440, the endophytic strain W619, the aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading strain F1 and the manganese-oxidizing strain GB-1. Comparative genomics provided a powerful tool to gain new insights into the adaptation of P. putida to specific lifestyles and environmental niches, and clearly demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer played a key role in this adaptation process, as many of the niche-specific functions were found to be encoded on clearly defined genomic islands.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida strains are being developed as microbial production hosts for production of a range of amphiphilic and hydrophobic biochemicals. P. putida's obligate aerobic growth thereby can be an economical and technical challenge because it requires constant rigorous aeration and often causes reactor foaming. Here, we engineered a strain of P. putida KT2440 that can produce phenazine redox-mediators from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to allow partial redox balancing with an electrode under oxygen-limited conditions. P. aeruginosa is known to employ its phenazine-type redox mediators for electron exchange with an anode in bioelectrochemical systems (BES). We transferred the seven core phenazine biosynthesis genes phzA-G and the two specific genes phzM and phzS required for pyocyanin synthesis from P. aeruginosa on two inducible plasmids into P. putida KT2440. The best clone, P. putida pPhz, produced 45 mg/L pyocyanin over 25 h of growth, which was visible as blue color formation and is comparable to the pyocyanin production of P. aeruginosa. This new strain was then characterized under different oxygen-limited conditions with electrochemical redox control and changes in central energy metabolism were evaluated in comparison to the unmodified P. putida KT2440. In the new strain, phenazine synthesis with supernatant concentrations up to 33 ?g/mL correlated linearly with the ability to discharge electrons to an anode, whereby phenazine-1-carboxylic acid served as the dominating redox mediator. P. putida pPhz sustained strongly oxygen-limited metabolism for up to 2 weeks at up to 12 ?A/cm(2) anodic current density. Together, this work lays a foundation for future oxygen-limited biocatalysis with P. putida strains.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida is rapidly becoming a workhorse for industrial production due to its metabolic versatility, genetic accessibility and stress-resistance properties. The P. putida strain KT2440 is often described as Generally Regarded as Safe, or GRAS, indicating the strain is safe to use as food additive. This description is incorrect. P. putida KT2440 is classified by the FDA as HV1 certified, indicating it is safe to use in a P1 or ML1 environment.
Project description:Since high-value bacterial secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, are often naturally produced in only low amounts, their efficient biosynthesis typically requires the transfer of entire metabolic pathways into suitable bacterial hosts like Pseudomonas putida. Stable maintenance and sufficient expression of heterologous pathway-encoding genes in host microbes, however, still remain key challenges. In this study, the 21?kb prodigiosin gene cluster from Serratia marcescens was used as a reporter to identify genomic sites in P. putida KT2440 especially suitable for maintenance and expression of pathway genes. After generation of a strain library by random Tn5 transposon-based chromosomal integration of the cluster, 50 strains exhibited strong prodigiosin production. Remarkably, chromosomal integration sites were exclusively identified in the seven rRNA-encoding rrn operons of P. putida. We could further demonstrate that prodigiosin production was mainly dependent on (i) the individual rrn operon where the gene cluster was inserted as well as (ii) the distance between the rrn promoter and the inserted prodigiosin biosynthetic genes. In addition, the recombinant strains showed high stability upon subculturing for many generations. Consequently, our findings demonstrate the general applicability of rDNA loci as chromosomal integration sites for gene cluster expression and recombinant pathway implementation in P. putida KT2440.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a metabolically versatile, HV1-certified, genetically accessible, and thus interesting microbial chassis for biotechnological applications. However, its obligate aerobic nature hampers production of oxygen sensitive products and drives up costs in large scale fermentation. The inability to perform anaerobic fermentation has been attributed to insufficient ATP production and an inability to produce pyrimidines under these conditions. Addressing these bottlenecks enabled growth under micro-oxic conditions but does not lead to growth or survival under anoxic conditions.<h4>Results</h4>Here, a data-driven approach was used to develop a rational design for a P. putida KT2440 derivative strain capable of anaerobic respiration. To come to the design, data derived from a genome comparison of 1628 Pseudomonas strains was combined with genome-scale metabolic modelling simulations and a transcriptome dataset of 47 samples representing 14 environmental conditions from the facultative anaerobe Pseudomonas aeruginosa.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results indicate that the implementation of anaerobic respiration in P. putida KT2440 would require at least 49 additional genes of known function, at least 8 genes encoding proteins of unknown function, and 3 externally added vitamins.
Project description:As an important method for building blocks synthesis, whole cell biocatalysis is hindered by some shortcomings such as unpredictability of reactions, utilization of opportunistic pathogen, and side reactions. Due to its biological and extensively studied genetic background, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is viewed as a promising host for construction of efficient biocatalysts. After analysis and reconstruction of the lactate utilization system in the P. putida strain, a novel biocatalyst that only exhibited NAD-independent D-lactate dehydrogenase activity was prepared and used in L-2-hydroxy-carboxylates production. Since the side reaction catalyzed by the NAD-independent L-lactate dehydrogenase was eliminated in whole cells of recombinant P. putida KT2440, two important L-2-hydroxy-carboxylates (L-lactate and L-2-hydroxybutyrate) were produced in high yield and high optical purity by kinetic resolution of racemic 2-hydroxy carboxylic acids. The results highlight the promise in biocatalysis by the biotechnologically important organism P. putida KT2440 through genomic analysis and recombination.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a well-established chassis in industrial biotechnology. To increase the substrate spectrum, we implemented three alternative xylose utilization pathways, namely the Isomerase, Weimberg, and Dahms pathways. The synthetic operons contain genes from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas taiwanensis. For isolating the Dahms pathway in P. putida KT2440 two genes (PP_2836 and PP_4283), encoding an endogenous enzyme of the Weimberg pathway and a regulator for glycolaldehyde degradation, were deleted. Before and after adaptive laboratory evolution, these strains were characterized in terms of growth and synthesis of mono-rhamnolipids and pyocyanin. The engineered strain using the Weimberg pathway reached the highest maximal growth rate of 0.30 h?1. After adaptive laboratory evolution the lag phase was reduced significantly. The highest titers of 720 mg L?1 mono-rhamnolipids and 30 mg L?1 pyocyanin were reached by the evolved strain using the Weimberg or an engineered strain using the Isomerase pathway, respectively. The different stoichiometries of the three xylose utilization pathways may allow engineering of tailored chassis for valuable bioproduct synthesis.