Genetic homogeneity of autoimmune polyglandular disease type I.
ABSTRACT: Autoimmune polyglandular disease type I (APECED) is an autosomal recessive autoimmune disease (MIM 240300) characterized by hypoparathyroidism, primary adrenocortical failure, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. The disease is highly prevalent in two isolated populations, the Finnish population and the Iranian Jewish one. Sporadic cases have been identified in many other countries, including almost all European countries. The APECED locus has previously been assigned to chromosome 21q22.3 by linkage analyses in 14 Finnish families. Locus heterogeneity is a highly relevant question in this disease affecting multiple tissues and with great phenotypic diversity. To solve this matter, we performed linkage and haplotype analyses on APECED families rising from different populations. Six microsatellite markers on the critical chromosomal region of 2.6 cM on 21q22.3 were analyzed. Pairwise linkage analyses revealed significant LOD scores for all these markers, maximum LOD score being 10.23. The obtained haplotype data and the geographic distribution of the great-grandparents of the Finnish APECED patients suggest the presence of one major, relatively old mutation responsible for approximately 90% of the Finnish cases. Similar evidence for one founder mutation was also found in analyses of Iranian Jewish APECED haplotypes. These haplotypes, however, differed totally from the Finnish ones. The linkage analyses in 21 non-Finnish APECED families originating from several European countries provided independent evidence for linkage to the same chromosomal region on 21q22.3 and revealed no evidence for locus heterogeneity. The haplotype analyses of APECED chromosomes suggest that in different populations APECED is due to a spectrum of mutations in a still unknown gene on chromosome 21.
Project description:Tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD) is a rare autosomal dominant distal myopathy with late adult onset. The phenotype is relatively mild: muscle weakness manifests in the patient's early 40s and remains confined to the tibial anterior muscles. Histopathological changes in muscle are compatible with muscular dystrophy, with the exception that rimmed vacuoles are a rather common finding. We performed a genomewide scan, with 279 highly polymorphic Cooperative Human Linkage Center microsatellite markers, on 11 affected individuals of one Finnish TMD family. The only evidence for linkage emerged from markers in a 43-cM region on chromosome 2q. In further linkage analyses, which included three other Finnish TMD families and which used a denser set of markers, a maximum two-point LOD score of 10.14 (recombination fraction of .05) was obtained with marker D2S364. Multipoint likelihood calculations, combined with the haplotype and recombination analyses, restricted the TMD locus to an approximately 1-cM critical chromosomal region without any evidence of heterogeneity. Since all the affecteds share one core haplotype, the dominance of one ancestor mutation is obvious in the Finnish TMD families. The disease locus that was found represents a novel muscular dystrophy locus, providing evidence for the involvement of one additional gene in the distal myopathy group of muscle disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Myopia is one of most common eye diseases in the world and affects 1 in 4 Americans. It is a complex disease caused by both environmental and genetics effects; the genetics effects are still not well understood. In this study, we performed genetic linkage analyses on Ashkenazi Jewish families with a strong familial history of myopia to elucidate any potential causal genes. METHODS:Sixty-four extended Ashkenazi Jewish families were previously collected from New Jersey. Genotypes from the Illumina ExomePlus array were merged with prior microsatellite linkage data from these families. Additional custom markers were added for candidate regions reported in literature for myopia or refractive error. Myopia was defined as mean spherical equivalent (MSE) of -1D or worse and parametric two-point linkage analyses (using TwoPointLods) and multi-point linkage analyses (using SimWalk2) were performed as well as collapsed haplotype pattern (CHP) analysis in SEQLinkage and association analyses performed with FBAT and rv-TDT. RESULTS:Strongest evidence of linkage was on 1p36(two-point LOD?=?4.47) a region previously linked to refractive error (MYP14) but not myopia. Another genome-wide significant locus was found on 8q24.22 with a maximum two-point LOD score of 3.75. CHP analysis also detected the signal on 1p36, localized to the LINC00339 gene with a maximum HLOD of 3.47, as well as genome-wide significant signals on 7q36.1 and 11p15, which overlaps with the MYP7 locus. CONCLUSIONS:We identified 2 novel linkage peaks for myopia on chromosomes 7 and 8 in these Ashkenazi Jewish families and replicated 2 more loci on chromosomes 1 and 11, one previously reported in refractive error but not myopia in these families and the other locus previously reported in the literature. Strong candidate genes have been identified within these linkage peaks in our families. Targeted sequencing in these regions will be necessary to definitively identify causal variants under these linkage peaks.
Project description:Congenital microphthalmia is a common developmental ocular disorder characterized by shortened axial length. Isolated microphthalmia is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and may be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner. Here, we studied a five-generation family of Sephardic Jewish origin that included 38 members, of whom 7 have either unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia of variable severity inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. After exclusion of several candidate loci, we performed a genome-scan study and demonstrated linkage to chromosome 15q12-q15. Positive LOD scores were obtained with a maximum at the D15S1007 locus (maximum LOD score 3.77, at recombination fraction 0.00). Haplotype analyses supported the location of the disease-causing gene in a 13.8-cM interval between loci D15S1002 and D15S1040.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex genetic disorder of two major phenotypes, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), with increased risk in Ashkenazi Jews. Twelve genome-wide linkage screens have identified multiple loci, but these screens have been of modest size and have used low-density microsatellite markers. We, therefore, performed a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide linkage study of 993 IBD multiply affected pedigrees (25% Jewish ancestry) that contained 1709 IBD-affected relative pairs, including 919 CD-CD pairs and 312 UC-UC pairs. We identified a significant novel CD locus on chromosome 13p13.3 (peak logarithm of the odds (LOD) score=3.98) in all pedigrees, significant linkage evidence on chromosomes 1p35.1 (peak LOD score=3.5) and 3q29 (peak LOD score=3.19) in Jewish CD pedigrees, and suggestive loci for Jewish IBD on chromosome 10q22 (peak LOD score=2.57) and Jewish UC on chromosome 2q24 (peak LOD score=2.69). Nominal or greater linkage evidence was present for most previously designated IBD loci (IBD1-9), notably, IBD1 for CD families at chromosome 16q12.1 (peak LOD score=4.86) and IBD6 in non-Jewish UC families at chromosome 19p12 (peak LOD score=2.67). This study demonstrates the ability of high information content adequately powered SNP genome-wide linkage studies to identify loci not observed in multiple microsatellite-based studies in smaller cohorts.
Project description:A previous genome-wide study in Orthodox Ashkenazi Jewish pedigrees showed significant linkage of ocular refraction to a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) on 1p34-36.1. We carried out a fine-mapping study of this region in Orthodox Ashkenazi Jewish (ASHK) and Old Order Amish (OOA) families to confirm linkage and narrow the candidate region.Families were recruited from ASHK and OOA American communities. The samples included: 402 individuals in 53 OOA families; and 596 members in 68 ASHK families. Families were ascertained to contain multiple myopic individuals. Genotyping of 1,367 SNPs was carried out within a 35cM (approximately 23.9 Mb) candidate QTL region on 1p34-36. Multipoint variance components (VC) and regression-based (REG) linkage analyses were carried out separately in OOA and ASHK groups, and in a combined analysis that included all families.Evidence of linkage of refractive error was found in both OOA (VC LOD=3.45, REG LOD=3.38 at approximately 59 cM) and ASHK families (VC LOD=3.12, REG LOD=4.263 at ~66 cM). Combined analyses showed three highly significant linkage peaks, separated by approximately 11cM (or 10 Mb), within the candidate region.In a fine-mapping linkage study of OOA and ASHK families, we have confirmed linkage of refractive error to a QTL on 1p. The area of linkage has been narrowed down to a gene-rich region at 1p34.2-35.1 containing ~124 genes.
Project description:To identify genetic loci for autism-spectrum disorders, we have performed a two-stage genomewide scan in 38 Finnish families. The detailed clinical examination of all family members revealed infantile autism, but also Asperger syndrome (AS) and developmental dysphasia, in the same set of families. The most significant evidence for linkage was found on chromosome 3q25-27, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.31 (Z(max )(dom)) for D3S3037, using infantile autism and AS as an affection status. Six markers flanking over a 5-cM region on 3q gave Z(max dom) >3, and a maximum parametric multipoint LOD score (MLS) of 4.81 was obtained in the vicinity of D3S3715 and D3S3037. Association, linkage disequilibrium, and haplotype analyses provided some evidence for shared ancestor alleles on this chromosomal region among affected individuals, especially in the regional subisolate. Additional potential susceptibility loci with two-point LOD scores >2 were observed on chromosomes 1q21-22 and 7q. The region on 1q21-22 overlaps with the previously reported candidate region for infantile autism and schizophrenia, whereas the region on chromosome 7q provided evidence for linkage 58 cM distally from the previously described autism susceptibility locus (AUTS1).
Project description:Combined factor V-factor VIII deficiency (F5F8D) is a rare, autosomal recessive coagulation disorder in which the levels of both coagulation factor V and coagulation factor VIII are diminished. In order to map and subsequently clone the gene responsible for this phenotype, DNAs from 19 families (16 from Iran, 2 from Pakistan, and 1 from Algeria) with a total of 32 affected individuals were collected for a genomewide linkage search using genotypes of highly informative DNA polymorphisms. All pedigrees except two contained at least one consanguineous marriage. A maximum LOD score (Zmax) of 14.82 for theta = .02 was generated with marker D18S1129 in 18q21; LOD scores > 9 were obtained for several other markers-D18S849, D18S1103, D18S64, and D18S862. Multipoint analysis resulted in Zmax = 18.91 for the interval between D18S1129 and D18S64. Informative recombinants placed the locus for F5F8D between D18S849 and D18S1103, in an interval of approximately 1 cM. These results are similar to the recently reported linkage of this disease to chromosome 18q in Jewish families (Nichols et al. 1997) and provide evidence that the same gene is responsible for all F5F8D among human populations. The difference in clinical severity of the phenotype in unrelated families, as well as the failure to detect a specific haplotype of DNA polymorphisms in the consanguineous Iranian families, suggests the existence of different molecular defects in the F5F8D gene. There exists an apparently gap-free contig with CEPH YACs linking the two markers on either side of the critical region. Positional cloning efforts are now in progress to clone the F5F8D gene.
Project description:Similarities in biochemical findings have suggested that Salla disease (SD) and the infantile form of sialic acid storage disease (ISSD) could represent allelic disorders, despite their drastically different clinical phenotypes. SD and ISSD are both characterized by lysosomal storage of free N-acetyl neuraminic acid. However, in SD the increase detected in urine is 8-24-fold, whereas in ISSD the corresponding amount is 20-50-fold and patients are also more severely affected. Here we report linkage studies in 50 Finnish SD families and 26 non-Finnish families with no genealogical connections to Finns affected either with the Finnish type of SD, the "intermediate" form of the disease, or ISSD. All forms of the disease show linkage to the same locus on 6q14-q15. Haplotype analyses of Finnish SD chromosomes revealed one common haplotype, which was also seen in most of the non-Finnish patients with Finnish type of SD. This ancestral haplotype deviated from those observed in ISSD patients, who had a different common haplotype.
Project description:Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of Univerricht-Lundborg type is a clinically defined entity among the progressive myoclonus epilepsies. It is an autosomal recessive disorder. The underlying biochemical defect is unknown. We used linkage analysis to localize the gene in 12 families with the aid of polymorphic DNA markers. Close linkage was detected with three markers on distal chromosome 21. The loci BCEI and D21S154 gave the highest positive logarithm-of-odds (lod) scores of 5.49 and 4.25, respectively, at zero recombination. The third locus, D21S112, gave a lod score of 6.91 at a recombination fraction of 0.034. There was no evidence of heterogeneity. Multipoint lod scores calculated against a fixed map of the three marker loci gave a maximum four-point lod score of 10.08 at a location of the disease gene at 6.0 centimorgans distal to locus BCEI and 0.8 centimorgan proximal to locus D21S154. As markers BCEI and D21S154 have previously been localized to 21q22.3 by physical methods, our findings place the EMP1 gene locus (for progressive myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht-Lundborg type) in chromosome 21 band q22.3. This finding provides an opportunity to test several other epilepsy phenotypes, particularly the so-called Ramsay Hunt syndrome, for linkage to the same locus. It also is a starting point toward isolating and characterizing the gene and its protein product.
Project description:Crohn disease (CD) exhibits a 2-4-fold increased frequency in Jews as compared with other ethnic/racial groups. Three coding variants of the NOD2/CARD15 have been reported as independent disease-predisposing mutations (DPMs), but these were found in only 30%-40% of patients with CD and could not account for all the linkage between CD and the IBD1 locus. The aim of the present study was to explore whether additional DPMs at the IBD1 locus exist in the high-risk Jewish group. Sixty-four Ashkenazi Jewish and 147 non-Jewish white families were studied. Six microsatellite markers spanning IBD1 were genotyped for linkage analysis in subgroups stratified on NOD2/CARD15 DPM status. SNPs in NOD2/CARD15 (R702W, G908R, 1007fs, and S268P) were then genotyped in family and independent case-control samples. On the basis of initial results, sequencing was done on NOD2/CARD15-translated regions in 12 Jewish individuals. Subsequently, a new NOD2/CARD15 variant was genotyped and analyzed. After excluding the influence of the three DPMs, significant linkage of IBD1 to CD in Jews remained with two peaks at D16S403 (mean allele sharing [MAS] = 0.70] and D16S411 (MAS = 0.59). Further, we observed an increased frequency of a haplotype carrying only the 268S variant in Jewish patients (OR = 3.13, P=.0023) but not in non-Jews, suggesting the existence of a Jewish-specific additional disease-predisposing factor on this haplotype. Sequencing of this haplotype revealed a new variant (IVS8+158; JW1). The 268S-JW1 combination exhibited a further increased risk (OR = 5.75, P=.0005) and the highest population-attributable risk (15.1%) for CD among reported DPMs in Jews. In Ashkenazi Jews, unrecognized population-specific predisposing factor(s) exist on the 268S-JW1 haplotype at the IBD1 locus. This factor may contribute to the higher risk for CD in Ashkenazi Jews as compared with non-Jews.