Identification of two homologs of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) in retroperitoneal fibromatosis of different macaque species.
ABSTRACT: Simian retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) is a vascular fibroproliferative neoplasm which has many morphological and histological similarities to human Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Like epidemic KS in AIDS patients, RF is highly associated with an immunodeficiency syndrome (simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [SAIDS]) caused by a retrovirus infection. Recently, a new gammaherpesvirus, called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), has been identified in KS tumors, suggesting that KS has a viral etiology. Our previous experimental transmission studies and epidemiological data suggest that RF also has an infectious etiology. In order to determine whether a similar virus is also associated with RF, we have assayed for the presence of an unknown herpesvirus using degenerate PCR primers targeting the highly conserved DNA polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family. Here we provide DNA sequence evidence for two new herpesviruses closely related to KSHV from RF tissues of two macaque species, Macaca nemestrina and Macaca mulatta. Our data suggest that KSHV and the putative macaque herpesviruses define a new group within the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae whose members are implicated in the pathogenesis of KS and KS-like neoplasms in different primate species.
Project description:We have cloned and characterized the entire DNA polymerase gene and flanking regions from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and two closely related macaque homologs of KSHV, retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus-Macaca nemestrina (RFHVMn) and -Macaca mulatta (RFHVMm). We have also identified and partially characterized the corresponding genomic region of another KSHV-like herpesvirus, provisionally named "M. nemestrina rhadinovirus type 2 (MneRV-2)," with close similarity to rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV). A sequence comparison of these four macaque viruses and two KSHV-like gammaherpesviruses recently identified in African green monkeys, Chlorocebus rhadinovirus types 1 and 2 (ChRV-1 and ChRV-2) reveals the presence of two distinct lineages of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses in Old World primates. The first rhadinovirus lineage consists of KSHV and its closely related homologs RFHVMn, RFHVMm, and ChRV-1, while the second more distantly related lineage consists of RRV, MneRV-2, and ChRV-2. Our findings raise the possibility of the existence of another human KSHV-like herpesvirus belonging to the second rhadinovirus lineage.
Project description:The complete sequence of retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus Macaca nemestrina (RFHVMn), the pig-tailed macaque homolog of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), was determined by next-generation sequence analysis of a Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-like macaque tumor. Colinearity of genes was observed with the KSHV genome, and the core herpesvirus genes had strong sequence homology to the corresponding KSHV genes. RFHVMn lacked homologs of open reading frame 11 (ORF11) and KSHV ORFs K5 and K6, which appear to have been generated by duplication of ORFs K3 and K4 after the divergence of KSHV and RFHV. RFHVMn contained positional homologs of all other unique KSHV genes, although some showed limited sequence similarity. RFHVMn contained a number of candidate microRNA genes. Although there was little sequence similarity with KSHV microRNAs, one candidate contained the same seed sequence as the positional homolog, kshv-miR-K12-10a, suggesting functional overlap. RNA transcript splicing was highly conserved between RFHVMn and KSHV, and strong sequence conservation was noted in specific promoters and putative origins of replication, predicting important functional similarities. Sequence comparisons indicated that RFHVMn and KSHV developed in long-term synchrony with the evolution of their hosts, and both viruses phylogenetically group within the RV1 lineage of Old World primate rhadinoviruses. RFHVMn is the closest homolog of KSHV to be completely sequenced and the first sequenced RV1 rhadinovirus homolog of KSHV from a nonhuman Old World primate. The strong genetic and sequence similarity between RFHVMn and KSHV, coupled with similarities in biology and pathology, demonstrate that RFHVMn infection in macaques offers an important and relevant model for the study of KSHV in humans.
Project description:Primate gamma-2 herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) have so far been found in humans (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV], also called human herpesvirus 8), macaques (Macaca spp.) (rhesus rhadinovirus [RRV] and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus [RFHV]), squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) (herpesvirus saimiri), and spider monkeys (Ateles spp.) (herpesvirus ateles). Using serological screening and degenerate consensus primer PCR for the viral DNA polymerase gene, we have detected sequences from two distinct gamma-2 herpesviruses, termed Chlorocebus rhadinovirus 1 (ChRV1) and ChRV2, in African green monkeys. ChRV1 is more closely related to KSHV and RFHV, whereas ChRV2 is closest to RRV. Our findings suggest the existence of two distinct rhadinovirus lineages, represented by the KSHV/RFHV/ChRV1 group and the RRV/ChRV2 group, respectively, in at least two Old World monkey species. Antibodies to members of the RRV/ChRV2 lineage may cross-react in an immunofluorescence assay for early and late KSHV antigens.
Project description:We previously identified retroperitoneal fibromatosis-associated herpesvirus (RFHV) as a simian homolog of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in a fibroproliferative malignancy of macaques that has similarities to Kaposi's sarcoma. In this report, we cloned 4.3 kb of divergent locus B (DL-B) flanking the DNA polymerase gene from two variants of RFHV from different species of macaque with a consensus degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer approach. Within the DL-B region of RFHV, viral homologs of the cellular interleukin-6, dihydrofolate reductase, and thymidylate synthase genes were identified, along with a homolog of the gammaherpesvirus open reading frame (ORF) 10. In addition, a homolog of the KSHV ORF K3, the modulator of immune recognition-1, was identified. Our data show a close similarity in sequence conservation, gene content, and genomic structure between RFHV and KSHV which strongly supports the grouping of these viral species within the same RV-1 rhadinovirus lineage and the hypothesis that RFHV is the macaque homolog of KSHV.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and lymphoproliferative diseases induced by KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/human herpesvirus 8) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. To understand KSHV biology it is useful to investigate closely related rhadinoviruses naturally occurring in nonhuman primates. Here we report evidence for a novel KSHV homolog in captive baboon species (Papio anubis and other). Using degenerate PCR we identified a novel rhadinovirus, PapRV2, that has substantial sequence identity to two essential KSHV genes, the viral polymerase and thymidylate synthase. A subset of animals exhibited detectable PapRV2 viral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Extensive serological analysis of nearly 200 animals in the colony demonstrated that the majority carried cross-reacting antibodies that recognize KSHV or macaque rhadinovirus antigens. Seroreactivity increased with age, similar to the age-specific prevalence of KSHV in the human population. This establishes baboons as a novel resource to investigate rhadinovirus biology, which can be developed into an animal model system for KSHV-associated human diseases, vaccine development, and therapy evaluation.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of commonly fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A hallmark of all herpesviruses is their biphasic life cycle-viral latency and the productive lytic cycle-and it is well established that reactivation of the KSHV lytic cycle is associated with KS pathogenesis. Therefore, a thorough appreciation of the mechanisms that govern reactivation is required to better understand disease progression. The viral protein replication and transcription activator (RTA) is the KSHV lytic switch protein due to its ability to drive the expression of various lytic genes, leading to reactivation of the entire lytic cycle. While the mechanisms for activating lytic gene expression have received much attention, how RTA impacts cellular function is less well understood. To address this, we developed a cell line with doxycycline-inducible RTA expression and applied stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. Using this methodology, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain containing 3B [ARID3B]) whose expression was enhanced by RTA and that relocalized to replication compartments upon lytic reactivation. We also show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or overexpression of ARID3B led to an enhancement or inhibition of lytic reactivation, respectively. Furthermore, DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ARID3B specifically interacts with A/T-rich elements in the KSHV origin of lytic replication (oriLyt), and this was dependent on lytic cycle reactivation. Therefore, we have identified a novel cellular protein whose expression is enhanced by KSHV RTA with the ability to inhibit KSHV reactivation.Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Herpesviruses are able to establish a latent infection, in which they escape immune detection by restricting viral gene expression. Importantly, however, reactivation of productive viral replication (the lytic cycle) is necessary for the pathogenesis of KS. Therefore, it is important that we comprehensively understand the mechanisms that govern lytic reactivation, to better understand disease progression. In this study, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain protein 3B [ARID3B]) that we show is able to temper lytic reactivation. We showed that the master lytic switch protein, RTA, enhanced ARID3B levels, which then interacted with viral DNA in a lytic cycle-dependent manner. Therefore, we have added a new factor to the list of cellular proteins that regulate the KSHV lytic cycle, which has implications for our understanding of KSHV biology.
Project description:A simian homologue of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the eighth human herpesvirus (HHV8), was isolated from a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) that developed a multicentric lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). This simian rhadinovirus is genetically similar to a recently described rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) (Desrosiers, R.C., V.G. Sasseville, S.C. Czajak, X. Zhang, K.G. Mansfield, A. Kaur, R.P. Johnson, A.A. Lackner, and J.U. Jung. 1997. J. Virol. 71:9764-9769) and is designated RRV 17577. RRV 17577 was experimentally inoculated into rhesus macaques with and without SIV(mac239) infection to determine if RRV played a role in development of the LPD observed in the index case. In contrast to control animals inoculated with SIV(mac239) or RRV alone, two animals coinfected with SIV(mac239) and RRV 17577 developed hyperplastic LPD resembling the multicentric plasma cell variant of Castleman's disease, characterized by persistent angiofollicular lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Hypergammaglobulinemia was associated with severe immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in one RRV/SIV-infected macaque. Both RRV/SIV-infected macaques exhibited persistent RRV viremia with little or no RRV-specific antibody response. The macaques inoculated with RRV alone displayed transient viremia followed by a vigorous anti-RRV antibody response and lacked evidence of LPD in peripheral blood and lymph nodes. Infectious RRV and RRV DNA were present in hyperplastic lymphoid tissues of the RRV/SIV-infected macaques, suggesting that lymphoid hyperplasia is associated with the high levels of replication. Thus, experimental RRV 17577 infection of SIV-infected rhesus macaques induces some of the hyperplastic B cell LPDs manifested in AIDS patients coinfected with KSHV.
Project description:Old World monkeys and, recently, African great apes have been shown, by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to harbor different gamma2-herpesviruses closely related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV). Although the presence of two distinct lineages of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses, RV1 and RV2, has been revealed in Old World primates (including African green monkeys, macaques, and, recently, mandrills), viruses belonging to the RV2 genogroup have not yet been identified from great apes. Indeed, the three yet known gamma2-herpesviruses in chimpanzees (PanRHV1a/PtRV1, PanRHV1b) and gorillas (GorRHV1) belong to the RV1 group. To investigate the putative existence of a new RV2 Rhadinovirus in chimpanzees and gorillas we have used the degenerate consensus primer PCR strategy for the Herpesviral DNA polymerase gene on 40 wild-caught animals. This study led to the discovery, in common chimpanzees, of a novel gamma2-herpesvirus belonging to the RV2 genogroup, termed Pan Rhadino-herpesvirus 2 (PanRHV2). Use of specific primers and internal oligonucleotide probes demonstrated the presence of this novel gamma2-herpesvirus in three wild-caught animals. Comparison of a 1092-bp fragment of the DNA polymerase obtained from these three animals of the Pan troglodytes troglodytes subspecies, one from Gabon and the two others from Cameroon, revealed <1% of nucleotide divergence. The geographic colocalization as well as the phylogenetic "relationship" of the human and simian gamma2-herpesviruses support the model according to which herpesviruses have diversified from a common ancestor in a manner mediating cospeciation of herpesviruses with their host species. By demonstrating the existence of two distinct Rhadinovirus lineages in common chimpanzees, our finding indicates the possible existence of a novel human gamma2-herpesvirus belonging to the RV2 genogroup.
Project description:Since Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8) was first identified in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions of HIV-infected individuals with AIDS, the basic biological understanding of KSHV has progressed remarkably. However, the absence of a proper animal model for KSHV continues to impede direct in vivo studies of viral replication, persistence, and pathogenesis. In response to this need for an animal model of KSHV infection, we have explored whether common marmosets can be experimentally infected with human KSHV. Here, we report the successful zoonotic transmission of KSHV into common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, Cj), a New World primate. Marmosets infected with recombinant KSHV rapidly seroconverted and maintained a vigorous anti-KSHV antibody response. KSHV DNA and latent nuclear antigen (LANA) were readily detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and various tissues of infected marmosets. Remarkably, one orally infected marmoset developed a KS-like skin lesion with the characteristic infiltration of leukocytes by spindle cells positive for KSHV DNA and proteins. These results demonstrate that human KSHV infects common marmosets, establishes an efficient persistent infection, and occasionally leads to a KS-like skin lesion. This is the first animal model to significantly elaborate the important aspects of KSHV infection in humans and will aid in the future design of vaccines against KSHV and anti-viral therapies targeting KSHV coinfected tumor cells.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), including AIDS-KS, endemic KS, classic KS and iatrogenic KS. Based on Open reading frame (ORF) K1 sequence analysis, KSHV has been classified into seven major molecular subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, F and Z). The distribution of KSHV strains varies according to geography and ethnicity. Xinjiang is a unique region where the seroprevalence of KSHV is significantly higher than other parts of China. The genotyping of KSHV strains in this region has not been thoroughly studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of KSHV genotypes isolated from KS tissues in Classical KS and AIDS KS patients from Xinjiang, China. ORF-K1 of KSHV from tissue samples of 28 KS patients was amplified and sequenced. Two subtypes of KSHV were identified according to K1 genotyping. Twenty-three of them belonged to subtype A, while five of them were subtype C. More genotype A than genotype C strains were found in both Classical KS and AIDS KS. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of different genotype between Classical KS and AIDS KS.