Phorbol esters inhibit smooth muscle contractions through activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase.
ABSTRACT: 1. The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in agonist-induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle has been investigated. 2. The phorbol esters, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), relaxed tissues precontracted by submaximal concentrations of carbachol, histamine or substance P. 3. This inhibitory action of the phorbol esters was reversed following the application of ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Similarly, pretreatment with ouabain inhibited the ability of phorbol esters to relax tissues precontracted by the above agonists. 4. The slow relaxation of the tonic component of contraction induced by submaximal concentrations of carbachol and histamine, and all concentrations of substance P, was abolished in the presence of ouabain. 5. In Na(+)-loaded tissues, PDBu and carbachol caused a concentration-dependent increase of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, assessed by ouabain-sensitive 86Rb(+)-uptake. Extrusion of Na+, assessed by the cellular content of the ion, was also stimulated by PDBu (the effect of carbachol was not investigated). 6. We conclude that phorbol esters inhibit the tonic component of contractions induced by submaximal concentrations of these agonists through activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. We suggest that PKC may exert feedback control over the tonic component of agonist contractions through stimulation of the pump.
Project description:1. We have investigated the effect of phorbol esters and the down-regulation of protein kinase C on contraction of guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle to carbachol and high K+. 2. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) enhanced the phasic component and inhibited or enhanced, respectively, the tonic component of contraction to carbachol and high K+. In contrast, 4 alpha-phorbol, which does not activate protein kinase C, had no effect on these responses. 3. Exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 1 microM) for up to 8 h induced a time-dependent loss of [3H]-PDBu binding sites, consistent with the down-regulation of protein kinase C by this treatment. 4. The phasic component of contraction to carbachol or high K+ was unaffected following the down-regulation of protein kinase C. The tonic component of contraction to carbachol was markedly enhanced by this treatment while that to high K+ was partially suppressed. 5. These data suggest that although the activation of protein kinase C can lead to potentiation of the phasic component of contraction to carbachol or high K+, this appears to have little physiological significance since the response is not altered in tissues in which protein kinase C has been down-regulated. On the other hand, protein kinase C may limit the tonic contraction to carbachol but potentiate that to high K+.
Project description:Regulation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) via protein kinase C (PKC) and the 17 kDa PKC-potentiated inhibitor of myosin light chain phosphatase (CPI-17) has been reported as a Ca(2+) sensitization signaling pathway in smooth muscle (SM), and thus may be involved in tonic vs. phasic contractions. This study examined the protein expression and spatial-temporal distribution of PKC? and CPI-17 in intact SM tissues. KCl or carbachol (CCh) stimulation of tonic stomach fundus SM generates a sustained contraction while the phasic stomach antrum generates a transient contraction. In addition, the tonic fundus generates greater relative force than phasic antrum with 1 µM phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) stimulation which is reported to activate the PKC? - CPI-17 pathway. Western blot analyses demonstrated that this contractile difference was not caused by a difference in the protein expression of PKC? or CPI-17 between these two tissues. Immunohistochemical results show that the distribution of PKC? in the longitudinal and circular layers of the fundus and antrum do not differ, being predominantly localized near the SM cell plasma membrane. Stimulation of either tissue with 1 µM PDBu or 1 µM CCh does not alter this peripheral PKC? distribution. There are no differences between these two tissues for the CPI-17 distribution, but unlike the PKC? distribution, CPI-17 appears to be diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm under relaxed tissue conditions but shifts to a primarily peripheral distribution at the plasma membrane with stimulation of the tissues with 1 µM PDBu or 1 µM CCh. Results from double labeling show that neither PKC? nor CPI-17 co-localize at the adherens junction (vinculin/talin) at the membrane but they do co-localize with each other and with caveoli (caveolin) at the membrane. This lack of difference suggests that the PKC? - CPI-17 pathway is not responsible for the tonic vs. phasic contractions observed in stomach fundus and antrum.
Project description:The stimulation of fluid and electrolyte secretion in salivary cells results in ionic changes that promote rapid increases in the activity of the Na,K-ATPase. In many cell systems, there are conflicting findings concerning the regulation of the phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase ? subunit, which is the catalytic moiety. Initially, we investigated the phosphorylation sites on the ?1 subunit in native rat parotid acinar cells using tandem mass spectrometry and identified two new phosphorylation sites (Ser(222), Ser(407)), three sites (Ser(217), Tyr(260), Ser(47)) previously found from large scale proteomic screens, and two sites (Ser(23), Ser(16)) known to be phosphorylated by PKC. Subsequently, we used phospho-specific antibodies to examine the regulation of phosphorylation on Ser(23) and Ser(16) and measured changes in ERK phosphorylation in parallel. The G-protein-coupled muscarinic receptor mimetic carbachol, the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, and the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A increased Ser(23) ?1 phosphorylation. Inhibition of classical PKC proteins blocked carbachol-stimulated Ser(23) ?1 subunit phosphorylation but not ERK phosphorylation, which was blocked by an inhibitor of novel PKC proteins. The carbachol-initiated phosphorylation of Ser(23) ?1 subunit was not modified by ERK or PKA activity. The Na,K-ATPase inhibitor ouabain reduced and enhanced the carbachol-promoted phosphorylation of Ser(23) and Ser(16), respectively, the latter because ouabain itself increased Ser(16) phosphorylation; thus, both sites display conformational-dependent phosphorylation changes. Ouabain-initiated phosphorylation of Ser(16) ?1 was not blocked by PKC inhibitors, unlike carbachol- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-initiated phosphorylations, suggesting that this site was also a substrate for a kinase other than PKC.
Project description:The effects of protein kinase C (PKC) activation on muscarinic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide and Ca2+ signalling were examined in the human neuroblastoma, SH-SY5Y. Carbachol evoked rapid transient elevations of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and intracellular [Ca2+] followed by lower sustained elevations. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) preferentially attenuated transient phases. Removal of the transplasmalemmal Ca2+ gradient coupled with depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin also reduced carbachol-mediated Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation. Under these conditions, PDBu virtually abolished Ins(1,4,5)P3 responses to carbachol thereby implicating both Ca(2+)- and PKC-sensitive components. PDBu also reduced agonist-mediated accumulation of inositol phosphates and depletion of lipids, thereby eliminating an effect of PKC on Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism or phosphoinositide synthesis. In electroporated cells, PDBu inhibited Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation mediated by carbachol or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate, the latter indicating that some PDBu-sensitive elements were downstream of the receptor. The PKC inhibitor, Ro-318220, protected against PDBu but did not enhance responses to maximal concentrations of carbachol, indicating no feedback inhibition by agonist-activated PKC. Muscarinic antagonist activity of Ro-318220 complicated such assessment at low agonist concentrations. Carbachol or PDBu induced cytosol to membrane translocation of PKC alpha. This was faster and possibly greater with PDBu, which may explain the lack of feedback by agonist-activated PKC. These results indicate that, in SH-SY5Y cells, PDBu activation of PKC preferentially inhibits rapid muscarinic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide and Ca2+ responses via suppression of PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis. This is at least partially through inhibition of Gq-protein/phosphoinositidase C coupling. However, at least at high agonist concentrations, a major agonist-mediated PKC feedback is not present in these cells.
Project description:The effect of phorbol ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) on diacylglycerol (sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, diC8)- and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization and on the relationship between phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chains (MLC20) and force during Ca2+ sensitization were investigated in rabbit portal vein (PV), femoral artery (FA) and ileum smooth muscle. The effects of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu), guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and agonists on the membrane versus cytosolic distribution of PKC isoenzymes were also determined. Down-regulation of PKC abolished Ca2+ sensitization of force and the accompanying increases in MLC20 phosphorylation induced by PDBu, as well as Ca2+ sensitization of force by diC8, but not that by GTP[S], aluminum fluoride (AIF4-) or agonists (phenylephrine, endothelin or carbachol). Down-regulation also inhibited the PDBu-, but not the GTP[S]-induced increase in force under Ca(2+)-free conditions. In ileum, PDBu translocated PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta to the membrane fraction, and GTP[S] caused a small translocation of PKC-epsilon. Carbachol- and GTP[S]-induced Ca2+ sensitization remained unaffected in down-regulated ileum in which no cytosolic PKC-epsilon was detectable. We conclude that, although both phorbol ester-induced and G-protein-coupled Ca2+ sensitization of force are mediated by increased MLC20 phosphorylation, it is likely that PKCs alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and theta do not play an essential role in, although they may contribute to, the G-protein-coupled mechanism.
Project description:Secretagogues inhibited adenosine uptake in chromaffin cells without causing apparent changes in the uptake affinity. The inhibition caused by carbachol, nicotine and acetylcholine reached 50%. This inhibition was reproduced by the action of protein kinase C activators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 100 nM), phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 100 nM), dicaproin (10 micrograms/ml) and tricaprylin (10 micrograms/ml), with inhibitions of Vmax. of 18, 20, 37 and 47% respectively. No changes in the affinity of uptake were observed with these effectors. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters decreased the inhibitory effects of carbachol on adenosine uptake. Binding studies with nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) showed a similar decrease in the number of transporters when chromaffin cells were treated with the same effectors used for the uptake studies. The high-affinity dissociation constants showed minor changes with respect to the control. The ratio between maximal uptake capacity and the transporter number per cell was not significantly modified by the action of secretagogues or direct effectors of protein kinase C. The number of high-affinity binding sites for NBTI was decreased in cellular homogenates by the direct action of protein kinase C activators, with staurosporine able to reverse this action. Protein kinase C from bovine brain in the presence of ATP and effectors, decreased the number of high-affinity NBTI-binding sites in purified chromaffin cell plasma membranes. These data suggest the possibility of a molecular modification at the transporter level.
Project description:Classic and novel protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes contain two zinc finger motifs, designated "C1a" and "C1b" domains, which constitute the recognition modules for the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) or the phorbol esters. However, the individual contributions of these tandem C1 domains to PKC function and, reciprocally, the influence of protein context on their function remain uncertain. In the present study, we prepared PKCdelta constructs in which the individual C1a and C1b domains were deleted, swapped, or substituted for one another to explore these issues. As isolated fragments, both the deltaC1a and deltaC1b domains potently bound phorbol esters, but the binding of [(3)H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([(3)H]PDBu) by the deltaC1a domain depended much more on the presence of phosphatidylserine than did that of the deltaC1b domain. In intact PKCdelta, the deltaC1b domain played the dominant role in [(3)H]PDBu binding, membrane translocation, and down-regulation. A contribution from the deltaC1a domain was nonetheless evident, as shown by retention of [(3)H]PDBu binding at reduced affinity, by increased [(3)H]PDBu affinity upon expression of a second deltaC1a domain substituting for the deltaC1b domain, and by loss of persistent plasma membrane translocation for PKCdelta expressing only the deltaC1b domain, but its contribution was less than predicted from the activity of the isolated domain. Switching the position of the deltaC1b domain to the normal position of the deltaC1a domain (or vice versa) had no apparent effect on the response to phorbol esters, suggesting that the specific position of the C1 domain within PKCdelta was not the primary determinant of its activity.
Project description:Activation of M3 muscarinic receptors in HT-29 cells by carbachol rapidly increases polyphosphoinositide breakdown. Pretreatment of these cells with carbachol (0.1 mM) for 5 h completely inhibits the subsequent ability of carbachol to increase [3H]inositol monophosphate ([3H]InsP) accumulation, paralleled by a total loss of muscarinic binding sites. In contrast, protein kinase C (PK-C)-mediated desensitization by incubation with phorbol esters [PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)], leading to a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cholinergically stimulated InsP release (95% inhibition after 4 h with 0.1 microM-PMA), is accompanied by only a 40% decrease in muscarinic receptor binding, which suggests an additional mechanism of negative-feedback control. Neither carbachol nor PMA pretreatment had any effect on receptor affinity. Incubation with carbachol for 15 min caused a small increase of membrane-associated PK-C activity (15% increase, P less than 0.05) as compared with the potency of phorbol esters (PMA) (3-4-fold increase, P less than 0.01). Long-term incubation (4-24 h) with PMA resulted in a complete down-regulation of cytosolic and particulate PK-C activity. Stimulation of InsP release by NaF (20 mM) was not affected after a pretreatment with phorbol esters or carbachol, demonstrating an intact function of G-protein and phospholipase-C (PL-C) at the effector side. Determination of PL-C activity in a liposomal system with [3H]PtdInsP2 as substrate, showed no change in PL-C activity after carbachol (13 h) and short-term PMA (2.5 h) pretreatment, whereas long-term preincubation with phorbol esters (13 h) caused a small but significant decrease in PL-C activity (19%, P less than 0.05). Our results indicate that agonist-induced desensitization of phosphoinositide turnover occurs predominantly at the receptor level, with a rapid loss of muscarinic receptors. Exogenous activation of PK-C by phorbol esters seems to dissociate the interaction between receptor and G-protein/PL-C, without major effects on total cellular PL-C activity.
Project description:The regulation of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase (cAspAT) gene expression by phorbol esters was investigated in the highly differentiated hepatoma cell line Fao. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) had no effect on basal activity but partially inhibited the induction of cAspAT by dexamethasone. The extent of inhibition (40%) was similar to that obtained with insulin or vanadate. The inhibitory effects of PdBu and vanadate were additive. In the case of PdBu, the inhibitory effects could be eliminated by first incubating the cells with PdBu, which down-regulates protein kinase C. In contrast, inhibition by insulin was not modified by this treatment. The molecular mechanism of PdBu action was investigated. Northern blot analysis showed that the steady-state mRNA levels of cAspAT were decreased by PdBu in the presence of dexamethasone. In addition, the transcription rate, as measured by run-on experiments, was also decreased under the same conditions. Finally, a 2.4 kb promoter fragment driving the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene was stably transfected into the Fao cells. The regulation of the activity of this promoter fragment by dexamethasone and PdBu was similar to the regulation of the endogenous cAspAT activity. We conclude that PdBu acts by regulating the promoter activity of the cAsPAT gene.
Project description:In cultured glomerular mesangial cells, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) has been shown to induce a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of nitrite, a stable metabolite of nitric oxide (NO). In parallel, increased levels of mRNA of an inducible macrophage-type of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were observed after incubating mesangial cells with IL-1 beta. Here we report that addition of the biologically active phorbol esters, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), dose-dependently inhibited the IL-1 beta-stimulated increase in iNOS mRNA levels and nitrite production. In contrast, the biologically inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, had no effect on cytokine induction of iNOS and nitrite formation. Incubation of mesangial cells with PMA or PDBu alone, in the absence of IL-1 beta, did not trigger any iNOS expression. Time-course studies indicated that phorbol ester needs to be added for only 1 h in order to maximally inhibit cytokine-induced nitrite production. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha and -delta isoenzymes by 8 h PMA or PDBu treatment before stimulation with IL-1 beta still resulted in full inhibition of iNOS induction. In contrast, a 24 h treatment of mesangial cells with PMA or PDBu, a regimen that also causes depletion of PKC-epsilon, abolished inhibition of IL-1 beta-induced iNOS expression and nitrite production. In addition, the selective PKC inhibitor calphostin C potentiated IL-1 beta induction of iNOS activity. In summary these data suggest that IL-1 beta induction of iNOS expression is tonically suppressed by PKC and the epsilon-isoenzyme is the most likely candidate mediating this effect.