A family of transketolases that directs isoprenoid biosynthesis via a mevalonate-independent pathway.
ABSTRACT: Isopentenyl diphosphate, the common precursor of all isoprenoids, has been widely assumed to be synthesized by the acetate/mevalonate pathway in all organisms. However, based on in vivo feeding experiments, isopentenyl diphosphate formation in several eubacteria, a green alga, and plant chloroplasts has been demonstrated very recently to originate via a mevalonate-independent route from pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as precursors. Here we describe the cloning from peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction of this pyruvate/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate pathway. This synthase gene contains an ORF of 2,172 base pairs. When the proposed plastid targeting sequence is excluded, the deduced amino acid sequence indicates the peppermint synthase to be about 650 residues in length, corresponding to a native size of roughly 71 kDa. The enzyme appears to represent a novel class of highly conserved transketolases and likely plays a key role in the biosynthesis of plastid-derived isoprenoids essential for growth, development, and defense in plants.
Project description:In plants, the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the central precursor of all isoprenoids, proceeds via two separate pathways. The cytosolic compartment harbors the mevalonate pathway, whereas the newly discovered deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate pathway, which also operates in certain eubacteria, including Escherichia coli, is localized to plastids. Only the first two steps of the plastidial pathway, which involve the condensation of pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate followed by intramolecular rearrangement and reduction to 2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate, have been established. Here we report the cloning from peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and E. coli, and expression, of a kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of isopentenyl monophosphate as the last step of this biosynthetic sequence to isopentenyl diphosphate. The plant gene defines an ORF of 1,218 bp that, when the proposed plastidial targeting sequence is excluded, corresponds to approximately 308 aa with a mature size of approximately 33 kDa. The E. coli gene (ychB), which is located at 27.2 min of the chromosomal map, consists of 852 nt, encoding a deduced enzyme of 283 aa with a size of 31 kDa. These enzymes represent a conserved class of the GHMP family of kinases, which includes galactokinase, homoserine kinase, mevalonate kinase, and phosphomevalonate kinase, with homologues in plants and several eubacteria. Besides the preferred substrate isopentenyl monophosphate, the recombinant peppermint and E. coli kinases also phosphorylate isopentenol, and, much less efficiently, dimethylallyl alcohol, but dimethylallyl monophosphate does not serve as a substrate. Incubation of secretory cells isolated from peppermint glandular trichomes with isopentenyl monophosphate resulted in the rapid production of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, confirming that isopentenyl monophosphate is the physiologically relevant, terminal intermediate of the deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate pathway.
Project description:Study of the incorporation of 13C-labelled glucose or pyruvate into the isoprenoids of tobacco BY-2 cells allowed the biosynthetic origin of isopentenyl diphosphate to be determined. Sterols synthesized in the cytoplasm and the prenyl chain of ubiquinone Q10 located in mitochondria were derived from the same isopentenyl diphosphate pool, synthesized from acetyl-CoA through mevalonate, whereas the prenyl chain of plastoquinone was obtained from the mevalonate-independent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate/pyruvate route, like all chloroplast isoprenoids from higher plants. These results are in accord with the compartmentation and complete enzymic independence of the biosynthesis of long-chain all-trans polyprenols in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Project description:For many years it was accepted that isopentenyl diphosphate, the common precursor of all isoprenoids, was synthesized through the well known acetate/mevalonate pathway. However, recent studies have shown that some bacteria, including Escherichia coli, use a mevalonate-independent pathway for the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate. The occurrence of this alternative pathway has also been reported in green algae and higher plants. The first reaction of this pathway consists of the condensation of (hydroxyethyl)thiamin derived from pyruvate with the C1 aldehyde group of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield D-1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate. In E. coli, D-1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate is also a precursor for the biosynthesis of thiamin and pyridoxol. Here we report the molecular cloning and characterization of a gene from E. coli, designated dxs, that encodes D-1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase. The dxs gene was identified as part of an operon that also contains ispA, the gene that encodes farnesyl-diphosphate synthase. D-1-Deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase belongs to a family of transketolase-like proteins that are highly conserved in evolution.
Project description:Isoprenoid biosynthesis was investigated in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown heterotrophically on 13C-labelled glucose and acetate. Several isoprenoid compounds were isolated and investigated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. According to the 13C-labelling pattern indicated by the 13C-NMR spectra, the biosynthesis of all plastidic isoprenoids investigated (prenyl side-chains of chlorophylls and plastoquinone-9, and the carotenoids beta-carotene and lutein), as well as of the non-plastidic cytoplasmic sterols, does not proceed via the classical acetate/mevalonate pathway (which leads from acetyl-CoA via mevalonate to isopentenyl diphosphate), but via the novel glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate/pyruvate route recently detected in eubacteria. Formation of isopentenyl diphosphate involves the condensation of a C2 unit derived from pyruvate decarboxylation with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and a transposition yielding the branched C5 skeleton of isoprenic units.
Project description:The mevalonate pathway and the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP)-pyruvate pathway are alternative routes for the biosynthesis of the central isoprenoid precursor, isopentenyl diphosphate. Genomic analysis revealed that the staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci possess genes predicted to encode all of the enzymes of the mevalonate pathway and not the GAP-pyruvate pathway, unlike Bacillus subtilis and most gram-negative bacteria studied, which possess only components of the latter pathway. Phylogenetic and comparative genome analyses suggest that the genes for mevalonate biosynthesis in gram-positive cocci, which are highly divergent from those of mammals, were horizontally transferred from a primitive eukaryotic cell. Enterococci uniquely encode a bifunctional protein predicted to possess both 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase activities. Genetic disruption experiments have shown that five genes encoding proteins involved in this pathway (HMG-CoA synthase, HMG-CoA reductase, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, and mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase) are essential for the in vitro growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae under standard conditions. Allelic replacement of the HMG-CoA synthase gene rendered the organism auxotrophic for mevalonate and severely attenuated in a murine respiratory tract infection model. The mevalonate pathway thus represents a potential antibacterial target in the low-G+C gram-positive cocci.
Project description:In eubacteria, green algae, and plant chloroplasts, isopentenyl diphosphate, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, is synthesized by the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The five carbons of the basic isoprenoid unit are assembled by joining pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The reaction is catalyzed by the thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. In Rhodobacter capsulatus, two open reading frames (ORFs) carry the genes that encode 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. ORF 2816 is located in the photosynthesis-related gene cluster, along with most of the genes required for synthesis of the photosynthetic machinery of the bacterium, whereas ORF 2895 is located elsewhere in the genome. The proteins encoded by ORF 2816 and ORF 2895, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase A and B, containing a His(6) tag, were synthesized in Escherichia coli and purified to greater than 95% homogeneity in two steps. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase A appears to be a homodimer with 68 kDa subunits. A new assay was developed, and the following steady-state kinetic constants were determined for 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase A and B: K(m)(pyruvate) = 0.61 and 3.0 mM, K(m)(D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) = 150 and 120 microM, and V(max) = 1.9 and 1.4 micromol/min/mg in 200 mM sodium citrate (pH 7.4). The ORF encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase B complemented the disrupted essential dxs gene in E. coli strain FH11.
Project description:Isopentenyl diphosphate, the universal isoprenoid precursor, can be produced by two different biosynthetic routes: either via the acetate/mevalonate (MVA) pathway, or via the more recently identified MVA-independent glyceraldehyde phosphate/pyruvate pathway. These two pathways are easily differentiated by incorporation of [1-13C]glucose and analysis of the resulting labelling patterns found in the isoprenoids. This method was successfully applied to several unicellular algae raised under heterotrophic growth conditions and allowed for the identification of the pathways that were utilized for isoprenoid biosynthesis. All isoprenoids examined (sterols, phytol, carotenoids) of the green algae Chlorella fusca and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were synthesized via the GAP/pyruvate pathway, as in another previously investigated green alga, Scenedesmus obliquus, which was also shown in this study to synthesize ubiquinone by the same MVA-independent route. In the red alga Cyanidium caldarium and in the Chrysophyte Ochromonas danica a clear dichotomy was observed: as in higher plants, sterols were formed via the MVA route, whereas chloroplast isoprenoids (phytol in Cy. caldarium and O. danica and beta-carotene in O. danica) were synthesized via the GAP/pyruvate route. In contrast, the Euglenophyte Euglena gracilis synthesized ergosterol, as well as phytol, via the acetate/MVA route. Similar feeding experiments were performed with the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6714 using [1-13C]- and [6-13C]-glucose. The two isoprenoids examined, phytol and beta-carotene, were shown to have the typical labelling pattern derived from the GAP/pyruvate route.
Project description:Archaea have been shown to produce isoprenoids from mevalonate; however, genome analysis has failed to identify several genes in the mevalonate pathway on the basis of sequence similarity. A predicted archaeal kinase, coded for by the MJ0044 gene, was associated with other mevalonate pathway genes in the archaea and was predicted to be the "missing" phosphomevalonate kinase. The MJ0044-derived protein was tested for phosphomevalonate kinase activity and was found not to catalyze this reaction. The MJ0044 gene product was found to phosphorylate isopentenyl phosphate, generating isopentenyl diphosphate. Unlike other known kinases associated with isoprene biosynthesis, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii isopentenyl phosphate kinase is predicted to be a member of the aspartokinase superfamily.
Project description:In addition to the ubiquitous mevalonate pathway, Streptomyces sp. strain CL190 utilizes the nonmevalonate pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis. The initial step of this nonmevalonate pathway is the formation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) by condensation of pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate catalyzed by DXP synthase. The corresponding gene, dxs, was cloned from CL190 by using PCR with two oligonucleotide primers synthesized on the basis of two highly conserved regions among dxs homologs from six genera. The dxs gene of CL190 encodes 631 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 68 kDa. The recombinant enzyme overexpressed in Escherichia coli was purified as a soluble protein and characterized. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 70 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 130 kDa by gel filtration chromatography, suggesting that the enzyme is most likely to be a dimer. The enzyme showed a pH optimum of 9.0, with a V(max) of 370 U per mg of protein and K(m)s of 65 microM for pyruvate and 120 microM for D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The purified enzyme catalyzed the formation of 1-deoxyxylulose by condensation of pyruvate and glyceraldehyde as well, with a K(m) value of 35 mM for D-glyceraldehyde. To compare the enzymatic properties of CL190 and E. coli DXP synthases, the latter enzyme was also overexpressed and purified. Although these two enzymes had different origins, they showed the same enzymatic properties.
Project description:The non-mevalonate dependent (NMVA) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate is the sole source of these terpenoids for the production of isoprenoids in the apicomplexan parasites, in many eubacteria, and in plants. The absence of this pathway in higher organisms has opened a new platform for the development of novel antibiotics and anti-malarials. The enzyme catalyzing the first step of the NMVA pathway is 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXPS). DXPS catalyzes the thiamine pyrophosphate- and Mg (II)-dependent conjugation of pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to form 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate and CO2. The kinetic mechanism of DXPS from Deinococcus radiodurans most consistent with our data is random sequential as shown using a combination of kinetic analysis and product and dead-end inhibition studies. The role of active site amino acids, identified by sequence alignment to other DXPS proteins, was probed by constructing and analyzing the catalytic efficacy of a set of targeted site-directed mutants.