Erwinia chrysanthemi tolC is involved in resistance to antimicrobial plant chemicals and is essential for phytopathogenesis.
ABSTRACT: TolC is the outer-membrane component of several multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps and plays an important role in the survival and virulence of many gram-negative bacterial animal pathogens. We have identified and characterized the outer-membrane protein-encoding gene tolC in the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16. The gene was found to encode a 51-kDa protein with 70% identity to its Escherichia coli homologue. The E. chrysanthemi gene was able to functionally complement the E. coli tolC gene with respect to its role in MDR efflux pumps. A tolC mutant of E. chrysanthemi was found to be extremely sensitive to antimicrobial agents, including several plant-derived chemicals. This mutant was unable to grow in planta and its ability to cause plant tissue maceration was severely compromised. The tolC mutant was shown to be defective in the efflux of berberine, a model antimicrobial plant chemical. These results suggest that by conferring resistance to the antimicrobial compounds produced by plants, the E. chrysanthemi tolC plays an important role in the survival and colonization of the pathogen in plant tissue.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Efflux pumps mediate antimicrobial resistance in several WHO critical priority bacterial pathogens. However, most available data come from laboratory strains. The quantitative relevance of efflux in more relevant clinical isolates remains largely unknown. METHODS:We developed a versatile method for genetic engineering in multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, and used this method to delete tolC and specific antibiotic-resistance genes in 18 representative MDR clinical E. coli isolates. We determined efflux activity and minimal inhibitory concentrations for a diverse set of clinically relevant antibiotics in these mutants. We also deleted oprM in MDR P. aeruginosa strains and determined the impact on antibiotic susceptibility. FINDINGS:tolC deletion abolished detectable efflux activity in 15 out of 18 tested E. coli strains, and modulated antibiotic susceptibility in many strains. However, all mutant strains retained MDR status, primarily because of other, antibiotic-specific resistance genes. Deletion of oprM altered antibiotic susceptibility in a fraction of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. INTERPRETATION:Efflux modulates antibiotic resistance in clinical MDR isolates of E. coli and P. aeruginosa. However, when other antimicrobial-resistance mechanisms are present, inhibition of MDR efflux pumps alone is often not sufficient to restore full susceptibility even for antibiotics with a dramatic impact of efflux in laboratory strains. We propose that development of novel antibiotics should include target validation in clinical MDR isolates. FUND: Innovative Medicines Initiative of European Union and EFPIA, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds, Swiss National Research Program 72, EU Marie Sk?odowska-Curie program. The funders played no role in design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, writing of the report, and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Project description:The global emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a growing threat to antibiotic therapy. The chromosomally encoded drug efflux mechanisms that are ubiquitous in these bacteria greatly contribute to antibiotic resistance and present a major challenge for antibiotic development. Multidrug pumps, particularly those represented by the clinically relevant AcrAB-TolC and Mex pumps of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily, not only mediate intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) but also are involved in other functions, including the bacterial stress response and pathogenicity. Additionally, efflux pumps interact synergistically with other resistance mechanisms (e.g., with the outer membrane permeability barrier) to increase resistance levels. Since the discovery of RND pumps in the early 1990s, remarkable scientific and technological advances have allowed for an in-depth understanding of the structural and biochemical basis, substrate profiles, molecular regulation, and inhibition of MDR pumps. However, the development of clinically useful efflux pump inhibitors and/or new antibiotics that can bypass pump effects continues to be a challenge. Plasmid-borne efflux pump genes (including those for RND pumps) have increasingly been identified. This article highlights the recent progress obtained for organisms of clinical significance, together with methodological considerations for the characterization of MDR pumps.
Project description:Escherichia coli has nine inner membrane efflux pumps which complex with the outer membrane protein TolC and cognate membrane fusion proteins to form tripartite transperiplasmic pumps with diverse functions, including the expulsion of antibiotics. We recently observed that tolC mutants have elevated activities for three stress response regulators, MarA, SoxS, and Rob, and we suggested that TolC-dependent efflux is required to prevent the accumulation of stressful cellular metabolites. Here, we used spy::lacZ fusions to show that two systems for sensing/repairing extracytoplasmic stress, BaeRS and CpxARP, are activated in the absence of TolC-dependent efflux. In either tolC mutants or bacteria with mutations in the genes for four TolC-dependent efflux pumps, spy expression was increased 6- to 8-fold. spy encodes a periplasmic chaperone regulated by the BaeRS and CpxARP stress response systems. The overexpression of spy in tolC or multiple efflux pump mutants also depended on these systems. spy overexpression was not due to acetate, ethanol, or indole accumulation, since external acetate had only a minor effect on wild-type cells, ethanol had a large effect that was not CpxA dependent, and a tolC tnaA mutant which cannot accumulate internal indole overexpressed spy. We propose that, unless TolC-dependent pumps excrete certain metabolites, the metabolites accumulate and activate at least five different stress response systems.
Project description:Bacterial resistance to biocides used as antiseptics, dyes, and disinfectants is a growing concern in food preparation, agricultural, consumer manufacturing, and health care industries, particularly among Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, some of the most common community and healthcare-acquired bacterial pathogens. Biocide resistance is frequently associated with antimicrobial cross-resistance leading to reduced activity and efficacy of both antimicrobials and antiseptics. Multidrug resistant efflux pumps represent an important biocide resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae. An assortment of structurally diverse efflux pumps frequently co-exist in these species and confer both unique and overlapping biocide and antimicrobial selectivity. TolC-dependent multicomponent systems that span both the plasma and outer membranes have been shown to confer clinically significant resistance to most antimicrobials including many biocides, however, a growing number of single component TolC-independent multidrug resistant efflux pumps are specifically associated with biocide resistance: small multidrug resistance (SMR), major facilitator superfamily (MFS), multidrug and toxin extruder (MATE), cation diffusion facilitator (CDF), and proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) families. These efflux systems are a growing concern as they are rapidly spread between members of Enterobacteriaceae on conjugative plasmids and mobile genetic elements, emphasizing their importance to antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we will summarize the known biocide substrates of these efflux pumps, compare their structural relatedness, Enterobacteriaceae distribution, and significance. Knowledge gaps will be highlighted in an effort to unravel the role that these apparent "lone wolves" of the efflux-mediated resistome may offer.
Project description:Multidrug resistance efflux pumps protect bacterial cells against a wide spectrum of antimicrobial compounds. PSPTO_0820 is a predicted multidrug transporter from the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Orthologs of this protein are conserved within many Pseudomonas species that interact with plants. To study the potential role of PSPTO_0820 in plant-bacteria interaction, a mutant in this gene was isolated and characterized. In addition, with the aim to find the outer membrane channel for this efflux system, a mutant in PSPTO_4977, a TolC-like gene, was also analyzed. Both mutants were more susceptible to trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acids and to the flavonoid (+)-catechin, when added to the culture medium. The expression level of both genes increased in the presence of (+)-catechin and, in the case of PSPTO_0820, also in response to trans-cinnamic acid. PSPTO_0820 and PSPTO_4977 mutants were unable to colonize tomato at high population levels. This work evidences the involvement of these two proteins in the resistance to plant antimicrobials, supporting also the importance of chlorogenic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, and (+)-catechin in the tomato plant defense response against P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection.
Project description:We investigated the role of the resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily (RND) efflux system on intrinsic multidrug resistance in Serratia marcescens. We identified eight putative RND efflux system genes in the S. marcescens Db10 genome that included the previously characterized systems, sdeXY, sdeAB, and sdeCDE. Six out of the eight genes conferred multidrug resistance on KAM32, a drug hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli. Five out of the eight genes conferred resistance to benzalkonium, suggesting the importance of RND efflux systems in biocide resistance in S. marcescens. The energy-dependent efflux activities of five of the pumps were examined using a rhodamine 6?G efflux assay. When expressed in the tolC-deficient strain of E. coli, KAM43, none of the genes conferred resistance on E. coli. When hasF, encoding the S. marcescens TolC ortholog, was expressed in KAM43, all of the genes conferred resistance on E. coli, suggesting that HasF is a major outer membrane protein that is used by all RND efflux systems in this organism. We constructed a sdeXY deletion mutant from a derivative strain of the clinically isolated multidrug-resistant S. marcescens strain and found that the sdeXY deletion mutant was sensitive to a broad spectrum of antimicrobial agents.
Project description:Bacterial efflux pumps transport small molecules from the cytoplasm or periplasm outside the cell. Efflux pump activity is typically increased in multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens; chemicals that inhibit efflux pumps may have potential for antibiotic development. Using an in-cell screen, we identified three efflux pump modulators (EPMs) from a drug diversity library. The screening platform uses macrophages infected with the human Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) to identify small molecules that prevent bacterial replication or survival within the host environment. A secondary screen for hit compounds that increase the accumulation of an efflux pump substrate, Hoechst 33342, identified three small molecules with activity comparable to the known efflux pump inhibitor PA?N (Phe-Arg ?-naphthylamide). The three putative EPMs demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against Salmonella within primary and cell culture macrophages and within a human epithelial cell line. Unlike traditional antibiotics, the three compounds did not inhibit bacterial growth in standard microbiological media. The three compounds prevented energy-dependent efflux pump activity in Salmonella and bound the AcrB subunit of the AcrAB-TolC efflux system with KDs in the micromolar range. Moreover, the EPMs display antibacterial synergy with antimicrobial peptides, a class of host innate immune defense molecules present in body fluids and cells. The EPMs also had synergistic activity with antibiotics exported by AcrAB-TolC in broth and in macrophages and inhibited efflux pump activity in MDR Gram-negative ESKAPE clinical isolates. Thus, an in-cell screening approach identified EPMs that synergize with innate immunity to kill bacteria and have potential for development as adjuvants to antibiotics.
Project description:Drugs and certain proteins are transported across the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria by energy-activated pumps. The outer membrane component of these pumps is a channel that opens from a sealed resting state during the transport process. We describe two crystal structures of the Escherichia coli outer membrane protein TolC in its partially open state. Opening is accompanied by the exposure of three shallow intraprotomer grooves in the TolC trimer, where our mutagenesis data identify a contact point with the periplasmic component of a drug efflux pump, AcrA. We suggest that the assembly of multidrug efflux pumps is accompanied by induced fit of TolC driven mainly by accommodation of the periplasmic component.
Project description:The Cpx response is one of several envelope stress responses that monitor and maintain the integrity of the gram-negative bacterial envelope. While several conditions that are known or predicted to generate misfolded inner membrane proteins activate the Cpx response, the molecular nature of the Cpx inducing cue is not yet known. Studies have demonstrated that mutation of multidrug efflux pumps activates the Cpx response in many gram-negative bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, pathway activation is due to accumulation of the catechol siderophore vibriobactin. However, the mechanism by which the Cpx response is activated by mutation of efflux pumps in Escherichia coli remains unknown. Here we show that inhibition of efflux by deletion of tolC, the outer membrane channel of several multidrug efflux pumps, activates the Cpx response in E. coli as a result of impaired efflux of the siderophore enterobactin. Enterobactin accumulation in the tolC mutant reduces activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation arm of the aerobic respiratory chain. However, the Cpx pathway remains active in the tolC mutant when either NADH dehydrogenase I, NADH dehydrogenase II, or cytochrome bo3 is absent. Finally, we show that the Cpx response down-regulates transcription of the enterobactin biosynthesis operon. These results suggest that the Cpx response promotes adaptation to envelope stress in enteric bacteria that are exposed to iron-limited environments, which are rich in envelope-damaging compounds and conditions.
Project description:The plant pathogen Dickeya chrysanthemi EC16 (formerly known as Petrobacterium chrysanthemi EC16 and Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16) was found to produce a new triscatecholamide siderophore, cyclic trichrysobactin, the related catecholamide compounds, linear trichrysobactin and dichrysobactin, and the previously reported monomeric siderophore unit, chrysobactin. Chrysobactin is comprised of L-serine, D-lysine, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA). Trichrysobactin is a cyclic trimer of chrysobactin joined by a triserine lactone backbone. The chirality of the ferric complex of cyclic trichrysobactin is found to be in the ? configuration, similar to Fe(III)-bacillibactin, which contains a glycine spacer between the DHBA and L-threonine components and is opposite that of Fe(III)-enterobactin, which contains DHBA ligated directly to L-serine.