Evolution of Ime2 phosphorylation sites on Cdk1 substrates provides a mechanism to limit the effects of the phosphatase Cdc14 in meiosis.
ABSTRACT: Progression through meiosis in yeast is governed by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, in concert with a related kinase called Ime2. It remains unclear how these kinases collaborate to meet the unique demands of meiotic progression. We demonstrate that Ime2 and Cdk1 phosphorylate an overlapping substrate set and that the two kinases overlap functionally as inhibitors of the ubiquitin ligase APC(Cdh1) and replication origin licensing. Surprisingly, Ime2 phosphorylates Cdk1 substrates at distinct phosphorylation sites that are highly resistant to dephosphorylation by the phosphatase Cdc14. We propose that Ime2-dependent phosphorylation of a subset of cell-cycle proteins limits the effects of Cdc14 in meiosis.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the G1 cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes Cln1,-2,-3/Cdk1 promote S phase entry during the mitotic cell cycle but do not function during meiosis. It has been proposed that the meiosis-specific protein kinase Ime2, which is required for normal timing of pre-meiotic DNA replication, is equivalent to Cln1,-2/Cdk1. These two CDK complexes directly catalyze phosphorylation of the B-type cyclin/CDK inhibitor Sic1 during the cell cycle to enable its destruction. As a result, Clb5,-6/Cdk1 become activated and facilitate initiation of DNA replication. While Ime2 is required for Sic1 destruction during meiosis, evidence now suggests that Ime2 does not directly catalyze Sic1 phosphorylation to target it for destabilization as Cln1,-2/Cdk1 do during the cell cycle.We demonstrated that Sic1 is eventually degraded in meiotic cells lacking the IME2 gene (ime2?), supporting an indirect role of Ime2 in Sic1 destruction. We further examined global RNA expression comparing wild type and ime2? cells. Analysis of these expression data has provided evidence that Ime2 is required early in meiosis for normal transcription of many genes that are also periodically expressed during late G1 of the cell cycle.Our results place Ime2 at a position in the early meiotic pathway that lies upstream of the position occupied by Cln1,-2/Cdk1 in the analogous cell cycle pathway. Thus, Ime2 may functionally resemble Cln3/Cdk1 in promoting S phase entry, or it could play a role even further upstream in the corresponding meiotic cascade.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and their counteracting phosphatases are key regulators of cell cycle progression. In yeasts, the Cdc14 family of phosphatases promotes exit from mitosis and progression through cytokinesis by reversing phosphorylation of Cdk1 substrates. In vertebrates, CDC14 paralogs, CDC14A and CDC14B, have so far been implicated in processes ranging from DNA damage repair, meiosis, centrosome duplication to ciliogenesis. However, the question of whether CDC14 paralogs can functionally compensate for each other has yet to be addressed.Here, using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to inhibit Cdc14A1 function, we observed that Cdc14A1 depleted zebrafish embryos displayed ventrally curved body and left-right asymmetry defects, similar to Cdc14B deficient embryos and zebrafish mutants with cilia defects. Accordingly, we found that Cdc14A1, like Cdc14B, plays a role in ciliogenesis in the Kupffer's vesicle (KV) and other ciliated tissues, and can do so independently of its function in cell cycle. Furthermore, we observed reciprocal suppression of KV cilia length defects of Cdc14A1 and Cdc14B deficient embryos by cdc14b and cdc14a1 RNAs, respectively.Together, these studies demonstrate for the first time that Cdc14A and Cdc14B have overlapping functions in the ciliogenesis process during zebrafish development.
Project description:Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This "licensing" ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of cyclical events at the meiosis I to meiosis I transition.
Project description:The Cdc14 phosphatase family antagonizes Cdk1 phosphorylation and is important for mitotic exit. To access their substrates, Cdc14 phosphatases are released from nucleolar sequestration during mitosis. Clp1/Flp1, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc14 orthologue, and Cdc14B, a mammalian orthologue, also exit the nucleolus during interphase upon DNA replication stress or damage, respectively, implicating Cdc14 phosphatases in the response to genotoxic insults. However, a mechanistic understanding of Cdc14 phosphatase nucleolar release under these conditions is incomplete. We show here that relocalization of Clp1 during genotoxic stress is governed by complex phosphoregulation. Specifically, the Rad3 checkpoint effector kinases Cds1 and/or Chk1, the cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase Pmk1, and the cell cycle kinase Cdk1 directly phosphorylate Clp1 to promote genotoxic stress-induced nucleoplasmic accumulation. However, Cds1 and/or Chk1 phosphorylate RxxS sites preferentially upon hydroxyurea treatment, whereas Pmk1 and Cdk1 preferentially phosphorylate Clp1 TP sites upon H(2)O(2) treatment. Abolishing both Clp1 RxxS and TP phosphosites eliminates any genotoxic stress-induced redistribution. Reciprocally, preventing dephosphorylation of Clp1 TP sites shifts the distribution of the enzyme to the nucleoplasm constitutively. This work advances our understanding of pathways influencing Clp1 localization and may provide insight into mechanisms controlling Cdc14B phosphatases in higher eukaryotes.
Project description:Cytokinesis, which leads to the physical separation of two dividing cells, is normally restrained until after nuclear division. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chitin synthase 2 (Chs2), which lays down the primary septum at the mother-daughter neck, also ensures proper actomyosin ring constriction during cytokinesis. During the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, phosphorylation of Chs2 by the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1) retains Chs2 at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thereby preventing its translocation to the neck. Upon Cdk1 inactivation at the end of mitosis, Chs2 is exported from the ER and targeted to the neck. The mechanism for triggering Chs2 ER export thus far is unknown. We show here that Chs2 ER export requires the direct reversal of the inhibitory Cdk1 phosphorylation sites by Cdc14 phosphatase, the ultimate effector of the mitotic exit network (MEN). We further show that only Cdc14 liberated by the MEN after completion of chromosome segregation, and not Cdc14 released in early anaphase by the Cdc fourteen early anaphase release pathway, triggers Chs2 ER exit. Presumably, the reduced Cdk1 activity in late mitosis further favors dephosphorylation of Chs2 by Cdc14. Thus, by requiring declining Cdk1 activity and Cdc14 nuclear release for Chs2 ER export, cells ensure that septum formation is contingent upon chromosome separation and exit from mitosis.
Project description:The initiation of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends upon the destruction of the Clb-Cdc28 inhibitor Sic1. In proliferating cells Cln-Cdc28 complexes phosphorylate Sic1, which stimulates binding of Sic1 to SCF(Cdc4) and triggers its proteosome mediated destruction. During sporulation cyclins are not expressed, yet Sic1 is still destroyed at the G1-/S-phase boundary. The Cdk (cyclin dependent kinase) sites are also required for Sic1 destruction during sporulation. Sic1 that is devoid of Cdk phosphorylation sites displays increased stability and decreased phosphorylation in vivo. In addition, we found that Sic1 was modified by ubiquitin in sporulating cells and that SCF(Cdc4) was required for this modification. The meiosis-specific kinase Ime2 has been proposed to promote Sic1 destruction by phosphorylating Sic1 in sporulating cells. We found that Ime2 phosphorylates Sic1 at multiple sites in vitro. However, only a subset of these sites corresponds to Cdk sites. The identification of multiple sites phosphorylated by Ime2 has allowed us to propose a motif for phosphorylation by Ime2 (PXS/T) where serine or threonine acts as a phospho-acceptor. Although Ime2 phosphorylates Sic1 at multiple sites in vitro, the modified Sic1 fails to bind to SCF(Cdc4). In addition, the expression of Ime2 in G1 arrested haploid cells does not promote the destruction of Sic1. These data support a model where Ime2 is necessary but not sufficient to promote Sic1 destruction during sporulation.
Project description:Duplication of centrosomes once per cell cycle is essential for bipolar spindle formation and genome maintenance and is controlled in part by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). Our study identifies Sfi1, a conserved component of centrosomes, as the first Cdk substrate required to restrict centrosome duplication to once per cell cycle. We found that reducing Cdk1 phosphorylation by changing Sfi1 phosphorylation sites to nonphosphorylatable residues leads to defects in separation of duplicated spindle pole bodies (SPBs, yeast centrosomes) and to inappropriate SPB reduplication during mitosis. These cells also display defects in bipolar spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and growth. Our findings lead to a model whereby phosphoregulation of Sfi1 by Cdk1 has the dual function of promoting SPB separation for spindle formation and preventing premature SPB duplication. In addition, we provide evidence that the protein phosphatase Cdc14 has the converse role of activating licensing, likely via dephosphorylation of Sfi1.
Project description:In vertebrates Cdk1 is required to initiate mitosis; however, any functionality of this kinase during S phase remains unclear. To investigate this, we generated chicken DT40 mutants, in which an analog-sensitive mutant cdk1 as replaces the endogenous Cdk1, allowing us to specifically inactivate Cdk1 using bulky ATP analogs. In cells that also lack Cdk2, we find that Cdk1 activity is essential for DNA replication initiation and centrosome duplication. The presence of a single Cdk2 allele renders S phase progression independent of Cdk1, which suggests a complete overlap of these kinases in S phase control. Moreover, we find that Cdk1 inhibition did not induce re-licensing of replication origins in G2 phase. Conversely, inhibition during mitosis of Cdk1 causes rapid activation of endoreplication, depending on proteolysis of the licensing inhibitor Geminin. This study demonstrates essential functions of Cdk1 in the control of S phase, and exemplifies a chemical genetics approach to target cyclin-dependent kinases in vertebrate cells.
Project description:Meiosis is a highly regulated process in eukaryotic species. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has been shown to be missing homologs of a number of meiotic initiation genes conserved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but has three homologs of the well-characterized middle meiotic transcriptional regulator NDT80. In this study, we evaluated the role of all three NDT80 homologs in the formation of female reproductive structures, sexual development, and meiosis. We found that none of the NDT80 homologs were required for meiosis and that even the triple mutant was unaffected. However, strains containing mutations in NCU09915 (fsd-1) were defective in female sexual development and ascospore maturation. vib-1 was a major regulator of protoperithecial development in N. crassa, and double mutants carrying deletions of both vib-1 (NCU03725) and fsd-1 exhibited a synergistic effect on the timing of female reproductive structure (protoperithecia) formation. We further evaluated the role of the N. crassa homolog of IME2, a kinase involved in initiation of meiosis in S. cerevisiae. Strains containing mutations in ime-2 showed unregulated development of protoperithecia. Genetic analysis indicated that mutations in vib-1 were epistatic to ime-2, suggesting that IME-2 may negatively regulate VIB-1 activity. Our data indicate that the IME2/NDT80 pathway is not involved in meiosis in N. crassa, but rather regulates the formation of female reproductive structures.
Project description:Meiosis divides the chromosome number of the cell in half by having two rounds of chromosome segregation follow a single round of chromosome duplication. The first meiotic division is unique in that homologous pairs of sister chromatids segregate to opposite poles. Recent work in budding and fission yeast has shown that the cell cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4, is required for many meiosis-specific chromosomal functions necessary for proper disjunction at meiosis I. This work reveals another role for Cdc7 in meiosis as a gene-specific regulator of the global transcription factor, Ndt80, which is required for exit from pachytene and entry into the meiotic divisions in budding yeast. Cdc7-Dbf4 promotes NDT80 transcription by relieving repression mediated by a complex of Sum1, Rfm1, and a histone deacetylase, Hst1. Sum1 exhibits meiosis-specific Cdc7-dependent phosphorylation, and mass spectrometry analysis reveals a dynamic and complex pattern of phosphorylation events, including four constitutive cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1) sites and 11 meiosis-specific Cdc7-Dbf4-dependent sites. Analysis of various phosphorylation site mutants suggests that Cdc7 functions with both Cdk1 and the meiosis-specific kinase Ime2 to control this critical transition point during meiosis.