Myosin Vb interacts with Rab8a on a tubular network containing EHD1 and EHD3.
ABSTRACT: Cells use multiple pathways to internalize and recycle cell surface components. Although Rab11a and Myosin Vb are involved in the recycling of proteins internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, Rab8a has been implicated in nonclathrin-dependent endocytosis and recycling. By yeast two-hybrid assays, we have now demonstrated that Myosin Vb can interact with Rab8a, but not Rab8b. We have confirmed the interaction of Myosin Vb with Rab11a and Rab8a in vivo by using fluorescent resonant energy transfer techniques. Rab8a and Myosin Vb colocalize to a tubular network containing EHD1 and EHD3, which does not contain Rab11a. Myosin Vb tail can cause the accumulation of both Rab11a and Rab8a in collapsed membrane cisternae, whereas dominant-negative Rab11-FIP2(129-512) selectively accumulates Rab11a but not Rab8a. Additionally, dynamic live cell imaging demonstrates distinct pathways for Rab11a and Rab8a vesicle trafficking. These findings indicate that Rab8a and Rab11a define different recycling pathways that both use Myosin Vb.
Project description:The small GTPase Rab11 plays an important role in the recycling of proteins to the plasma membrane as well as in polarised transport in epithelial cells and neurons. We generated conditional knockout mice deficient in Rab11a. Rab11a-deficient mice are embryonic lethal, and brain-specific Rab11a knockout mice show no overt abnormalities in brain architecture. In contrast, intestine-specific Rab11a knockout mice begin dying approximately 1 week after birth. Apical proteins in the intestines of knockout mice accumulate in the cytoplasm and mislocalise to the basolateral plasma membrane, whereas the localisation of basolateral proteins is unaffected. Shorter microvilli and microvillus inclusion bodies are also observed in the knockout mice. Elevation of a serum starvation marker was also observed, likely caused by the mislocalisation of apical proteins and reduced nutrient uptake. In addition, Rab8a is mislocalised in Rab11a knockout mice. Conversely, Rab11a is mislocalised in Rab8a knockout mice and in a microvillus atrophy patient, which has a mutation in the myosin Vb gene. Our data show an essential role for Rab11a in the localisation of apical proteins in the intestine and demonstrate functional relationships between Rab11a, Rab8a and myosin Vb in vivo.
Project description:The Rab GTPases are the largest family of proteins regulating membrane traffic. Rab proteins form a nidus for the assembly of multiprotein complexes on distinct vesicle membranes to regulate particular membrane trafficking pathways. Recent investigations have demonstrated that Myosin Vb (Myo5B) is an effector for Rab8a, Rab10, and Rab11a, all of which are implicated in regulating different pathways for recycling of proteins to the plasma membrane. It remains unclear how specific interactions of Myo5B with individual Rab proteins can lead to specificity in the regulation of alternate trafficking pathways. We examined the relative contributions of Rab/Myo5B interactions with specific pathways using Myo5B mutants lacking binding to either Rab11a or Rab8a. Myo5B Q1300L and Y1307C mutations abolished Rab8a association, whereas Myo5B Y1714E and Q1748R mutations uncoupled association with Rab11a. Expression of Myo5B tails containing these mutants demonstrated that Rab11a, but not Rab8a, was required for recycling of transferrin in nonpolarized cells. In contrast, in polarized epithelial cyst cultures, Myo5B was required for apical membrane trafficking and de novo lumen formation, dependent on association with both Rab8a and Rab11a. These data demonstrate that different combinations of Rab GTPase association with Myo5B control distinct membrane trafficking pathways.
Project description:Rab proteins influence vesicle trafficking pathways through the assembly of regulatory protein complexes. Previous investigations have documented that Rab11a and Rab8a can interact with the tail region of myosin Vb and regulate distinct trafficking pathways. We have now determined that a related Rab protein, Rab10, can interact with myosin Va, myosin Vb, and myosin Vc. Rab10 localized to a system of tubules and vesicles that have partially overlapping localization with Rab8a. Both Rab8a and Rab10 were mislocalized by the expression of dominant-negative myosin V tails. Interaction with Rab10 was dependent on the presence of the alternatively spliced exon D in myosin Va and myosin Vb and the homologous region in myosin Vc. Yeast two-hybrid assays and fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies confirmed that Rab10 binding to myosin V tails in vivo required the alternatively spliced exon D. In contrast to our previous work, we found that Rab11a can interact with both myosin Va and myosin Vb tails independent of their splice isoform. These results indicate that Rab GTPases regulate diverse endocytic trafficking pathways through recruitment of multiple myosin V isoforms.
Project description:Endocytosis defines the entry of molecules or macromolecules through the plasma membrane as well as membrane trafficking in the cell. It depends on a large number of proteins that undergo protein-protein and protein-phospholipid interactions. EH Domain containing (EHDs) proteins formulate a family, whose members participate in different stages of endocytosis. Of the four mammalian EHDs (EHD1-EHD4) EHD1 and EHD3 control traffic to the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) and from the ERC to the plasma membrane, while EHD2 modulates internalization. Recently, we have shown that EHD2 undergoes SUMOylation, which facilitates its exit from the nucleus, where it serves as a co-repressor. In the present study, we tested whether EHD3 undergoes SUMOylation and what is its role in endocytic recycling. We show, both in-vitro and in cell culture, that EHD3 undergoes SUMOylation. Localization of EHD3 to the tubular structures of the ERC depends on its SUMOylation on lysines 315 and 511. Absence of SUMOylation of EHD3 has no effect on its dimerization, an important factor in membrane localization of EHD3, but has a dominant negative effect on its appearance in tubular ERC structures. Non-SUMOylated EHD3 delays transferrin recycling from the ERC to the cell surface. Our findings indicate that SUMOylation of EHD3 is involved in tubulation of the ERC membranes, which is important for efficient recycling.
Project description:Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) plays a critical role in the enterohepatic absorption of free cholesterol. Cellular cholesterol depletion induces the transport of NPC1L1 from the endocytic recycling compartment to the plasma membrane (PM), and cholesterol replenishment causes the internalization of NPC1L1 together with cholesterol via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Although NPC1L1 has been characterized, the other proteins involved in cholesterol absorption and the endocytic recycling of NPC1L1 are largely unknown. Most of the vesicular trafficking events are dependent on the cytoskeleton and motor proteins. Here, we investigated the roles of the microfilament and microfilament-associated triple complex composed of myosin Vb, Rab11a, and Rab11-FIP2 in the transport of NPC1L1 from the endocytic recycling compartment to the PM. Interfering with the dynamics of the microfilament by pharmacological treatment delayed the transport of NPC1L1 to the cell surface. Meanwhile, inactivation of any component of the myosin Vb.Rab11a.Rab11-FIP2 triple complex inhibited the export of NPC1L1. Expression of the dominant-negative mutants of myosin Vb, Rab11a, or Rab11-FIP2 decreased the cellular cholesterol uptake by blocking the transport of NPC1L1 to the PM. These results suggest that the efficient transport of NPC1L1 to the PM is dependent on the microfilament-associated myosin Vb.Rab11a.Rab11-FIP2 triple complex.
Project description:Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a severe form of congenital diarrhea that arises from inactivating mutations in the gene encoding myosin Vb (MYO5B). We have examined the association of mutations in MYO5B and disruption of microvillar assembly and polarity in enterocytes. Stable MYO5B knockdown (MYO5B-KD) in CaCo2-BBE cells elicited loss of microvilli, alterations in junctional claudins, and disruption of apical and basolateral trafficking; however, no microvillus inclusions were observed in MYO5B-KD cells. Expression of WT MYO5B in MYO5B-KD cells restored microvilli; however, expression of MYO5B-P660L, a MVID-associated mutation found within Navajo populations, did not rescue the MYO5B-KD phenotype but induced formation of microvillus inclusions. Microvilli establishment required interaction between RAB8A and MYO5B, while loss of the interaction between RAB11A and MYO5B induced microvillus inclusions. Using surface biotinylation and dual immunofluorescence staining in MYO5B-KD cells expressing mutant forms of MYO5B, we observed that early microvillus inclusions were positive for the sorting marker SNX18 and derived from apical membrane internalization. In patients with MVID, MYO5B-P660L results in global changes in polarity at the villus tips that could account for deficits in apical absorption, loss of microvilli, aberrant junctions, and losses in transcellular ion transport pathways, likely leading to the MVID clinical phenotype of neonatal secretory diarrhea.
Project description:Mechanisms for receptor-mediated anthrax toxin internalization and delivery to the cytosol are well understood. However, far less is known about the fate followed by anthrax toxin receptors prior and after cell exposure to the toxin. We report that Anthrax Toxin Receptor 1/Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) localized at steady state in Rab11a-positive and transferrin receptor-containing recycling endosomes. TEM8 followed a slow constitutive recycling route of approximately 30min as determined by pulsed surface biotinylation and chase experiments. A Rab11a dominant negative mutant and Myosin Vb tail expression impaired TEM8 recycling by sequestering TEM8 in intracellular compartments. Sequestration of TEM8 in intracellular compartments with monensin coincided with increased TEM8 association with a multi-protein complex isolated with antibodies against transferrin receptor. Addition of the cell-binding component of anthrax toxin, Protective Antigen, reduced TEM8 half-life from 7 to 3 hours, without preventing receptor recycling. Pharmacological and molecular perturbation of recycling endosome function using monensin, dominant negative Rab11a, or myosin Vb tail, reduced PA binding efficiency and TEM8-dependent cell spreading on PA-coated surfaces without affecting toxin delivery to the cytosol. These results indicate that the intracellular fate of TEM8 differentially affect its cell adhesion and cell intoxication functions.
Project description:Misplaced formation of microvilli to basolateral domains and intracellular inclusions in enterocytes are pathognomonic features in congenital enteropathy associated with mutation of the apical plasma membrane receptor syntaxin 3 (STX3). Although the demonstrated binding of Myo5b to the Rab8a and Rab11a small GTPases in vitro implicates cytoskeleton-dependent membrane sorting, the mechanisms underlying the microvillar location defect remain unclear. By selective or combinatory disruption of Rab8a and Rab11a membrane traffic in vivo, we demonstrate that transport of distinct cargo to the apical brush border rely on either individual or both Rab regulators, whereas certain basolateral cargos are redundantly transported by both factors. Enterocyte-specific Rab8a and Rab11a double-knockout mouse neonates showed immediate postnatal lethality and more severe enteropathy than single knockouts, with extensive formation of microvilli along basolateral surfaces. Notably, following an inducible Rab11a deletion from neonatal enterocytes, basolateral microvilli were induced within 3?days. These data identify a potentially important and distinct mechanism for a characteristic microvillus defect exhibited by enterocytes of patients with neonatal enteropathy.
Project description:Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare autosomal recessive enteropathy characterized by intractable diarrhea and malabsorption. Recently, various MYO5B gene mutations have been identified in patients with MVID. Interestingly, several patients with MVID showed only a MYO5B mutation in 1 allele (heterozygous) or no mutations in the MYO5B gene, illustrating the need to further functionally characterize the cell biological effects of the MYO5B mutations.The genomic DNA of 9 patients diagnosed as having MVID was screened for MYO5B mutations, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry on the material of 2 patients was performed to investigate resultant cellular consequences.We demonstrate for the first time that MYO5B mutations can be correlated with altered myosin Vb messenger RNA expression and with an aberrant subcellular distribution of the myosin Vb protein. Moreover, we demonstrate that the typical and myosin Vb-controlled accumulation of Rab11a- and FIP5-positive recycling endosomes in the apical cytoplasm of the cells is abolished in MVID enterocytes, which is indicative of altered myosin Vb function. Moreover, we report 8 novel MYO5B mutations in 9 patients of various ethnic backgrounds with MVID, including compound heterozygous mutations.Our functional analysis indicates that MYO5B mutations can be correlated with an aberrant subcellular distribution of the myosin Vb protein, and apical recycling endosomes, which, together with the additional compound heterozygous mutations, significantly strengthen the link between MYO5B and MVID.
Project description:Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are F-actin-based membrane tubes, and can form between cultured cells and within vital tissues. TNTs mediate intercellular communications that range from electrical signaling to the transfer of organelles. Following peripheral nerve injury, the orchestrated intercellular communications among neural and non-neural cells are required for effective nerve regeneration. It remains unknown whether TNTs exist between neural cells in the peripheral nerve system and how TNTs affect neural regeneration. To address these interesting questions, we investigated the transfer of neurotropic factors, membrane protein, cytoplasmic protein, mitochondria and RNA in functional TNTs formed between cultured Schwann cells (SCs). TNT-like structures were increased not only in cultured SCs after exposure to serum depletion but also in longitudinal sections of proximal sciatic nerve stump harvested after rat peripheral nerve transection. Meanwhile, downregulation of Rab8a or Rab11a in cultured SCs inhibited the formation of functional TNTs and vesicle transfer and led to decrease in cell migration, increase in SCs apoptosis. Likewise, knockdown of Rab8a or Rab11a in primary SCs also suppressed axonal outgrowth from co-cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Overall, our results suggested that the gene of Rab8a or Rab11a might be involved in the formation of TNTs structures in the peripheral nerve system, while TNTs structures were likely to affect peripheral nerve regeneration through the regulation of neural cell communications.