Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis in Roseobacter clade bacteria from diverse marine habitats.
ABSTRACT: The marine Roseobacter clade comprises several genera of marine bacteria related to the uncultured SAR83 cluster, the second most abundant marine picoplankton lineage. Cultivated representatives of this clade are physiologically heterogeneous, and only some have the capability for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, a process of potentially great ecological importance in the world's oceans. In an attempt to correlate phylogeny with ecology, we investigated the diversity of Roseobacter clade strains from various marine habitats (water samples, biofilms, laminariae, diatoms, and dinoflagellate cultures) by using the 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker gene. The potential for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis was determined on the genetic level by PCR amplification and sequencing of the pufLM genes of the bacterial photosynthesis reaction center and on the physiological level by detection of bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) a. A collection of ca. 1,000 marine isolates was screened for members of the marine Roseobacter clade by 16S rRNA gene-directed multiplex PCR and sequencing. The 42 Roseobacter clade isolates found tended to form habitat-specific subclusters. The pufLM genes were detected in two groups of strains from dinoflagellate cultures but in none of the other Roseobacter clade isolates. Strains within the first group (the DFL-12 cluster) also synthesized Bchl a. Strains within the second group (the DFL-35 cluster) formed a new species of Roseovarius and did not produce Bchl a under the conditions investigated here, thus demonstrating the importance of genetic methods for screening of cultivation-dependent metabolic traits. The pufL genes of the dinoflagellate isolates were phylogenetically closely related to pufL genes from Betaproteobacteria, confirming similar previous observations which have been interpreted as indications of gene transfer events.
Project description:Genome organization, plasmid content and localization of the pufLM genes of the photosynthesis reaction center were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in marine phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria. Both anaerobic phototrophs (Rhodobacter veldkampii and Rhodobacter sphaeroides) and strictly aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs from the Roseobacter-Sulfitobacter-Silicibacter clade (Roseivivax halodurans, Roseobacter litoralis, Staleya guttiformis, Roseovarius tolerans, and five new strains isolated from dinoflagellate cultures) were investigated. The complete genome size was estimated for R. litoralis DSM6996(T) to be 4,704 kb, including three linear plasmids. All strains contained extrachromosomal elements of various conformations (linear or circular) and lengths (between 4.35 and 368 kb). In strain DFL-12, a member of a putative new genus isolated from a culture of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima, seven linear plasmids were found, together comprising 860 kb of genetic information. Hybridization with probes against the pufLM genes of the photosynthesis gene cluster after Southern transfer of the genomic DNAs showed these genes to be located on a linear plasmid of 91 kb in R. litoralis and on a linear plasmid of 120 kb in S. guttiformis, theoretically allowing their horizontal transfer. In all other strains, the pufLM genes were detected on the bacterial chromosome. The large number and significant size of the linear plasmids found especially in isolates from dinoflagellates might account for the metabolic versatility and presumed symbiotic association with eukaryotic hosts in these bacteria.
Project description:Roseovarius mucosus Biebl et al. 2005 is a bacteriochlorophyll a-producing representative of the marine Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae, which was isolated from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The marine Roseobacter group was found to be abundant in the ocean and plays an important role for global and biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the features of the R. mucosus strain DFL-24(T) together with its genome sequence and annotation generated from a culture of DSM 17069(T). The 4,247,724 bp containing genome sequence encodes 4,194 protein-coding genes and 57 RNA genes. In addition to the presence of four plasmids, genome analysis revealed the presence of genes associated with host colonization, DMSP utilization, cytotoxins, and quorum sensing that could play a role in the interrelationship of R. mucosus with the dinoflagellate A. ostenfeldii and other marine organisms. Furthermore, the genome encodes genes associated with mixotrophic growth, where both reduced inorganic compounds for lithotrophic growth and a photoheterotrophic lifestyle using light as additional energy source could be used.
Project description:Bacterial communities associated with marine algae are often dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade, and in the present study, we describe Roseobacter phenotypes that may provide this group of bacteria with selective advantages when colonizing this niche. Nine of 14 members of the Roseobacter clade, of which half were isolated from cultures of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida, produced antibacterial compounds. Many non-Roseobacter marine bacteria were inhibited by sterile filtered supernatants of Silicibacter sp. TM1040 and Phaeobacter (formerly Roseobacter) strain 27-4, which had the highest production of antibacterial compound. In contrast, Roseobacter strains were susceptible only when exposed to concentrated compound. The production of antibacterial compound was influenced by the growth conditions, as production was most pronounced when bacteria were grown in liquid medium under static conditions. Under these conditions, Silicibacter sp. TM1040 cells attached to one another, forming rosettes, as has previously been reported for Phaeobacter 27-4. A spontaneous Phaeobacter 27-4 mutant unable to form rosettes was also defective in biofilm formation and the production of antibacterial compound, indicating a possible link between these phenotypes. Rosette formation was observed in 8 of 14 Roseobacter clade strains examined and was very pronounced under static growth in 5 of these strains. Attachment to surfaces and biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by these five strains was greatly facilitated by growth conditions that favored rosette formation, and rosette-forming strains were 13 to 30 times more efficient in attaching to glass compared to strains under conditions where rosette formation was not pronounced. We hypothesize that the ability to produce antibacterial compounds that principally inhibit non-Roseobacter species, combined with an enhancement in biofilm formation, may give members of the Roseobacter clade a selective advantage and help to explain the dominance of members of this clade in association with marine algal microbiota.
Project description:Two different photosystems for performing bacteriochlorophyll-mediated photosynthetic energy conversion are employed in different bacterial phyla. Those bacteria employing a photosystem II type of photosynthetic apparatus include the phototrophic purple bacteria (Proteobacteria), Gemmatimonas and Chloroflexus with their photosynthetic relatives. The proteins of the photosynthetic reaction center PufL and PufM are essential components and are common to all bacteria with a type-II photosynthetic apparatus, including the anaerobic as well as the aerobic phototrophic Proteobacteria. Therefore, PufL and PufM proteins and their genes are perfect tools to evaluate the phylogeny of the photosynthetic apparatus and to study the diversity of the bacteria employing this photosystem in nature. Almost complete pufLM gene sequences and the derived protein sequences from 152 type strains and 45 additional strains of phototrophic Proteobacteria employing photosystem II were compared. The results give interesting and comprehensive insights into the phylogeny of the photosynthetic apparatus and clearly define Chromatiales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales as major groups distinct from other Alphaproteobacteria, from Betaproteobacteria and from Caulobacterales (Brevundimonas subvibrioides). A special relationship exists between the PufLM sequences of those bacteria employing bacteriochlorophyll b instead of bacteriochlorophyll a. A clear phylogenetic association of aerobic phototrophic purple bacteria to anaerobic purple bacteria according to their PufLM sequences is demonstrated indicating multiple evolutionary lines from anaerobic to aerobic phototrophic purple bacteria. The impact of pufLM gene sequences for studies on the environmental diversity of phototrophic bacteria is discussed and the possibility of their identification on the species level in environmental samples is pointed out.
Project description:The Roseobacter clade of marine bacteria is often found associated with dinoflagellates, one of the major producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Roseobacter species have developed a physiological relationship with DMSP-producing dinoflagellates mediated by the metabolism of DMSP. DMSP was measured in Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like (Cryptoperidiniopsis) dinoflagellates, and the identities and metabolic potentials of the associated Roseobacter species to degrade DMSP were determined. Both Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria shumwayae produce DMSP with an average intracellular concentration of 3.8 microM. Cultures of P. piscicida or Cryptoperidiniopsis sp. that included both the dinoflagellates and their associated bacteria rapidly catabolized 200 microM DMSP (within 30 h), and the rate of catabolism was much higher for P. piscicida cultures than for P. shumwayae cultures. The community of bacteria from P. piscicida and Cryptoperidiniopsis cultures degraded DMSP with the production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and acrylate, followed by 3-methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA) and methanethiol (MeSH). Four DMSP-degrading bacteria were isolated from the P. piscicida cultures and found to be taxonomically related to Roseobacter species. All four isolates produced MMPA from DMSP. Two of the strains also produced MeSH and DMS, indicating that they are capable of utilizing both the lyase and demethylation pathways. The diverse metabolism of DMSP by the dinoflagellate-associated Roseobacter spp. offers evidence consistent with a hypothesis that these bacteria benefit from association with DMSP-producing dinoflagellates.
Project description:Members of the Roseobacter clade are ecologically important and numerically abundant in coastal environments and can associate with marine invertebrates and nutrient-rich marine snow or organic particles, on which quorum sensing (QS) may play an important role. In this review, we summarize current research progress on roseobacterial acyl-homoserine lactone-based QS, particularly focusing on three relatively well-studied representatives, Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395, the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 and the dinoflagellate symbiont Dinoroseobacter shibae. Bioinformatic survey of luxI homologues revealed that over 80% of available roseobacterial genomes encode at least one luxI homologue, reflecting the significance of QS controlled regulatory pathways in adapting to the relevant marine environments. We also discuss several areas that warrant further investigation, including studies on the ecological role of these diverse QS pathways in natural environments.
Project description:The bioavailability and utilization of porphyrin-bound iron, specifically heme, by marine microorganisms have rarely been examined. This study used Ruegeria sp. strain TrichCH4B as a model organism to study heme acquisition by a member of the Roseobacter clade. Analogs of known heme transporter proteins were found within the Ruegeria sp. TrichCH4B genome. The identified heme uptake and utilization system appears to be functional, as the heme genes were upregulated under iron stress, the bacterium could grow on ferric-porphyrin complexes as the sole iron source, and internalization of (55) Fe from ferric protoporphyrin IX was observed. The potential ability to utilize heme in the Roseobacter clade appears to be common, as half of the isolates in the RoseoBase database were found to have a complete heme uptake system. A degenerate primer set was designed and successfully used to identify the putative heme oxygenase gene (hmus) in the roseobacter heme uptake system from diverse nonenriched marine environments. This study found that members of the Roseobacter clade are capable of utilizing heme as an iron source and that this capability may be present in all types of marine environments. The results of this study add a new perspective to the current picture of iron cycling in marine systems, whereby relatively refractory intracellular pools of heme-bound iron may be taken up quickly and directly reincorporated into living bacteria without previous degradation or the necessity of a siderophore intermediate.
Project description:The RCA (Roseobacter clade affiliated) cluster, with an internal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of >98%, is the largest cluster of the marine Roseobacter clade and most abundant in temperate to (sub)polar oceans, constituting up to 35% of total bacterioplankton. The genome analysis of the first described species of the RCA cluster, Planktomarina temperata RCA23, revealed that this phylogenetic lineage is deeply branching within the Roseobacter clade. It shares not >65.7% of homologous genes with any other organism of this clade. The genome is the smallest of all closed genomes of the Roseobacter clade, exhibits various features of genome streamlining and encompasses genes for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis (AAP) and CO oxidation. In order to assess the biogeochemical significance of the RCA cluster we investigated a phytoplankton spring bloom in the North Sea. This cluster constituted 5.1% of the total, but 10-31% (mean 18.5%) of the active bacterioplankton. A metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the genome of P. temperata RCA23 was transcribed to 94% in the bloom with some variations during day and night. The genome of P. temperata RCA23 was also retrieved to 84% from metagenomic data sets from a Norwegian fjord and to 82% from stations of the Global Ocean Sampling expedition in the northwestern Atlantic. In this region, up to 6.5% of the total reads mapped on the genome of P. temperata RCA23. This abundant taxon appears to be a major player in ocean biogeochemistry.
Project description:Most of the energy that is introduced into the oceans by photosynthetic primary producers is in the form of organic matter that then sustains the rest of the food web, from micro to macro-organisms. However, it is the interactions between phototrophs and heterotrophs that are vital to maintaining the nutrient balance of marine microbiomes that ultimately feed these higher trophic levels. The primary produced organic matter is mostly remineralized by heterotrophic microorganisms but, because most of the oceanic dissolved organic matter is in the form of biopolymers, and microbial membrane transport systems operate with molecules <0.6 kDa, it must be hydrolyzed outside the cell before a microorganism can acquire it. As a simili of the marine microbiome, we analyzed, using state-of-the-art proteomics, the exoproteomes obtained from synthetic communities combining specific Roseobacter (Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114, and Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL-12) and Synechococcus strains (WH7803 and WH8102). This approach identified the repertoire of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Roseobacter, opening up the black box of heterotrophic transformation/remineralization of biopolymers generated by marine phytoplankton. As well as highlighting interesting exoenzymes this strategy also allowed us to infer clues on the molecular basis of niche partitioning.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aerobic gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade are widespread in saline environments and of ecological importance in several marine ecosystems, especially the euphotic zone of coastal areas. Within this group a close relationship between aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs and non-phototrophic members has been found. RESULTS: Several strains of aerobic red-pigmented bacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade were obtained from tidal flat sediment samples at the island of Sylt (North Sea, Germany). Two of the novel isolates, Rap1red and Ivo14(T), were chosen for an analysis in detail. Strain Rap1red shared a 16S rRNA sequence identity of 99% with the type strain of Congregibacter litoralis and was genome-sequenced to reveal the extent of genetic microheterogeneity among closely related strains within this clade. In addition, a draft genome sequence was obtained from the isolate Ivo14(T), which belongs to the environmental important NOR5-1 lineage that contains so far no cultured representative with a comprehensive description. Strain Ivo14(T) was characterized using a polyphasic approach and compared with other red-pigmented members of the OM60/NOR5 clade, including Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192(T), Haliea rubra DSM 19751(T) and Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344(T). All analyzed strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as photosynthetic pigments. Besides a detailed phenotypic characterization including physiological and chemotaxonomic traits, sequence information based on protein-coding genes and a comparison of draft genome data sets were used to identify possible features characteristic for distinct taxa within this clade. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative sequence analyses of the pufLM genes of genome-sequenced representatives of the OM60/NOR5 clade indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus of these species was derived from a common ancestor and not acquired by multiple horizontal gene transfer from phylogenetically distant species. An affiliation of the characterized bacteriochlorophyll a-containing strains to different genera was indicated by significant phenotypic differences and pufLM nucleotide sequence identity values below 82%. The revealed high genotypic and phenotypic diversity of closely related strains within this phylogenetic group reflects a rapid evolution and frequent niche separation in the OM60/NOR5 clade, which is possibly driven by the necessities of an adaptation to oligotrophic marine habitats.