Cdc6 stability is regulated by the Huwe1 ubiquitin ligase after DNA damage.
ABSTRACT: The Cdc6 protein is an essential component of pre-replication complexes (preRCs), which assemble at origins of DNA replication during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated that, in response to ionizing radiation, Cdc6 is ubiquitinated by the anaphase promoting complex (APC(Cdh1)) in a p53-dependent manner. We find, however, that DNA damage caused by UV irradiation or DNA alkylation by methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induces Cdc6 degradation independently of p53. We further demonstrate that Cdc6 degradation after these forms of DNA damage is also independent of cell cycle phase, Cdc6 phosphorylation of the known Cdk target residues, or the Cul4/DDB1 and APC(Cdh1) ubiquitin E3 ligases. Instead Cdc6 directly binds a HECT-family ubiquitin E3 ligase, Huwe1 (also known as Mule, UreB1, ARF-BP1, Lasu1, and HectH9), and Huwe1 polyubiquitinates Cdc6 in vitro. Degradation of Cdc6 in UV-irradiated cells or in cells treated with MMS requires Huwe1 and is associated with release of Cdc6 from chromatin. Furthermore, yeast cells lacking the Huwe1 ortholog, Tom1, have a similar defect in Cdc6 degradation. Together, these findings demonstrate an important and conserved role for Huwe1 in regulating Cdc6 abundance after DNA damage.
Project description:The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1/Mule/ARF-BP1 plays an important role in integrating/coordinating diverse cellular processes such as DNA damage repair and apoptosis. A previous study has shown that HUWE1 is required for the early step of DNA damage-induced apoptosis, by targeting MCL-1 for proteasomal degradation. However, HUWE1 is subsequently inactivated, promoting cell survival and the subsequent DNA damage repair process. The mechanism underlying its regulation during this process remains largely undefined. Here, we show that the Cullin4B-RING E3 ligase (CRL4B) is required for proteasomal degradation of HUWE1 in response to DNA damage. CUL4B is activated in a NEDD8-dependent manner, and ubiquitinates HUWE1 in vitro and in vivo. The depletion of CUL4B stabilizes HUWE1, which in turn accelerates the degradation of MCL-1, leading to increased induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, cells deficient in CUL4B showed increased sensitivity to DNA damage reagents. More importantly, upon CUL4B depletion, these phenotypes can be rescued through simultaneous depletion of HUWE1, consistent with the role of CUL4B in regulating HUWE1. Collectively, these results identify CRL4B as an essential E3 ligase in targeting the proteasomal degradation of HUWE1 in response to DNA damage, and provide a potential strategy for cancer therapy by targeting HUWE1 and the CUL4B E3 ligase.
Project description:DNA replication depends on a preceding licensing event by Cdt1 and Cdc6. In animal cells, relicensing after S phase but before mitosis is prevented by the Cdt1 inhibitor geminin and mitotic cyclin activity. Here, we show that geminin, like cyclin B1 and securin, is a bona fide target of the spindle checkpoint and APC/C(Cdc20). Cyclin B1 and geminin are degraded simultaneously during metaphase, which directs Cdt1 accumulation on segregating sister chromatids. Subsequent activation of APC/C(Cdh1) leads to degradation of Cdc6 well before Cdt1 becomes unstable in a replication-coupled manner. In mitosis, the spindle checkpoint supports Cdt1 accumulation, which promotes S phase onset. We conclude that the spindle checkpoint, APC/C(Cdc20), and APC/C(Cdh1) act successively to ensure that the disappearance of licensing inhibitors coincides exactly with a peak of Cdt1 and Cdc6. Whereas cell cycle entry from quiescence requires Cdc6 resynthesis, our results indicate that proliferating cells use a window of time in mitosis, before Cdc6 is degraded, as an earlier opportunity to direct S phase.
Project description:Many severely hypoxic cells fail to initiate DNA replication, but the mechanism underlying this observation is unknown. Specifically, although the ataxia-telangiectasia-rad3 related (ATR) kinase has been shown to be activated in hypoxic cells, several studies have not been able to document down-stream consequences of ATR activation in these cells. By clearly defining the DNA replication initiation checkpoint in hypoxic cells, we now demonstrate that ATR is responsible for activating this checkpoint. We show that the hypoxic activation of ATR leads to the phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the cdc25a phosphatase. Downregulation of cdc25a protein by ATR in hypoxic cells decreases CDK2 phosphorylation and activity, which results in the degradation of cdc6 by APC/C(Cdh1). These events do not occur in hypoxic cells when ATR is depleted, and the initiation of DNA replication is maintained. We therefore present a novel mechanism of cdc6 regulation in which ATR can have a central role in inhibiting the initiation of DNA replication by the regulation of cdc6 by APC/C(Cdh1). This model provides insight into the biology and therapy of hypoxic tumors.
Project description:The replication factors Cdt1 and Cdc6 are essential for origin licensing, a prerequisite for DNA replication initiation. Mechanisms to ensure that metazoan origins initiate once per cell cycle include degradation of Cdt1 during S phase and inhibition of Cdt1 by the geminin protein. Geminin depletion or overexpression of Cdt1 or Cdc6 in human cells causes rereplication, a form of endogenous DNA damage. Rereplication induced by these manipulations is however uneven and incomplete, suggesting that one or more mechanisms restrain rereplication once it begins. We find that both Cdt1 and Cdc6 are degraded in geminin-depleted cells. We further show that Cdt1 degradation in cells that have rereplicated requires the PCNA binding site of Cdt1 and the Cul4(DDB1) ubiquitin ligase, and Cdt1 can induce its own degradation when overproduced. Cdc6 degradation in geminin-depleted cells requires Huwe1, the ubiquitin ligase that regulates Cdc6 after DNA damage. Moreover, perturbations that specifically disrupt Cdt1 and Cdc6 degradation in response to DNA damage exacerbate rereplication when combined with geminin depletion, and this enhanced rereplication occurs in both human cells and in Drosophila melanogaster cells. We conclude that rereplication-associated DNA damage triggers Cdt1 and Cdc6 ubiquitination and destruction, and propose that this pathway represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that minimizes the extent of rereplication.
Project description:Cancer genome sequencing projects have identified hundreds of genetic alterations, often at low frequencies, raising questions as to their functional relevance. One exemplar gene is HUWE1, which has been found to be mutated in numerous studies. However, due to the large size of this gene and a lack of functional analysis of identified mutations, their significance to carcinogenesis is unclear. To determine the importance of HUWE1, we chose to examine its function in colorectal cancer, where it is mutated in up to 15 per cent of tumours. Modelling of identified mutations showed that they inactivate the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of HUWE1. Genetic deletion of Huwe1 rapidly accelerated tumourigenic in mice carrying loss of the intestinal tumour suppressor gene Apc, with a dramatic increase in tumour initiation. Mechanistically, this phenotype was driven by increased MYC and rapid DNA damage accumulation leading to loss of the second copy of Apc The increased levels of DNA damage sensitised Huwe1-deficient tumours to DNA-damaging agents and to deletion of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1. Taken together, these data identify HUWE1 as a bona fide tumour suppressor gene in the intestinal epithelium and suggest a potential vulnerability of HUWE1-mutated tumours to DNA-damaging agents and inhibitors of anti-apoptotic proteins.
Project description:In response to DNA damage, p53-mediated signaling is regulated by protein phosphorylation and ubiquitination to precisely control G2 checkpoint. Here we demonstrated that protein SUMOylation also engaged in regulation of p53-mediated G2 checkpoint. We found that G2 DNA damage suppressed SENP3 phosphorylation at G2/M phases in p53-dependent manner. We further found that the suppression of SENP3 phosphorylation was crucial for efficient DNA damage/p53-induced G2 checkpoint and G2 arrest. Mechanistically, we identified Cdh1, a subunit of APC/C complex, was a SUMOylated protein at G2/M phase. SENP3 could de-SUMOylate Cdh1. DNA damage/p53-induced suppression of SENP3 phosphorylation activated SENP3 de-SUMOylation of Cdh. De-SUMOylation promoted Cdh1 de-phosphorylation by phosphatase Cdc14B, and then activated APC/C<sup>Cdh1</sup> E3 ligase activity to ubiquitate and degrade Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) in process of G2 checkpoint. These data reveal that p53-mediated inhibition of SENP3 phosphorylation regulates the activation of Cdc14b-APC/C<sup>Cdh1</sup>-Plk1 axis to control DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint.
Project description:Proper cell-cycle transitions are driven by waves of ubiquitin-dependent degradation of key regulators by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and Skp1-Cullin1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. But precisely how APC and SCF activities are coordinated to regulate cell-cycle progression remains largely unclear. We previously showed that APC/Cdh1 earmarks the SCF component Skp2 for degradation. Here, we continue to report that SCF(?-TRCP) reciprocally controls APC/Cdh1 activity by governing Cdh1 ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Furthermore, we define both cyclin A and Plk1, two well-known Cdh1 substrates, as upstream modifying enzymes that promote Cdh1 phosphorylation to trigger Cdh1 ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by SCF(?-TRCP). Thus, our work reveals a negative repression mechanism for SCF to control APC, thereby illustrating an elegant dual repression system between these two E3 ligase complexes to create the ordered cascade of APC and SCF activities governing timely cell-cycle transitions.
Project description:E2F1 is a eukaryotic transcription factor that is known to regulate various cellular pathways such as cell cycle progression, DNA replication, DNA damage responses and induction of apoptosis. Given its versatile roles, a precise and tight regulation of E2F1 is very critical to maintain genomic stability. E2F1 is regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels during cell cycle and upon DNA damage. After S phase, E2F1 is targeted for degradation and is kept at low levels or in an inactive state until the next G 1/S phase transition. Our studies show that APC/C ubiquitin ligase in conjunction with its co-activator Cdh1 (APC/C (Cdh1) ) can downregulate E2F1. We also identify an APC/C subunit APC5 that binds to E2F1 and is essential for E2F1 ubiquitination. We confirm an interaction between E2F1 and Cdh1 as well as an interaction between E2F1 and APC5 both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro GST pull-down assays have mapped the C-terminal 79 a.a. of E2F1 as Cdh1 interacting residues. Ectopically expressed Cdh1 downregulates the expression of E2F1-4. Our studies have also shown for the first time that E2F1 can be modified by K11-linkage specific ubiquitin chain formation (Ub-K11). The formation of Ub-K11 chains on E2F1 is increased in the presence of Cdh1 and accumulated in the presence of proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that APC/C (Cdh1) targets E2F1 for degradation by forming Ub-K11 chains. We also show that the effect of Cdh1 on E2F1 degradation is blocked upon DNA damage. Interestingly, Ub-K11-linked E2F1 accumulates after treatment of DNA damaging agents. The data suggest that DNA damage signaling processes do not inhibit APC/C (Cdh1) to ubiquitinate E2F1. Instead, they block the proteasomal degradation of Ub-K11-linked E2F1, and therefore lead to its accumulation.
Project description:APC/C(Cdh1) plays a key role in mitotic exit and has essential targets in the G(1) phase; however, these mechanisms are poorly understood. In this report, we provide evidence that damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1) is capable of binding the WD40 domains of Cdh1, but not of Cdc20, through its BPA and BPC domains. Moreover, cells lacking DDB1 exhibit markedly elevated levels of the protein substrates of APC/C(Cdh1). Depletion of DDB1 in mitotic cells significantly delays mitotic exit, which demonstrates that the interaction between DDB1 and Cdh1 plays a critical role in regulating APC/C(Cdh1) activity. However, cells depleted of Cdh1 demonstrated no change in the UV-induced degradation of Cdt1, the main function of DDB1 as an E3 ligase. Strikingly, the APC/C(Cdh1) substrate levels are normal in cell knockdowns of Cul4A and Cul4B, which, along with DDB1, form an E3 ligase complex. This finding indicates that DDB1 modulates the function of APC/C(Cdh1) in a manner independent on the Cul4-DDB1 complex. Our results suggest that DDB1 may functionally regulate mitotic exit by modulating APC/C(Cdh1) activity. This study reveals that there may be cross-talk among DDB1, Cdh1, and Skp2 in the control of cell cycle division.
Project description:To ensure genome integrity, DNA replication takes place only once per cell cycle and is tightly controlled by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1). Cdc6p is part of the prereplicative complex, which is essential for DNA replication. Cdc6 is phosphorylated by cyclin-Cdk1 to promote its degradation after origin firing to prevent DNA rereplication. We previously showed that a yeast GSK-3 homologue, Mck1 kinase, promotes Cdc6 degradation in a SCF(Cdc4)-dependent manner, therefore preventing rereplication. Here we present evidence that Mck1 directly phosphorylates a GSK-3 consensus site in the C-terminus of Cdc6. The Mck1-dependent Cdc6 phosphorylation required priming by cyclin/Cdk1 at an adjacent CDK consensus site. The sequential phosphorylation by Mck1 and Clb2/Cdk1 generated a Cdc4 E3 ubiquitin ligase-binding motif to promote Cdc6 degradation during mitosis. We further revealed that Cdc6 degradation triggered by Mck1 kinase was enhanced upon DNA damage caused by the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate and that the resulting degradation was mediated through Cdc4. Thus, Mck1 kinase ensures proper DNA replication, prevents DNA damage, and maintains genome integrity by inhibiting Cdc6.