Structure of Citrobacter freundii L-methionine gamma-lyase.
ABSTRACT: L-Methionine gamma-lyase (MGL) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyzes gamma-elimination of L-methionine. The crystal structure of MGL from Citrobacter freundii has been determined at 1.9 A resolution. The spatial fold of the protein is similar to those of MGLs from Pseudomonas putida and Trichomonas vaginalis. The comparison of these structures revealed that there are differences in PLP-binding residues and positioning of the surrounding flexible loops.
Project description:Methionine ?-lyase (MGL) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the ?-elimination reaction of L-methionine. The enzyme is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in some anaerobic pathogens and has attracted interest as a potential cancer treatment. The crystal structure of MGL from Clostridium sporogenes has been determined at 2.37?Å resolution. The fold of the protein is similar to those of homologous enzymes from Citrobacter freundii, Entamoeba histolytica, Pseudomonas putida and Trichomonas vaginalis. A comparison of these structures revealed differences in the conformation of two flexible regions of the N- and C-terminal domains involved in the active-site architecture.
Project description:Citrobacter freundii cells produce L-methionine gamma-lyase when grown on a medium containing L-methionine. The nucleotide sequence of the hybrid plasmid with a C. freundii EcoRI insert of about 3.0 kbp contained two open reading frames, consisting of 1,194 nucleotides and 1,296 nucleotides, respectively. The first one (denoted megL) encoded L-methionine gamma-lyase. The enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The second frame encoded a protein belonging to the family of permeases. Regions of high sequence identity with the 3'-terminal part of the C. freundii megL gene located in the same regions of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, E. coli, and Citrobacter rodentium genomes were found.
Project description:Methionine γ-lyase (MGL) catalyzes the γ-elimination of l-methionine and its derivatives as well as the β-elimination of l-cysteine and its analogs. These reactions yield α-keto acids and thiols. The mechanism of chemical conversion of amino acids includes numerous reaction intermediates. The detailed analysis of MGL interaction with glycine, l-alanine, l-norvaline, and l-cycloserine was performed by pre-steady-state stopped-flow kinetics. The structure of side chains of the amino acids is important both for their binding with enzyme and for the stability of the external aldimine and ketimine intermediates. X-ray structure of the MGL·l-cycloserine complex has been solved at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure models the ketimine intermediate of physiological reaction. The results elucidate the mechanisms of the intermediate interconversion at the stages of external aldimine and ketimine formation.
Project description:Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-enzymes are essentially involved in amino acid and amine metabolism of a wide variety of organisms. Despite their extensive biochemical studies, there are little evidence and structural data to comprehensively elaborate the catalytic mechanism. We obtained X-ray snapshots of l-methionine γ-lyase from Entamoeba histolytica (EhMGL), a PLP-enzyme catalyzing the γ-elimination reaction of methionine. Here, we suggest a catalytic mechanism of EhMGL by using the X-ray snapshots covering all stages of this multistep catalysis reaction. Initial formation of a Michaelis complex is followed by the migration of double bond from the C4'=Nα-Cα moiety in an intermediate PLP-methionine imine to C4'-Nα=Cα in pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP)-α,β-dehydromethionine imine without intervention of a putative quinonoid intermediate. The enzyme can facilitate the subsequent γ-elimination of methanethiol by the possible general acid-base catalysis of Tyr108 for the E1cB mechanism, enabling to form the ene-imine C4'-Nα=Cα-Cβ=Cγ structure with the s-cis conformation, which is prerequisite for the non-enzymatic symmetry-allowed suprafacial [1,5]-hydrogen shift to complete the catalytic cycle by releasing α-ketobutyrate. The mechanism based on the X-ray snapshots is consistent with the reactivity of MGL toward methionine analogues. The generality of such a mechanism involving non-enzymatic concerted reaction in other PLP enzymes is discussed.
Project description:Citrobacter freundii is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen that can cause urinary and bloodstream infections. Phage therapies against C. freundii may prove useful in treating infections caused by this ubiquitous bacterium. Here, we report the complete genome of a T4-like myophage, Maroon, that infects C. freundii.
Project description:Citrobacter freundii is responsible for various opportunistic nosocomial infections. Phage therapies against C. freundii may prove useful in human medicine for treatment of infections caused by the ubiquitous bacteria. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the C. freundii Felix O1-like myophage Mijalis and present its features.
Project description:Citrobacter freundii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes dangerous infections such as neonatal meningitis. C. freundii also harbors antibiotic resistance, making phages infecting this host valuable tools. Here, we announce the complete genome of the C. freundii FelixO1-like myophage Michonne and describe its notable features.
Project description:Citrobacter freundii is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is associated with urinary tract infections. Bacteriophages infecting C. freundii can be used as an effective treatment to fight these infections. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the C. freundii Felix O1-like myophage Mordin and describe its features.
Project description:The ability of a bacterial population to survive in different niches, as well as in stressful and rapidly changing environmental conditions, depends greatly on its genetic content. To survive such fluctuating conditions, bacteria have evolved different mechanisms to modulate phenotypic variations and related strategies to produce high levels of genetic diversity. Laboratories working in microbiological diagnosis have shown that Citrobacter freundii is very versatile in its colony morphology, as well as in its biochemical, antigenic and pathogenic behaviours. This phenotypic versatility has made C. freundii difficult to identify and it is frequently confused with both Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. In order to determine the genomic events and to explain the mechanisms involved in this plasticity, six C. freundii isolates were selected from a phenotypic variation study. An I-CeuI genomic cleavage map was created and eight housekeeping genes, including 16S rRNA, were sequenced. In general, the results showed a range of both phenotypes and genotypes among the isolates with some revealing a greater similarity to C. freundii and some to S. enterica, while others were identified as phenotypic and genotypic intermediary states between the two species. The occurrence of these events in natural populations may have important implications for genomic diversification in bacterial evolution, especially when considering bacterial species boundaries. In addition, such events may have a profound impact on medical science in terms of treatment, course and outcomes of infectious diseases, evading the immune response, and understanding host-pathogen interactions.
Project description:Citrobacter freundii is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for many urinary tract infections acquired in hospitals and is thus a concern for public health. C. freundii phage Stevie might prove beneficial as a treatment against these infections. The complete genome of Stevie and its key features are described here.