Chimeric antibodies to proteinase 3 of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses induce different magnitudes of functional responses in neutrophils.
ABSTRACT: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are associated with small-vessel vasculitis and have been implicated in its pathogenesis. The subclass distribution of ANCA IgG deviates from normal patterns, and it has been suggested that the IgG3 subclass may have pathogenic potential over the IgG1 subclass and may be more likely to be associated with active disease and renal involvement.To deal with potential pathogenicity, chimeric antibodies were constructed of IgG1 and three subclasses with human IgG1 or three constant regions and a murine-derived variable region that binds an epitope within the ANCA antigen proteinase 3 (PR3) that is recognised by human autoantibodies.The antibodies were characterised for binding to PR3, including affinity and avidity, before being used as tools to explore their ability to activate human neutrophils for superoxide release, cytokine release, degranulation and ability to induce neutrophil adhesion under flow.Both subclass antibodies elicited similar neutrophil responses for superoxide release, degranulation and interleukin (IL) 8 production, although quantitative responses showed that the IgG1 subclass favoured degranulation and the IgG3 subclass favoured IL8 production. Both antibodies were able to convert neutrophils from selectin-dependent rolling adhesion to integrin-dependent stationary adhesion in a flow assay.These findings indicate that humanised antibodies directed against a single epitope of PR3 can recapitulate the effects of polyclonal human ANCA, which recognises multiple PR3 epitopes. Further, PR3-ANCA of both IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses can activate neutrophils, although the more potent IL8 response by IgG3 PR3-ANCA may encourage further neutrophil recruitment and amplify injury.
Project description:The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neutrophil-specific receptor NB1 (CD177) presents the autoantigen proteinase 3 (PR3) on the membrane of a neutrophil subset. PR3-ANCA-activated neutrophils participate in small-vessel vasculitis. Since NB1 lacks an intracellular domain, we characterized components of the NB1 signaling complex that are pivotal for neutrophil activation. PR3-ANCA resulted in degranulation and superoxide production in the mNB1(pos)/PR3(high) neutrophils, but not in the mNB1(neg)/PR3(low) subset, whereas MPO-ANCA and fMLP caused similar responses. The NB1 signaling complex that was precipitated from plasma membranes contained the transmembrane receptor Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) as shown by MS/MS analysis and immunoblotting. NB1 co-precipitation was less for CD11a and not detectable for CD11c. NB1 showed direct protein-protein interactions with both CD11b and CD11a by surface plasmon resonance analysis (SPR). However, when these integrins were presented as heterodimeric transmembrane proteins on transfected cells, only CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)-transfected cells adhered to immobilized NB1 protein. This adhesion was inhibited by mAb against NB1, CD11b, and CD18. NB1, PR3, and Mac-1 were located within lipid rafts. In addition, confocal microscopy showed the strongest NB1 co-localization with CD11b and CD18 on the neutrophil. Stimulation with NB1-activating mAb triggered degranulation and superoxide production in mNB1(pos)/mPR3(high) neutrophils, and this effect was reduced using blocking antibodies to CD11b. CD11b blockade also inhibited PR3-ANCA-induced neutrophil activation, even when ?2-integrin ligand-dependent signals were omitted. We establish the pivotal role of the NB1-Mac-1 receptor interaction for PR3-ANCA-mediated neutrophil activation.
Project description:Proteinase 3 is a serine protease found in neutrophil granules and on the extracellular neutrophil membrane (mPR3). mPR3 is a major antigen for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (PR3-ANCAs), autoantibodies causing fatal autoimmune diseases. In most individuals, a subpopulation of neutrophils also produce CD177, proposed to present additional PR3 on the surface, resulting in CD177neg/mPR3low and CD177pos/mPR3high neutrophil subsets. A positive correlation has been shown between mPR3 abundance, disease incidence, and clinical outcome. We present here a detailed investigation of the PR3:CD177 complex, verifying the interaction, demonstrating the effect of binding on PR3 proteolytic activity and explaining the accessibility of major PR3-ANCA epitopes. We observed high affinity PR3:CD177 complex formation by surface plasmon resonance. Using flow cytometry and a PR3-specific FRET assay, we found that CD177 binding reduced the proteolytic activity of PR3 in vitro using purified proteins, in neutrophil degranulation supernatants containing wtPR3 and directly on mPR3high neutrophils and PR3-loaded HEK cells. Finally, CD177pos/mPR3high neutrophils showed no migration advantage in vitro or in vivo when migrating from the blood into the oral cavity. We illuminate details of the PR3:CD177 interaction explaining mPR3 membrane orientation and proteolytic activity with relevance to ANCA activation of the distinct mPR3 neutrophil populations.
Project description:Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a severe autoimmune vasculitis associated with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) mainly targeting proteinase 3 (PR3), a neutrophilic serine proteinase. PR3-ANCA binding to membrane-bound PR3 on neutrophils induce their auto-immune activation responsible for vascular lesions. However, the correlation between PR3-ANCA level and disease activity remains inconsistent, suggesting the existence of non-pathogenic PR3-ANCA. In order to prove their existence, we immortalized B lymphocytes from blood samples of GPA patients in remission having persistent PR3-ANCA to isolate non-activating PR3-ANCA. We obtained for the first time a non-activating human IgG1? anti-PR3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) named 4C3. This new mAb binds soluble PR3 with a high affinity and membrane-bound PR3 on an epitope close to the PR3 hydrophobic patch and in the vicinity of the active site. 4C3 is able to bind Fc?RIIA and Fc?RIIIB and has a G2F glycosylation profile on asparagine 297. 4C3 did not induce activation of neutrophils and could inhibit human polyclonal PR3-ANCA-induced activation suggesting that 4C3 is non-pathogenic. This characteristic relies on the recognized epitope on PR3 rather than to the Fc portion properties. The existence of non-pathogenic PR3-ANCA, which do not activate neutrophils, could explain the persistence of high PR3-ANCA levels in some GPA patients in remission and why PR3-ANCA would not predict relapse. Finally, these results offer promising perspectives particularly regarding the understanding of PR3-ANCA pathogenicity and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in GPA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The complement system is one of the important contributing factors in the development of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). C5a and the neutrophil C5a receptor play a central role in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-mediated neutrophil recruitment and activation. The current study further investigated the signaling pathways of C5a-mediated priming of human neutrophils for ANCA-induced neutrophil activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effects of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) inhibitor (SB202190), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (6o) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) were tested on respiratory burst and degranulation of C5a-primed neutrophils activated with ANCA, as well as on C5a-induced increase in expression of membrane-bound PR3 (mPR3) on neutrophils. For C5a-primed neutrophils for MPO-ANCA-induced respiratory burst, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) value was 254.8±67.1, which decreased to 203.6±60.3, 204.4±36.7, 202.4±49.9 and 188±47.9 upon pre-incubation with SB202190, PD98059, LY294002 and the mixture of above-mentioned three inhibitors (compared with that without inhibitors, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.05), respectively. For PR3-ANCA-positive IgG, the MFI value increased in C5a-primed neutrophils, which decreased upon pre-incubation with above-mentioned inhibitors. The lactoferrin concentration increased in C5a-primed neutrophils induced by MPO or PR3-ANCA-positive IgG supernatant and decreased upon pre-incubation with above-mentioned three inhibitors. mPR3 expression increased from 923.3±182.4 in untreated cells to 1278.3±299.3 after C5a treatment and decreased to 1069.9±188.9, 1100±238.2, 1092.3±231.8 and 1053.9±200.3 by SB202190, PD98059, LY294002 and the mixture of above-mentioned three inhibitors (compared with that without inhibitors, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01), respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Activation of p38MAPK, ERK and PI3K are important steps in the translocation of ANCA antigens and C5a-induced activation of neutrophils by ANCA.
Project description:Clinical and experimental data suggest that pathogenesis in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is driven by ANCA-mediated activation of neutrophils and monocytes. While the role of neutrophils has been extensively investigated, the function of monocytes remains relatively understudied. We have previously demonstrated that stimulation of monocytes with anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO), but not anti-proteinase-3 (PR3), antibodies results in production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?. Changes in cellular metabolism, particularly a switch to glycolysis, have recently been linked to activation of immune cells and production of IL-1?. Therefore, we investigated the metabolic profile of monocytes following ANCA stimulation. We found a significant increase in glucose uptake in anti-MPO stimulated monocytes. Interestingly, both anti-MPO and anti-PR3 stimulation resulted in an immediate increase in glycolysis, measured by Seahorse extracellular flux analysis. However, this increase in glycolysis was sustained (for up to 4 h) in anti-MPO- but not anti-PR3-treated cells. In addition, only anti-MPO-treated cells exhibited increased oxidative phosphorylation, a metabolic response that correlated with IL-1? production. These data indicate that monocyte metabolism is altered by ANCA, with divergent responses to anti-MPO and anti-PR3 antibodies. These metabolic changes may underlie pathologic immune activation in ANCA associated vasculitis, as well as potentially contributing to the differing clinical phenotype between PR3- and MPO-ANCA positive patients. These metabolic pathways may therefore be potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Membrane-bound proteinase 3 (PR3m) is the main target antigen of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis, a systemic small-vessel vasculitis. Binding of ANCA to PR3m triggers neutrophil activation with the secretion of enzymatically active PR3 and related neutrophil serine proteases, thereby contributing to vascular damage. PR3 and related proteases are activated from pro-forms by the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin C (CatC) during neutrophil maturation. We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of CatC provides an effective measure to reduce PR3m and therefore has implications as a novel therapeutic approach in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. We first studied neutrophilic PR3 from 24 patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS), a genetic form of CatC deficiency. PLS neutrophil lysates showed a largely reduced but still detectable (0.5-4%) PR3 activity when compared with healthy control cells. Despite extremely low levels of cellular PR3, the amount of constitutive PR3m expressed on the surface of quiescent neutrophils and the typical bimodal membrane distribution pattern were similar to what was observed in healthy neutrophils. However, following cell activation, there was no significant increase in the total amount of PR3m on PLS neutrophils, whereas the total amount of PR3m on healthy neutrophils was significantly increased. We then explored the effect of pharmacological CatC inhibition on PR3 stability in normal neutrophils using a potent cell-permeable CatC inhibitor and a CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell model. Human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were treated with the inhibitor during neutrophil differentiation over 10 days. We observed strong reductions in PR3m, cellular PR3 protein, and proteolytic PR3 activity, whereas neutrophil differentiation was not compromised.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of our study is to investigate the Fc glycosylation profiles of both antigen-specific IgG targeted against proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) and total IgG as prognostic markers of relapse in patients with Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA). METHODS:Seventy-five patients with GPA and a PR3-ANCA rise during follow-up were included, of whom 43 patients relapsed within a median period of 8 (2-16) months. The N-glycan at Asn297 of affinity-purified and denatured total IgG and PR3-ANCA was determined by mass spectrometry of glycopeptides in samples obtained at the time of the PR3-ANCA rise and at the time of the relapse or time-matched during remission. RESULTS:Patients with total IgG1 exhibiting low galactosylation or low sialylation were highly prone to relapse after an ANCA rise (HR 3.46 [95%-CI 1.73-6.96], p<0.0001 and HR 3.22 [95%-CI 1.52-6.83], p=0.002, respectively). In relapsing patients, total IgG1 galactosylation, sialylation and bisection significantly decreased and fucosylation significantly increased from the time of the PR3-ANCA rise to the relapse (p<0.0001, p=0.0087, p<0.0001 and p=0.0025), while the glycosylation profile remained similar in non-relapsing patients. PR3-ANCA IgG1 galactosylation, sialylation and fucosylation of PR3-ANCA IgG1 decreased in relapsing patients (p=0.0073, p=0.0049 and p=0.0205), but also in non-relapsing patients (p=0.0007, p=0.0114 and p=0.0002), while bisection increased only in non-relapsing patients (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION:While Fc glycosylation profiles have been associated with clinically manifest autoimmune diseases, in the present study we show that low galactosylation and sialyation in total IgG1 but not PR3-ANCA IgG1 predicts disease reactivation in patients with GPA who experience an ANCA rise during follow-up. We postulate that glycosylation profiles may be useful in pre-emptive therapy studies using ANCA rises as guideline.
Project description:Different HIV-1 antigen specificities appear in sequence after HIV-1 transmission and the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses to HIV antigens are distinct from each other. The initial predominant IgG subclass response to HIV-1 infection consists of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies with a noted decline in some IgG3 antibodies during acute HIV-1 infection. Thus, we postulate that multiple antigen-specific IgG3 responses may serve as surrogates for the relative time since HIV-1 acquisition.We determined the magnitude, peak, and half-life of HIV-1 antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies in 41 HIV-1-infected individuals followed longitudinally from acute infection during the first appearance of HIV-1-specific antibodies through approximately 6 months after infection.We used quantitative HIV-1-binding antibody multiplex assays and exponential decay models to estimate concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to eight different HIV-1 proteins including gp140 Env, gp120 Env, gp41 Env, p66 reverse transcriptase, p31 Integrase, Tat, Nef, and p55 Gag proteins during acute/recent HIV-1 infection.Among HIV-1-specific IgG3 responses, anti-gp41 IgG3 antibodies were the first to appear. We found that anti-gp41 Env IgG3 and anti-p66 reverse transcriptase IgG3 antibodies, in addition to anti-Gag IgG3 antibodies, each consistently and measurably declined after acute infection, in contrast to the persistent antigen-specific IgG1 responses.The detailed measurements of the decline in multiple HIV-specific IgG3 responses simultaneous with persistent IgG1 responses during acute and recent HIV-1 infection could serve as markers for detection of incident HIV infection.
Project description:Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) causes vascular injury that leads to small-vessel vasculitis. Patients with ANCA aberrantly express neutrophil granule-encoding genes, including 2 that encode autoantigens: proteinase 3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). To uncover a potential transcriptional regulatory mechanism for PR3 and MPO disrupted in patients with ANCA vasculitis, we examined the PR3 and MPO loci in neutrophils from ANCA patients and healthy control individuals for epigenetic modifications associated with gene silencing. We found that levels of the chromatin modification H3K27me3, which is associated with gene silencing, were depleted at PR3 and MPO loci in ANCA patients compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, in both patients and controls, DNA was unmethylated at a CpG island in PR3, whereas in healthy controls, DNA was methylated at a CpG island in MPO. Consistent with decreased levels of H3K27me3, JMJD3, the demethylase specific for H3K27me3, was preferentially expressed in ANCA patients versus healthy controls. In addition, we describe a mechanism for recruiting the H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) to PR3 and MPO loci mediated by RUNX3. RUNX3 message was decreased in patients compared with healthy controls, and may also be under epigenetic control. DNA methylation was increased at the RUNX3 promoter in ANCA patients. These data indicate that epigenetic modifications associated with gene silencing are perturbed at ANCA autoantigen-encoding genes, potentially contributing to inappropriate expression of PR3 and MPO in ANCA patients.
Project description:Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), the serological hallmark of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies raised against circulating blood proteins. Of these proteins, the phospholipid-binding b2-glycoprotein I (?2GPI) is considered to be the main autoantigen in APS. Indeed, IgG antibodies targeting b2GPI (ab2GPI) directly cause both thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in several mouse models. While antibodies raised against all five domains of b2GPI have been reported, a subgroup of IgG ab2GPI raised against the first domain (DI) of b2GPI (aDI), strongly correlate with thrombotic APS, and drive thrombosis and pregnancy loss in vivo. Few studies have focused on determining the type of IgG subclass(es) for aPL. The subclass of an antibody is important as this dictates the potential activity of an antibody; for example, IgG1 and IgG3 can fix complement better and are able to cross the placenta compared to IgG2 and IgG4. It is unknown what subclass IgG aDI are, and whether they are the same as ab2GPI. To determine IgG subclass distribution for ab2GPI and aDI, we purified total IgG from the serum of 19 APS patients with known ab2GPI and aDI activity. Using subclass-specific conjugated antibodies, we modified our established in-house ab2GPI and aDI ELISAs to individually measure IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4. We found that while IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 ab2GPI levels were similar, a marked difference was seen in IgG subclass aDI levels. Specifically, significantly higher levels of IgG3 aDI were detected compared to IgG1, IgG2, or IgG4 (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Correlation analysis of subclass-specific ab2GPI vs. aDI demonstrated that IgG3 showed the weakest correlation (r = 0.45, p = 0.0023) compared to IgG1 (r = 0.61, p = 0.0001) and IgG2 (r = 0.81, p = 0.0001). Importantly, total subclass levels in IgG purified from APS and healthy serum (n = 10 HC n = 12 APS) did not differ, suggesting that the increased IgG3 aDI signal seen in APS-derived IgG is antigen-specific. To conclude, our data suggests that aDI show a different IgG subclass distribution to ab2GPI. Our results highlight the importance of aDI testing for patient stratification and may point toward differential underlying aPL-driven pathogenic processes that may be subclass restricted.