Complete nucleotide sequence of a linear plasmid from Streptomyces clavuligerus and characterization of its RNA transcripts.
ABSTRACT: The complete nucleotide sequence of a small linear plasmid (pSCL1) from Streptomyces clavuligerus has been determined. This plasmid is 11,696 bp in length, has a 72% G+C content, and has approximately 900-bp inverted terminal repeat sequences. A comparison of the inverted terminal repeats of pSCL1 with those of a linear plasmid from S. rochei shows that the two terminal sequences have a high degree of similarity (approximately 70%). Several small inverted repeats found in the long terminal sequences of both plasmids are also conserved. An analysis of the sequence and codon preferences indicates that pSCL1 has seven or eight highly probable protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). However, only two RNA species encoded by pSCL1 were detected in S. clavuligerus grown in liquid culture. The larger of these transcripts (900 nucleotides) corresponds to an ORF and is likely to be an mRNA for a protein similar to the KorA protein of pIJ101. The smaller transcript (460 nucleotides) does not correspond to any ORF; however, its 5' end is complementary to the 5' end of a predicted mRNA, suggesting that it may function as an antisense RNA. The larger of the two RNA species was present at a high level during the early stage of growth in liquid medium, and then its apparent rate of transcription decreased and remained at a lower level through the later stages; the level of the smaller RNA species remained relatively constant through all stages of growth.
Project description:The conjugative plasmid pIJ101 of the spore-forming bacterium Streptomyces lividans contains a regulatory gene, korB, whose product is required to repress potentially lethal expression of the pIJ101 kilB gene. The KorB protein also autoregulates korB gene expression and may be involved in control of pIJ101 copy number. KorB (pIJ101) is expressed as a 10-kDa protein in S. lividans that is immediately processed to a mature 6-kDa repressor molecule. The conjugative Streptomyces cyanogenus plasmid pSB24.1 is deleted upon entry into S. lividans to form pSB24.2, a nonconjugative derivative that contains a korB gene nearly identical to that of pIJ101. Previous evidence that korB of pSB24.2 is capable of overriding pIJ101 kilB-associated lethality supported the notion that pIJ101 and pSB24.2 encode highly related, perhaps even identical conjugation systems. Here we show that KorB (pIJ101) and KorB (pSB24.2) repress transcription from the pIJ101 kilB promoter equally well, although differences exist with respect to their interactions with kilB promoter sequences. Despite high sequence and functional similarities, KorB (pSB24.2) was found to exist as multiple stable forms ranging in size from 10 to 6 kDa both in S. lividans and S. cyanogenus. Immediate processing of KorB (pIJ101) exclusively to the 6-kDa repressor form meanwhile was conserved between the two species. A feature common to both proteins was a marked increase in expression or accumulation upon sporulation, an occurrence that may indicate a particular need for increased quantities of this regulatory protein upon spore germination and resumption of active growth of plasmid-containing cells.
Project description:Both Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces avermitilis encode similar systems of post-replicative DNA modification which act site-specifically on closely opposed guanines on either strand. The modifications can be detected since they react in vitro with an oxidative derivative of Tris, resulting in strand cleavage. Previous analysis of the preferred modification site of plasmid pIJ101 indicated that extensive amounts of flanking sequence, including direct and inverted repeat structures, are required to direct modification in vivo within a central 6 bp palindrome. We have now examined the preferred modification sites of a chromosomal element, the 5.7 kb amplified DNA sequence (ADS5.7) found in certain S. lividans mutants. In contrast to the pIJ101 site, each of the ADS5. 7sites is intragenic and modified with a 10-fold reduced frequency. However, similar extents of flanking sequence are required for authentic double-strand modification; deletion mutants exhibited different modification profiles, including displaced double-stranded or single-stranded modi-fication. Comparison of different modification sites reveals conservation of the central core sequence, but no significant similarities between flanking sequences. Enhanced modification was detected in a cloned region of the ADS5.7, suggesting that local DNA topology, probably influenced by both DNA supercoiling and the nature of flanking sequences, can influence the modifying activity.
Project description:A 1.3-kb insertion sequence, termed ISAfe1 (U66426), from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 is described. ISAfe1 exhibits the features of a typical bacterial insertion sequence. It has 26-bp, imperfectly matched, terminal inverted repeats and an open reading frame (ORF) that potentially encodes a transposase (TPase) of 404 amino acids (AAB07489) with significant similarity to members of the ISL3 family of insertion sequences. A potential ribosome-binding site and potential -10 and -35 promoter sites for the TPase ORF were identified, and a +1 transcriptional start site was detected experimentally. A potential outwardly directed -35 site was identified in the right inverted repeat of ISAfe1. A second ORF (ORF B), of unknown function, was found on the complementary strand with significant similarity to ORF 2 of ISAe1 from Ralstonia eutropha. Southern blot analyses demonstrated that ISAfe1-like elements can be found in multiple copies in a variety of A. ferrooxidans strains and that they exhibit transposition. A codon adaptation index (CAI) analysis of the TPase of ISAfe1 indicates that is has a CAI of 0.726 and can be considered well adapted to its host, suggesting that ISAfe1 might be an ancient resident of A. ferrooxidans. Analysis of six of its target sites of insertion in the genome of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 indicates a preference for 8-bp pseudopalindromic sequences, one of which resembles the termini of its inverted repeats. Evidence is presented here that is consistent with the possibility that ISAfe1 can promote both plasmid cointegrate formation and resolution in E. coli.
Project description:We have cloned three copies of a repeated DNA segment from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31, present on both circular and linear plasmids of this and other B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains. The DNA sequences are characterized by a highly homologous segment containing two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF-A and ORF-B. Five additional ORFs can be found on the slightly less homologous flanking sequences: ORF-G on the opposite strand upstream of ORF-A, and ORF-C, ORF-D, ORF-E, and ORF-F downstream of ORF-B. The 4.6-kb-long element containing ORF-A through ORF-E is flanked by approximately 180-bp-long imperfect inverted repeats (IRs). The putative gene product of ORF-C displays homology to proteins involved in plasmid maintenance in a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. ORF-E features several short, highly homologous direct repeats. ORF-A, ORF-B, and ORF-D are homologous to three ORFs on a recently described 8.3-kb circular plasmid of Borrelia afzelii Ip21 that are flanked by similar IRs (J. J. Dunn, S. R. Buchstein, L.-L. Butler, S. Fisenne, D. S. Polin, B. N. Lade, and B. J. Luft, J. Bacteriol. 176:2706-2717,1994). ORF-C and ORF-E, however, are missing from this region on the Ip21 plasmid. Furthermore, the repeated DNA element as defined by the IRs is present in opposite orientations relative to the flanking sequences on the B31 and Ip21 plasmids.
Project description:A database search revealed extensive sequence similarity between Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJ101 and Streptomyces plasmid pSB24. 2, which is a deletion derivative of Streptomyces cyanogenus plasmid pSB24.1. The high degree of relatedness between the two plasmids allowed the construction of a genetic map of pSB24.2, consisting of putative transfer and replication loci. Two pSB24.2 loci, namely, the cis-acting locus for transfer (clt) and the transfer-associated korB gene, were shown to be capable of complementing the pIJ101 clt and korB functions, respectively, a result that is consistent with the notion that pIJ101 and the parental plasmid pSB24.1 encode highly similar, if not identical, conjugation systems.
Project description:Plasmid cp8.3 of Borrelia afzelii IP21 carries several open reading frames (ORFs) and a 184-bp inverted repeat (IR) element. It has been speculated that this plasmid may encode factors involved in virulence or infectivity. In this report, we have characterized the distribution, molecular variability, and organization of ORFs 1, 2, and 4 and the IR elements among isolates of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. ORFs 1 and 2 are contained within a segment of cp8.3 that is bordered by the IR elements, while ORF 4 resides just outside of the IR-bordered region. By PCR, ORF 4 was amplified from most isolates while ORFs 1 and 2 were amplified from only some B. afzelii isolates. However, Southern hybridization analyses with ORF 1, 2, and 4 probes detected related sequences even in some isolates that were PCR negative. The ORF restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns varied widely even among isolates of the same species. Two-dimensional contour-clamped homogeneous electric field-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization detected ORF 1-, 2-, and 4-related sequences on linear and circular plasmids. In addition, an ORF 4-related sequence was detected on a previously uncharacterized, circular plasmid that is greater than 70 kb in size. The IR elements originally identified on plasmid cp8.3 of B. afzelii IP21 were also analyzed by Southern hybridization. Related sequences were detected in some but not all B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. These sequences are carried on plasmids in addition to cp8.3 in some isolates. Single-primer PCR analyses demonstrated that in some isolates these sequences exist with IR orientation. The data presented here demonstrate that the IR elements and the ORF 1-, 2-, and 4-related sequences are multicopy and are variable in organization and in genomic location among isolates of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. These analyses provide additional evidence for the highly variable organization of the plasmid component of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato genome.
Project description:The complete nucleotide sequence of the short region, made up of a unique segment (Us; 6.5 kb) bracketed by a pair of inverted repeat sequences (IR; 12.8 kb each), of the equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) genome has been determined recently in our laboratory. Analysis of the IR segment revealed a major open reading frame (ORF) designated IR4. The IR4 ORF exhibits significant homology to the immediate-early gene US1 (ICP22) of herpes simplex virus type 1 and to the ICP22 homologs of varicella-zoster virus (ORF63), pseudorabies virus (RSp40), and equine herpesvirus 4 (ORF4). The IR4 ORF is located entirely within each of the inverted repeat sequences (nucleotides [nt] 7918 to 9327) and has the potential to encode a polypeptide of 469 amino acids (49,890 Da). Within the IR4 ORF are two reiterated sequences: a 7-nt sequence tandemly repeated 17 times and a 25-nt sequence tandemly repeated 13 times. Nucleotide sequence analyses of IR4 also revealed several potential cis-regulatory sequences, two TATA sequences separated by 287 nt, an in-frame translation initiation codon following each TATA sequence, and a single polyadenylation site. To address the nature of the mRNA species encoded by IR4, we used Northern (RNA) blot and S1 nuclease analyses. RNA mapping data revealed that IR4 has two promoters that are regulated differentially during a lytic infection. A 1.4-kb mRNA appears initially at 2 h postinfection and is an early transcript since its synthesis is not affected by the presence of phosphonoacetic acid, an inhibitor of EHV-1 DNA replication. In contrast, a 1.7-kb mRNA appears at later times postinfection and is designated as a gamma-1 transcript, since its synthesis is significantly reduced by phosphonoacetic acid. These IR4-specific mRNAs are 3' coterminal, have unique 5' termini, and would code for in-frame, overlapping, carboxy-coterminal proteins of 293 and 469 amino acids, respectively. Interestingly, the site of homologous recombination to generate the genome of EHV-1 defective interfering particles that initiate persistent infection occurs between nt 3244 and 3251 of UL3 (ICP27 homolog) and nt 9027 and 9034 of IR4 (ICP22 homolog). Thus, this recombination event would generate a unique ORF that would encode a potential protein whose amino end was derived from the N-terminal 193 amino acids of the ICP22 homolog and whose carboxyl end was derived from the C-terminal 68 amino acids of the ICP27 homolog.
Project description:We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a small circular plasmid from the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi Ip21, the agent of Lyme disease. The plasmid (cp8.3/Ip21) is 8,303 bp long, has a 76.6% A+T content, and is unstable upon passage of cells in vitro. An analysis of the sequence revealed the presence of two nearly perfect copies of a 184-bp inverted repeat sequence separated by 2,675 bp containing three closely spaced, but nonoverlapping, open reading frames (ORFs). Each inverted repeat ends in sequences that may function as signals for the initiation of transcription and translation of flanking plasmid sequences. A unique oligonucleotide probe based on the repeated sequence showed that the DNA between the repeats is present predominantly in a single orientation. Additional copies of the repeat were not detected elsewhere in the Ip21 genome. An analysis for potential ORFs indicates that the plasmid has nine highly probable protein-coding ORFs and one that is less probable; together, they occupy almost 71% of the nucleotide sequence. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the ORFs revealed one (ORF-9) with features in common with Borrelia lipoproteins and another (ORF-2) having limited homology with a replication protein, RepC, from a gram-positive plasmid that replicates by a rolling circle (RC) mechanism. Known collectively as RC plasmids, such plasmids require a double-stranded origin at which the Rep protein nicks the DNA to generate a single-stranded replication intermediate. cp8.3/Ip21 has three copies of the heptameric motif characteristically found at a nick site of most RC plasmids. These observations suggest that cp8.3/Ip21 may replicate by an RC mechanism.
Project description:We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of pDG1, a plasmid found in a wild isolate of Dictyostelium. The 4439-bp long pDG1 contains only one, 2718-bases-long, open reading frame (ORF) and nearly perfect inverted repeats of 551 bp and 552 bp. Northern-blot analysis showed that only one 2.7-kb poly (A)+ RNA transcript was expressed at a maximum level, 2 h (early aggregation stage) after the onset of development. The expression of this transcript was suppressed by the addition of cAMP. In the upstream region of the ORF, there are several putative consensus sequences, e.g. (1) TGACTTAGAA-AAATT which is a putative site for cleavage by topoisomerase I, and (2) TGACGACA which may be a cAMP-responsive element, found in several genes that are regulated by cAMP at the level of transcription. A possible mechanism of the partitioning of pDG1 into daughter cells is discussed.
Project description:orf7 (oppA1) and orf15 (oppA2) are located 8 kb apart in the clavulanic acid gene cluster of Streptomyces clavuligerus and encode proteins which are 48.0% identical. These proteins show sequence similarity to periplasmic oligopeptide-binding proteins. Mutant S. clavuligerus oppA1::acc, disrupted in oppA1, lacks clavulanic acid production. Clavulanic acid production is restored by transformation with plasmid pIJ699-oppA1, which carries oppA1, but not with the multicopy plasmid pIJ699-oppA2, which carries oppA2. The mutant S. clavuligerus oppA2::aph also lacks clavulanic acid production, shows a bald phenotype, and overproduces holomycin (5). Clavulanic acid production at low levels is restored in the oppA2-disrupted mutants by transformation with plasmid pIJ699-oppA2, but it is not complemented by the multicopy plasmid pIJ699-oppA1. Both genes encode oligopeptide permeases with different substrate specificities. The disrupted S. clavuligerus oppA2::aph is not able to grow on RPPGFSPFR (Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg; bradykinin), but both mutants grow on VAPG (Val-Ala-Pro-Gly) as the only nitrogen source, indicating differences in the peptide bound by the proteins encoded by both genes. The null S. clavuligerus oppA1::acc and S. clavuligerus oppA2::aph mutants are more resistant to the toxic tripeptide phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine (also named bialaphos) than the wild-type strain, suggesting that this peptide might be transported by these peptide-binding proteins.