The pca-pob supraoperonic cluster of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus contains quiA, the structural gene for quinate-shikimate dehydrogenase.
ABSTRACT: An 18-kbp Acinetobacter calcoaceticus chromosomal segment contains the pcaIJFBDKCHG operon, which is required for catabolism of protocatechuate, and pobSRA, genes associated with conversion of p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate. The genetic function of the 6.5 kbp of DNA between pcaG and pobS was unknown. Deletions in this DNA were designed by removal of fragments between restriction sites, and the deletion mutations were introduced into A. calcoaceticus by natural transformation. The mutations prevented growth with either quinate or shikimate, growth substrates that depend upon qui gene function for their catabolism to protocatechuate. The location of quiA, a gene encoding quinate-shikimate dehydrogenase, was indicated by its expression in one of the deletion mutants, and the position of the gene was confirmed by determination of its 2,427-bp nucleotide sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of QuiA confirmed that it is a member of a family of membrane-associated, pyrrolo-quinoline quinone-dependent dehydrogenases, as had been suggested by earlier biochemical investigations. Catabolism of quinate and skikimate is initiated by NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases in other microorganisms, so it is evident that different gene pools were called upon to provide the ancestral enzyme for this metabolic step.
Project description:Catabolism of quinate to protocatechuate requires the consecutive action of quinate dehydrogenase (QuiA), dehydroquinate dehydratase (QuiB), and dehydroshikimate dehyratase (QuiC), Genes for catabolism of protocatechuate are encoded by the pca operon in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus chromosome. Observations reported here demonstrate that A. calcoaceticus qui genes are clustered in the order quiBCXA directly downstream from the pca operon. Sequence comparisons indicate that quiX encodes a porin, but the specific function of this protein has not been clearly established. Properties of mutants created by insertion of omega elements show that quiBC is expressed as part of a single transcript, but there is also an independent transcriptional initiation site directly upstream of quiA. The deduced amino acid sequence of QuiC does not resemble any other known sequence. A. calcoaceticus QuiB is most directly related to a family of enzymes with identical catalytic activity and biosynthetic AroD function in coliform bacteria. Evolution of A. calcoaceticus quiB appears to have been accompanied by fusion of a leader sequence for transport of the encoded protein into the inner membrane, and the location of reactions catalyzed by the mature enzyme may account for the failure of A. calcoaceticus aroD to achieve effective complementation of null mutations in quiB. Analysis of a genetic site where a DNA segment encoding a leader sequence was transposed adds to evidence suggesting horizontal transfer of nucleotide sequences within genes during evolution.
Project description:Quinate and protocatechuate are both abundant plant products and can serve, along with a large number of other aromatic or hydroaromatic compounds, as growth substrates for Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. The respective genes are part of the chromosomal dca-pca-qui-pob-hca cluster encoding these pathways. The adjacent pca and qui gene clusters, which encode enzymes for protocatechuate breakdown via the beta-ketoadipate pathway and for the conversion of quinate or shikimate to protocatechuate, respectively, have the same direction of transcription and are both expressed inducibly in response to protocatechuate. The pca genes are governed by the transcriptional activator-repressor PcaU. The mechanism governing qui gene expression was previously unknown. Here we report data suggesting the existence of a large 14-kb primary transcript covering the pca and qui genes. The area between the pca and qui genes contains no promoter activity, whereas a weak, constitutive promoter was identified upstream of quiA (quiAp). The 5' end of the quiA transcript was mapped. Northern blot analysis allowed the identification of a 12-kb transcript spanning pcaI to quiX. An analysis of the pca and qui gene transcripts in a strain missing the structural gene promoter pcaIp led to the identification of two pcaIp-independent transcripts (4 and 2.4 kb). The 2.4-kb transcript makes up about 25% of the total transcript abundance of quiA, and thus the majority of transcription of the last gene of the area is also driven by pcaIp. This report strongly supports the organization of the pca and qui genes as a pca-qui operon and, furthermore, suggests that PcaU is the regulator governing its expression.
Project description:Hydroxycinnamates are plant products catabolized through the diphenol protocatechuate in the naturally transformable bacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. Genes for protocatechuate catabolism are central to the dca-pca-qui-pob-hca chromosomal island, for which gene designations corresponding to catabolic function are dca (dicarboxylic acid), pca (protocatechuate), qui (quinate), pob (p-hydroxybenzoate), and hca (hydroxycinnamate). Acinetobacter hcaC had been cloned and shown to encode a hydroxycinnamate:coenzyme A (CoA) SH ligase that acts upon caffeate, p-coumarate, and ferulate, but genes for conversion of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA to protocatechuate had not been characterized. In this investigation, DNA from pobS to an XbaI site 5.3 kb beyond hcaC was captured in the plasmid pZR8200 by a strategy that involved in vivo integration of a cloning vector near the hca region of the chromosome. pZR8200 enabled Escherichia coli to convert p-coumarate to protocatechuate in vivo. Sequence analysis of the newly cloned DNA identified five open reading frames designated hcaA, hcaB, hcaK, hcaR, and ORF1. An Acinetobacter strain with a knockout of HcaA, a homolog of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/lyases, was unable to grow at the expense of hydroxycinnamates, whereas a strain mutated in HcaB, homologous to aldehyde dehydrogenases, grew poorly with ferulate and caffeate but well with p-coumarate. A chromosomal fusion of lacZ to the hcaE gene was used to monitor expression of the hcaABCDE promoter. LacZ was induced over 100-fold by growth in the presence of caffeate, p-coumarate, or ferulate. The protein deduced to be encoded by hcaR shares 28% identity with the aligned E. coli repressor, MarR. A knockout of hcaR produced a constitutive phenotype, as assessed in the hcaE::lacZ-Km(r) genetic background, revealing HcaR to be a repressor as well. Expression of hcaE::lacZ in strains with knockouts in hcaA, hcaB, or hcaC revealed unambiguously that hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesters relieve repression of the hcaABCDE genes by HcaR.
Project description:The shikimate pathway leads to the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids essential for protein biosynthesis and the production of a wide array of plant secondary metabolites. Among them, quinate is an astringent feeding deterrent that can be formed in a single step reaction from 3-dehydroquinate catalyzed by quinate dehydrogenase (QDH). 3-Dehydroquinate is also the substrate for shikimate biosynthesis through the sequential actions of dehydroquinate dehydratase (DQD) and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) contained in a single protein in plants. The reaction mechanism of QDH resembles that of SDH. The poplar genome encodes five DQD/SDH-like genes (Poptr1 to Poptr5), which have diverged into two distinct groups based on sequence analysis and protein structure prediction. In vitro biochemical assays proved that Poptr1 and -5 are true DQD/SDHs, whereas Poptr2 and -3 instead have QDH activity with only residual DQD/SDH activity. Poplar DQD/SDHs have distinct expression profiles suggesting separate roles in protein and lignin biosynthesis. Also, the QDH genes are differentially expressed. In summary, quinate (secondary metabolism) and shikimate (primary metabolism) metabolic activities are encoded by distinct members of the same gene family, each having different physiological functions.
Project description:1. Growing cells of a small number of strains of Acetomonas oxydans oxidized d-quinate to 5-dehydroquinate. 2. d-Shikimate was oxidized to 4,5-dihydroxy-3-oxocyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylate (3-dehydroshikimate, formerly 5-dehydroshikimate). 3. d-Dihydroshikimate was oxidized to the corresponding 5-dehydro compound, but epidihydroshikimate oxidation by growing cells was not observed. 4. Cell-free extracts oxidized d-quinate to 5-dehydroquinate with the consumption of the stoicheiometric amount of oxygen, but oxidation of shikimate and dihydroshikimate did not go to completion. 5. Oxidation of quinate was brought about by a constitutive particulate enzyme probably localized in the cytoplasmic membrane. No evidence was found for the participation of NAD, NADP or free flavine compounds in electron transport, but the system was cytochrome-linked.
Project description:Quinate (1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate) is a compound synthesized in plants through a side-branch of the shikimate biosynthesis pathway, which is accumulated after glyphosate and acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides (ALS-inhibitors) and has phytotoxic potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of quinate on several weed species. Among the species evaluated, Cynodon dactylon, Bromus diandrus, Lolium rigidum, Sinapis alba, and Papaver rhoeas, P. rhoeas was the most sensitive, and its growth was controlled with quinate concentrations above 100 mM at the phenological stage of 6-8 true leaves. A physiological study, including the shikimate pathway and the physiological markers of ALS-inhibitors (carbohydrates and amino acids), was performed in the sensitive and resistant plants treated with sulfonylureas or quinate. The typical physiological effects of ALS-inhibitors were detected in the sensitive population (free amino acid and carbohydrate accumulation) and not detected in the resistant population. The mode of action of quinate appeared to be related to general perturbations in their carbon/nitrogen metabolism rather than to specific changes in the shikimate pathway. These results suggest the possibility of using quinate in the weed control management of P. rhoeas.
Project description:To date two classes of shikimate dehydrogenases have been identified and characterized, YdiB and AroE. YdiB is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reductions of dehydroquinate to quinate and dehydroshikimate to shikimate in the presence of either NADH or NADPH. In contrast, AroE catalyzes the reversible reduction of dehydroshikimate to shikimate in the presence of NADPH. Here we report the crystal structure and biochemical characterization of HI0607, a novel class of shikimate dehydrogenase annotated as shikimate dehydrogenase-like. The kinetic properties of HI0607 are remarkably different from those of AroE and YdiB. In comparison with YdiB, HI0607 catalyzes the oxidation of shikimate but not quinate. The turnover rate for the oxidation of shikimate is approximately 1000-fold lower compared with that of AroE. Phylogenetic analysis reveals three independent clusters representing three classes of shikimate dehydrogenases, namely AroE, YdiB, and this newly characterized shikimate dehydrogenase-like protein. In addition, mutagenesis studies of two invariant residues, Asp-103 and Lys-67, indicate that they are important catalytic groups that may function as a catalytic pair in the shikimate dehydrogenase reaction. This is the first study that describes the crystal structure as well as mutagenesis and mechanistic analysis of this new class of shikimate dehydrogenase.
Project description:VanK is the fourth member of the ubiquitous major facilitator superfamily of transport proteins to be identified that, together with PcaK, BenK, and MucK, contributes to aromatic catabolism in Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. VanK and PcaK have overlapping specificity for p-hydroxybenzoate and, most clearly, for protocatechuate: inactivation of both proteins severely impairs growth with protocatechuate, and the activity of either protein alone can mask the phenotype associated with inactivation of its homolog. Furthermore, vanK pcaK double-knockout mutants appear completely unable to grow in liquid culture with the hydroaromatic compound quinate, although such cells on plates convert quinate to protocatechuate, which then accumulates extracellularly and is readily visible as purple staining. This provides genetic evidence that quinate is converted to protocatechuate in the periplasm and is in line with the early argument that quinate catabolism should be physically separated from aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the cytoplasm so as to avoid potential competition for intermediates common to both pathways. Previous studies of aromatic catabolism in Acinetobacter have taken advantage of the ability to select directly strains that contain a spontaneous mutation blocking the beta-ketoadipate pathway and preventing the toxic accumulation of carboxymuconate. By using this procedure, strains with a mutation in structural or regulatory genes blocking degradation of vanillate, p-hydroxybenzoate, or protocatechuate were selected. In this study, the overlapping specificity of the VanK and PcaK permeases was exploited to directly select strains with a mutation in either vanK or pcaK. Spontaneous mutations identified in vanK include a hot spot for frameshift mutation due to contraction of a G6 mononucleotide repeat as well as point mutations producing amino acid substitutions useful for analysis of VanK structure and function. Preliminary second-site suppression analysis using transformation-facilitated PCR mutagenesis in one VanK mutant gave results similar to those using LacY, the prototypic member of the major facilitator superfamily, consistent with the two proteins having a similar mechanism of action. The selection for transport mutants described here for Acinetobacter may also be applicable to Pseudomonas putida, where the PcaK permease has an additional role in chemotaxis.
Project description:The quinic acid ulitization (qut) pathway in Aspergillus nidulans is a dispensable carbon utilization pathway that catabolizes quinate to protocatechuate via dehydroquinate and dehydroshikimate(DHS). At the usual in vitro growth pH of 6.5, quinate enters the mycelium by means of a specific permease and is converted into PCA by the sequential action of the enzymes quinate dehydrogenase, 3-dehydroquinase and DHS dehydratase. The extent of control on metabolic flux exerted by the permease and the three pathway enzymes was investigated by applying the techniques of Metabolic Control Analysis. The flux control coefficients for each of the three quinate pathway enzymes were determined empirically, and the flux control coefficient of the quinate permease was inferred by use of the summation theorem. There measurements implied that, under the standard growth conditions used, the values for the flux control coefficients of the components of the quinate pathway were: quinate permease, 0.43; quinate dehydrogenase, 0.36; dehydroquinase, 0.18; DHS dehydratase, <0,03. Attempts to partially decouple quinate permease from the control over flux by measuring flux at pH 3.5 (when a significant percentage of the soluble quinate is protonated and able to enter the mycelium without the aid of a permease) led to an increase of approx. 50% in the flux control coefficient for dehydroquinase. Taken together with the fact that A. nidulans has a very efficient pH homeostasis mechanism, these experiments are consistent with the view that quinate permease exerts a high degree of control over pathway flux under the standard laboratory growth conditions at pH 6.5. The enzymes quinate dehydrogenase and 3-dehydroquinase have previously been overproduced in Escherichia coli, and protocols for their purification published. The remaining qut pathway enzyme DHS dehydratase was overproduced in E. coli and a purification protocol established. The purified DHS dehydratase was shown to have a K(m) of 530 microM for its substrate DHS and a requirement for bivalent metal cations that could be fulfilled by Mg(2+), Mn(2+) or Zn(2+). All three qut pathway enzymes were purified in bulk and their elasticity coefficients with respect to the three quinate pathway intermediates were derived over a range of concentrations in a core tricine/NaOH buffer, augmented with necessary cofactors and bivalent cations as appropriate. Using these empirically determined relative values, in conjunction with the connectivity theorem, the relative ratios of the flux control coefficients for the various quinate pathway enzymes, and how this control shifts between them, was determined over a range of possible metabolic concentrations. These calculations, although clearly subject to caveates about the relationswhip between kinetic measurements in vitro and the situation in vivo, were able to successfully predict the hiearchy of control observed under the standard laboratory growth conditions. The calculations imply that the hierarchy of control exerted by the quinate pathway enzymes is stable and relatively insensitive to changing metabolite concentrations in the ranges most likely to correspond to those found in vivo. The effects of substituting the type I 3-dehydroquinases from Salmonella typhi and the A. nidulans AROM protein (a pentadomain protein catalysing the conversion of 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonic acid 7-phosphate into 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3 phosphate), and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis type II 3-dehydroquinase, in the quinate pathway were investigated and found to have an effect. In the case of S. typhi and A. nidulans, overproduction of heterologous dehydroquinase led to a diminuation of pathway flux caused by a lowering of in vivo quinate dehydrogenase levels increased above those of the wild type. We speculate that these changes in qu
Project description:The AROM protein of Aspergillus nidulans is a multidomain pentafunctional polypeptide that is active as a dimer and catalyses steps 2-6 in the prechorismate section of the shikimate pathway. The three C-terminal domains (including the type I 3-dehydroquinase) of the AROM protein are homologous with the qutR-encoded QUTR protein that represses transcription of the eight genes comprising the quinic acid utilization (qut) gene cluster, and the two N-terminal domains are homologous with the qutA-encoded QUTA protein that transcribes the qut genes. As part of a larger research programme designed to compare the structures of the three proteins and to probe the domain structure and interaction within each protein, we have overproduced and purified the 3-dehydroquinase domain of the AROM protein. Additionally we have overproduced and purified the qutB-encoded quinate dehydrogenase and overproduced the qa-2 encoded type II 3-dehydroquinase of Neurospora crassa. We report that the AROM 3-dehydroquinase domain has a monomeric native state, with an apparent kcat./Km ratio that is approx. 160-fold lower than the value for the native N. crassa AROM protein. The AROM protein 3-dehydroquinase domain is sensitive to inactivation by borohydride in the presence of the substrate 3-dehydroquinate, confirming that it is a typical type I 3-dehydroquinase. The purified quinate dehydrogenase is bifunctional, being able to metabolize shikimate as a substrate. The apparent Km values for quinate (450 microM), shikimate (1.7 mM) and NAD+ (150 microM) are all similar to values reported for the qa-3-encoded enzyme from N. crassa.