RNA editing of the microRNA-151 precursor blocks cleavage by the Dicer-TRBP complex.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate translational repression or degradation of their target messenger RNAs by RNA interference (RNAi). The primary transcripts of miRNA genes (pri-miRNAs) are sequentially processed by the nuclear Drosha-DGCR8 complex to approximately 60-70 nucleotide (nt) intermediates (pre-miRNAs) and then by the cytoplasmic Dicer-TRBP complex to approximately 20-22 nt mature miRNAs. Certain pri-miRNAs are subject to RNA editing that converts adenosine to inosine (A --> I RNA editing); however, the fate of edited pri-miRNAs is mostly unknown. Here, we provide evidence that RNA editing of pri-miR-151 results in complete blockage of its cleavage by Dicer and accumulation of edited pre-miR-151 RNAs. Our results indicate that A --> I conversion at two specific positions of the pre-miRNA foldback structure can affect its interaction with the Dicer-TRBP complex, showing a new regulatory role of A --> I RNA editing in miRNA biogenesis.
Project description:Primary transcripts of certain microRNA (miRNA) genes (pri-miRNAs) are subject to RNA editing that converts adenosine to inosine (A-->I RNA editing). However, the frequency of the pri-miRNA editing and the fate of edited pri-miRNAs remain largely to be determined. Examination of already known pri-miRNA editing sites indicated that adenosine residues of the UAG triplet sequence might be edited more frequently. In the present study, therefore, we conducted a large-scale survey of human pri-miRNAs containing the UAG triplet sequence. By direct sequencing of RT-PCR products corresponding to pri-miRNAs, we examined 209 pri-miRNAs and identified 43 UAG and also 43 non-UAG editing sites in 47 pri-miRNAs, which were highly edited in human brain. In vitro miRNA processing assay using recombinant Drosha-DGCR8 and Dicer-TRBP (the human immuno deficiency virus transactivating response RNA-binding protein) complexes revealed that a majority of pri-miRNA editing is likely to interfere with the miRNA processing steps. In addition, four new edited miRNAs with altered seed sequences were identified by targeted cloning and sequencing of the miRNAs that would be processed from edited pri-miRNAs. Our studies predict that approximately 16% of human pri-miRNAs are subject to A-->I editing and, thus, miRNA editing could have a large impact on the miRNA-mediated gene silencing.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ?21-nucleotide-long, single-stranded noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Biogenesis of miRNAs is mediated by the two RNase III-like enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. Here we study miRNA biogenesis during maturation of Xenopus oocytes to eggs using microinjection of pri-miRNAs. We show that processing of exogenous and endogenous primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) is strongly enhanced upon maturation of oocytes to eggs. Overexpression of cloned Xenopus Drosha in oocytes, however, boosts pri-miRNA processing dramatically, indicating that Drosha is a rate-limiting factor in Xenopus oocytes. This developmental regulation of Drosha is controlled by poly(A) length addition to the Drosha mRNA, which boosts translation upon transition from oocytes to eggs. Processing of pri-miRNAs by Drosha and Dicer has been shown to be affected by adenosine-to-inosine deamination-type RNA editing. Using activated Xenopus eggs for microinjection experiments, we demonstrate that RNA editing can reduce pri-miRNA processing in vivo. This processing block is determined by the structural but not sequence changes introduced by RNA editing.
Project description:RNA-mediated gene silencing in human cells requires the accurate generation of ?22 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) from double-stranded RNA substrates by the endonuclease Dicer. Although the phylogenetically conserved RNA-binding proteins TRBP and PACT are known to contribute to this process, their mode of Dicer binding and their genome-wide effects on miRNA processing have not been determined. We solved the crystal structure of the human Dicer-TRBP interface, revealing the structural basis of the interaction. Interface residues conserved between TRBP and PACT show that the proteins bind to Dicer in a similar manner and by mutual exclusion. Based on the structure, a catalytically active Dicer that cannot bind TRBP or PACT was designed and introduced into Dicer-deficient mammalian cells, revealing selective defects in guide strand selection. These results demonstrate the role of Dicer-associated RNA binding proteins in maintenance of gene silencing fidelity.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, 21- to 23-nucleotide cellular RNAs that control the expression of cognate target genes. Primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts are transformed to mature miRNA by the successive actions of two RNase III endonucleases. Drosha converts pri-miRNA transcripts to precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA); Dicer, in turn, converts pre-miRNA to mature miRNA. Here, we show that normal processing of Drosophila pre-miRNAs by Dicer-1 requires the double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) protein Loquacious (Loqs), a homolog of human TRBP, a protein first identified as binding the HIV trans-activator RNA (TAR). Efficient miRNA-directed silencing of a reporter transgene, complete repression of white by a dsRNA trigger, and silencing of the endogenous Stellate locus by Suppressor of Stellate, all require Loqs. In loqs(f00791) mutant ovaries, germ-line stem cells are not appropriately maintained. Loqs associates with Dcr-1, the Drosophila RNase III enzyme that processes pre-miRNA into mature miRNA. Thus, every known Drosophila RNase-III endonuclease is paired with a dsRBD protein that facilitates its function in small RNA biogenesis.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing targets double-stranded RNA stem-loop structures in the mammalian brain. It has previously been shown that miRNAs are substrates for A-to-I editing. For the first time, we show that for several definitions of edited miRNA, the level of editing increases with development, thereby indicating a regulatory role for editing during brain maturation. We use high-throughput RNA sequencing to determine editing levels in mature miRNA, from the mouse transcriptome, and compare these with the levels of editing in pri-miRNA. We show that increased editing during development gradually changes the proportions of the two miR-376a isoforms, which previously have been shown to have different targets. Several other miRNAs that also are edited in the seed sequence show an increased level of editing through development. By comparing editing of pri-miRNA with editing and expression of the corresponding mature miRNA, we also show an editing-induced developmental regulation of miRNA expression. Taken together, our results imply that RNA editing influences the miRNA repertoire during brain maturation.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are about 22 nucleotides in length. They regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by guiding the effector protein Argonaute to its target mRNA in a sequence-dependent manner, causing the translational repression and destabilization of the target mRNAs. Both Drosha and Dicer, members of the RNase III family proteins, are essential components in the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway. miRNA is transcribed into primary-miRNA (pri-miRNA) from genomic DNA. Drosha then cleaves the flanking regions of pri-miRNA into precursor-miRNA (pre-miRNA), while Dicer cleaves the loop region of the pre-miRNA to form a miRNA duplex. Although the role of Drosha and Dicer in miRNA maturation is well known, the modulation processes that are important for regulating the downstream gene network are not fully understood. In this review, we summarized and discussed current reports on miRNA biogenesis caused by Drosha and Dicer. We also discussed the modulation mechanisms regulated by double-stranded RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs) and the function and substrate specificity of dsRBPs, including the TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) and the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR).
Project description:The main mediator of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response in macrophages is activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This generates interferon-beta (INF-beta) production that stimulates increased expression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1. To determine if there is an increase in RNA editing in mature miRNA in response to TLR4 activation upon Salmonella infection of macrophages we analyzed small RNA deep sequencing data. Interestingly, we found that direct infection of macrophage cell lines with Salmonella does not result in an increase of edited mature miRNA. Thus, despite elevated levels of ADAR1 during TLR4 activation of macrophages mediated by Salmonella infection, ADAR1 does not result in redirection of miRNA. The most common consequence of ADAR activity on miRNA is a reduction in the mature miRNA level due to interference with miRNA processing of pri-miRNA. However, we found very few miRNAs with reductions in level, and no significant difference between miRNAs previously reported to be edited and those reported to be not edited. In particular, we did not see significant decrease in mir-22 and mir-142, nor editing of pri-mir-22 or pri-mir-142 in infected RAW macrophages. Thus, ADAR1 has very little, if any, effect on the miRNA machinery following TL4 activation by Salmonella infection.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are generated by a two-step processing pathway to yield RNA molecules of approximately 22 nucleotides that negatively regulate target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Primary miRNAs are processed to precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) by the Microprocessor complex. These pre-miRNAs are cleaved by the RNase III Dicer to generate mature miRNAs that direct the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to messenger RNAs with complementary sequence. Here we show that TRBP (the human immunodeficiency virus transactivating response RNA-binding protein), which contains three double-stranded, RNA-binding domains, is an integral component of a Dicer-containing complex. Biochemical analysis of TRBP-containing complexes revealed the association of Dicer-TRBP with Argonaute 2 (Ago2), the catalytic engine of RISC. The physical association of Dicer-TRBP and Ago2 was confirmed after the isolation of the ternary complex using Flag-tagged Ago2 cell lines. In vitro reconstitution assays demonstrated that TRBP is required for the recruitment of Ago2 to the small interfering RNA (siRNA) bound by Dicer. Knockdown of TRBP results in destabilization of Dicer and a consequent loss of miRNA biogenesis. Finally, depletion of the Dicer-TRBP complex via exogenously introduced siRNAs diminished RISC-mediated reporter gene silencing. These results support a role of the Dicer-TRBP complex not only in miRNA processing but also as a platform for RISC assembly.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing regulates miRNA biogenesis and function. To date, fewer than 160 miRNA editing sites have been identified. Here, we present a quantitative atlas of miRNA A-to-I editing through the profiling of 201 pri-miRNA samples and 4694 mature miRNA samples in human, mouse, and Drosophila. We identified 4162 sites present in ?80% of the pri-miRNAs and 574 sites in mature miRNAs. miRNA editing is prevalent in many tissue types in human. However, high-level editing is mostly found in neuronal tissues in mouse and Drosophila Interestingly, the edited miRNAs in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues in human gain two distinct sets of new targets, which are significantly associated with cognitive and organ developmental functions, respectively. Furthermore, we reveal that miRNA editing profoundly affects asymmetric strand selection. Altogether, these data provide insight into the impact of RNA editing on miRNA biology and suggest that miRNA editing has recently gained non-neuronal functions in human.
Project description:Canonical primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) precursors are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and then processed by the Drosha endonuclease to generate approximately 60 nt pre-miRNA hairpins. Pre-miRNAs in turn are cleaved by Dicer to generate mature miRNAs. Previously, some short introns, called miRtrons, were reported to fold into pre-miRNA hairpins after splicing and debranching, and miRNAs can also be excised by Dicer cleavage of rare endogenous short hairpin RNAs. Here we report that the miRNAs encoded by murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68) are also generated via atypical mechanisms. Specifically, MHV68 miRNAs are transcribed from RNA polymerase III promoters located within adjacent viral tRNA-like sequences. The resultant pri-miRNAs, which bear a 5' tRNA moiety, are not processed by Drosha but instead by cellular tRNase Z, which cleaves 3' to the tRNA to liberate pre-miRNA hairpins that are then processed by Dicer to yield the mature viral miRNAs.