Involvement of the sigma1 (sigma1) receptor in the anti-amnesic, but not antidepressant-like, effects of the aminotetrahydrofuran derivative ANAVEX1-41.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tetrahydro-N, N-dimethyl-5, 5-diphenyl-3-furanmethanamine hydrochloride (ANAVEX1-41) is a potent muscarinic and sigma(1) (sigma (1)) receptor ligand. The sigma (1) receptor modulates glutamatergic and cholinergic responses in the forebrain and selective agonists are potent anti-amnesic and antidepressant DRUGS. WE HAVE HERE ANALYSED THE SIGMA (1) COMPONENT IN THE BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS OF ANAVEX1-41. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Binding of ANAVEX1-41 to muscarinic and sigma (1) receptors were measured using cell membranes. Behavioural effects of ANAVEX1-41 were tested in mice using memory (spontaneous alternation, passive avoidance, water-maze) and antidepressant-like activity (forced swimming) procedures. KEY RESULTS: In vitro, ANAVEX1-41 was a potent muscarinic (M(1)>M(3), M(4)>M(2) with K(i) ranging from 18 to 114 nM) and selective sigma (1) ligand (sigma (1), K(i)=44 nM; sigma (2), K(i)=4 microM). In mice, ANAVEX1-41 failed to affect learning when injected alone (0.03-1 mg kg(-1)), but attenuated scopolamine-induced amnesia with a bell-shaped dose response (maximum at 0.1 mg kg(-1)). The sigma (1) antagonist BD1047 blocked the anti-amnesic effect of ANAVEX1-41 on both short- and long-term memories. Pretreatment with a sigma (1) receptor-directed antisense oligodeoxynucleotide prevented effects of ANAVEX1-41 only in the passive avoidance procedure, measuring long-term memory. ANAVEX1-41 reduced behavioural despair at 30 and 60 mg kg(-1), without involving the sigma (1) receptor, as it was not blocked by BD1047 or the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: ANAVEX1-41 is a potent anti-amnesic drug, acting through muscarinic and sigma (1) receptors. The latter component may be involved in the enhancing effects of the drug on long-term memory processes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, is also a high affinity sigma(1) receptor agonist. We examined the involvement of sigma(1) receptors in its anti-amnesic and neuroprotective properties against amyloid beta(25-35) peptide-induced toxicity in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Mice were given an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Abeta(25-35) peptide (9 nmol) 7-9 days before being tested for spontaneous alternation and passive avoidance. Hippocampal lipid peroxidation was measured 7 days after Abeta(25-35) injection to evaluate oxidative stress. Donepezil, the sigma(1) agonist PRE-084 or the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors tacrine, rivastigmine and galantamine were administered either 20 min before behavioural sessions to check their anti-amnesic effects, or 20 min before Abeta(25-35) injection, or 24 h after Abeta(25-35) injection and then once daily before behavioural sessions, to check their pre- and post-i.c.v. neuroprotective activity, respectively. KEY RESULTS: All the drugs tested were anti-amnesic, but only the effects of PRE-084 and donepezil were prevented by the sigma(1) antagonist BD1047. Only PRE-084 and donepezil showed neuroprotection when administered pre i.c.v.; they blocked lipid peroxidation and learning deficits, effects inhibited by BD1047. Post i.c.v., PRE-084 and donepezil showed complete neuroprotection whereas the other ChE inhibitors showed partial effects. BD1047 blocked these effects of PRE-084, attenuated those of donepezil, but did not affect the partial effects of the other ChE inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The potent anti-amnesic and neuroprotective effects of donepezil against Abeta(25-35)-induced toxicity involve both its cholinergic and sigma(1) agonistic properties. This dual action may explain its sustained activity compared to other ChE inhibitors.
Project description:AIMS:Sigma-1 receptors are involved in the pathophysiological process of several neuropsychiatric diseases such as epilepsy, depression. Allosteric modulation represents an important mechanism for receptor functional regulation. In this study, we examined antidepressant activity of the latest identified novel and selective allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptor 3-methyl-phenyl-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[d]azepin-7-ol (SOMCL-668). METHODS AND RESULTS:A single administration of SOMCL-668 decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and tailing suspended test in mice, which were abolished by pretreatment of sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047. In the chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) model, chronic application of SOMCL-668 rapidly ameliorated anhedonia-like behavior (within a week), accompanying with the enhanced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) (Ser-9) in the hippocampus. SOMCL-668 also rapidly promoted the phosphorylation of GSK3β (Ser-9) in an allosteric manner in vitro. In the cultured primary neurons, SOMCL-668 enhanced the sigma-1 receptor agonist-induced neurite outgrowth and the secretion of BDNF. CONCLUSION:SOMCL-668, a novel allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors, elicits a potent and rapid acting antidepressant effect. The present data provide the first evidence that allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors may represent a new approach for antidepressant drug discovery.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The Sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) impacts on calcium ion signalling and has a plethora of ligands. This study investigated Sig1R and its ligands in relation to endogenous calcium events of endothelial cells and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Intracellular calcium and patch clamp measurements were made from human saphenous vein endothelial cells and HEK 293 cells expressing exogenous human TRPC5, TRPM2 or TRPM3. Sig1R ligands were applied and short interfering RNA was used to deplete Sig1R. TRP channels tagged with fluorescent proteins were used for subcellular localization studies. KEY RESULTS:In endothelial cells, 10-100 ?M of the Sig1R antagonist BD1063 inhibited sustained but not transient calcium responses evoked by histamine. The Sig1R agonist 4-IBP and related antagonist BD1047 were also inhibitory. The Sig1R agonist SKF10047 had no effect. Sustained calcium entry evoked by VEGF or hydrogen peroxide was also inhibited by BD1063, BD1047 or 4-IBP, but not SKF10047. 4-IBP, BD1047 and BD1063 inhibited TRPC5 or TRPM3, but not TRPM2. Inhibitory effects of BD1047 were rapid in onset and readily reversed on washout. SKF10047 inhibited TRPC5 but not TRPM3 or TRPM2. Depletion of Sig1R did not prevent the inhibitory actions of BD1063 or BD1047 and Sig1R did not co-localize with TRPC5 or TRPM3. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:The data suggest that two types of Sig1R ligand (BD1047/BD1063 and 4-IBP) are inhibitors of receptor- or chemically activated calcium entry channels, acting relatively directly and independently of the Sig1R. Chemical foundations for TRP channel inhibitors are suggested.
Project description:Application of orthosteric sigma-1 receptor agonists as anti-seizure drugs has been hindered by questionable efficacy and potential adverse effects. Here, we have investigated the anti-seizure effects of the novel and potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptors, SKF83959 and its derivative SOMCL-668 (3-methyl-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[d]azepin-7-ol).The anti-seizure effects of SKF83959 were investigated in three mouse models, maximal electroshock seizures, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and kainic acid-induced 'status epilepticus'. Also, in rats, the cortical epileptiform activity induced by topical application of picrotoxin was recorded in electrocorticograms. In rat hippocampal brain slices, effects of the drugs on the high potassium-evoked epileptiform local field potentials were studied. Anti-seizure activities of SOMCL-668, a newly developed sigma-1 receptor selective allosteric modulator, were also investigated.SKF83959 (20, 40?mg·kg(-1) ) exhibited anti -seizure actitity in the three mouse models and reduced the cortical epileptiform activity without alteration of spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination. These effects were blocked by the sigma-1 receptor antagonist BD1047, but not the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390. SKF83959 alone did not directly inhibit the epileptiform firing of CA3 neurons induced by high potassium in hippocampal slices, but did potentiate inhibition by the orthosteric sigma-1 receptor agonist SKF10047. Lastly, a selective sigma-1 receptor allosteric modulator SOMCL-668, which does not bind to dopamine receptors, exerted similar anti-seizure activities.SKF83959 and SOMCL-668 displayed anti-seizure activities, indicating that allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors may provide a novel approach for discovering new anti-seizure drugs.
Project description:Pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is mediated through the infiltration of perivascular macrophages into the brain with the secretion of viral, neurotoxic and inflammatory proteins. One of these proteins is cathepsin B (CATB), a lysosomal cysteine protease that induces neuronal apoptosis, and increases in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from HIV-1 infected patients (Cantres-Rosario et al. AIDS 27(3):347-356, 2013). Cocaine further potentiates CATB neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo (Zenón et al. J NeuroImmune Pharmacol 9(5):703-715, 2014). Modulation of sigma-1 (Sig1R) by cocaine increases oxidative species, cytokines and other factors that promote lysosomal disruption. However, the role of Sig1R in CATB secretion and HIV-1 replication in macrophages exposed to cocaine is unknown. We hypothesized that pharmacological modulation of Sig1R would alter CATB secretion from HIV-1 infected macrophages in vitro and in vivo. To test our hypothesis, monocyte derived-macrophages (MDM) from HIV-1 seronegative donors were isolated, infected with HIV-1ADA, and pretreated with Sig1R antagonist (BD1047) or Sig1R agonist (PRE-084) prior to cocaine exposure and followed for 3,6,9 and 11 days post-infection (dpi). Experiments in vivo were conducted using the HIV encephalitis mouse model (HIVE) with BD1047 treatments prior to cocaine for 14 days. Results demonstrate that in presence of cocaine, BD1047 decreases CATB secretion at 11 dpi, while PRE-084 did not have an effect. In the mouse model, BD1047 treatment prior to cocaine decreased CATB expression, cleaved caspase-3 an p24 antigen levels, reduced astrocytosis, but did not increase MAP-2 or synaptophysin. Results demonstrate that Sig1R plays a role in the modulation of CATB levels in HIV-1 infected MDM exposed to cocaine in vitro and in vivo. Graphical Abstract ?.
Project description:Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, immunodeficiency diseases, and stomach ulcer in Asia. However, the anti-amnesic effect of T. chebula has not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to determine whether T. chebula extract (TCE) alleviates amnesia induced by scopolamine in mice. We also investigated possible mechanisms associated with cholinergic system and anti-oxidant effects.TCE (100 or 200 mg/kg) was orally administered to mice for fourteen days (days 1-14), and scopolamine was intraperitoneally injected to induce memory impairment for seven days (days 8-14). Learning and memory status were evaluated using the Morris water maze. Hippocampal levels of acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were measured ex vivo. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the hippocampus were also examined.In the Morris water maze task, TCE treatment reversed scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits in acquisition and retention. TCE reduced hippocampal AChE activities and increased ChAT and ACh levels in the scopolamine-induced model. Moreover, TCE treatment suppressed scopolamine-induced oxidative damage by ameliorating the increased levels of ROS, NO, and MDA.These findings suggest that TCE exerts potent anti-amnesic effects via cholinergic modulation and anti-oxidant activity, thus providing evidence for its potential as a cognitive enhancer for amnesia.
Project description:Previous investigators have suggested the existence of distinct cognitive phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD): a dysexecutive subgroup with executive functioning worse than memory and an amnesic subgroup with memory worse than executive functioning. We evaluated data from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative. We assigned people with AD to dysexecutive and amnesic subgroups using single indicators, and analogously using the ADNI-Mem and ADNI-EF composite scores developed using modern psychometric approaches. We evaluated associations between subgroup membership, APOE genotype, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with AD, and brain vascular disease defined as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and MRI-identified infarcts. We hypothesized that APOE ?4 and alleles associated with higher risk for AD would predict amnesic subgroup membership; alleles associated with higher WMH or infarct burden would predict dysexecutive subgroup membership. Classification agreement between the two approaches was only fair (kappa?=?0.23). There was no relationship between APOE alleles and the dysexecutive or amnesic phenotypes defined by either categorization approach. There were 58 AD-related and 25 WMH- or infarct-related SNPs for which odds ratios were > 1.5 or < 0.67 for dysexecutive vs. amnesic subgroup defined by either categorization approach. Higher proportions of SNPs had odds ratios in the hypothesized direction for the subgroups defined by the modern psychometric approach for AD-related (58 % vs. 38 %, p-value?<?0.001) and brain vascular disease-related SNPs (48 vs. 32 %, p-value?=?0.01). Genetic variation may underlie differential performance in memory and executive functioning among people with AD. Modern psychometric composite scores produced group assignments with more SNP associations in the hypothesized direction.
Project description:Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) have beneficial effects on memory in preclinical and clinical studies. Development of these drugs has stalled due to dose-limiting side effects of nausea and emesis. While use of subtype-selective inhibitors (i.e., for PDE4A, B, or D) could overcome this issue, conservation of the catalytic region, to which classical inhibitors bind, limits this approach. The present study examined the effects of BPN14770, an allosteric inhibitor of PDE4D, which binds to a primate-specific, N-terminal region. In mice engineered to express PDE4D with this primate-specific sequence, BPN14770 was 100-fold more potent for improving memory than in wild-type mice; meanwhile, it exhibited low potency in a mouse surrogate model for emesis. BPN14770 also antagonized the amnesic effects of scopolamine, increased cAMP signaling in brain, and increased BDNF and markers of neuronal plasticity associated with memory. These data establish a relationship between PDE4D target engagement and effects on memory for BPN14770 and suggest clinical potential for PDE4D-selective inhibitors.
Project description:Sigma-ligands comprise several chemically unrelated drugs such as haloperidol, pentazocine, and ditolylguanidine, which bind to a family of low molecular mass proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. These so-called sigma-receptors are believed to mediate various pharmacological effects of sigma-ligands by as yet unknown mechanisms. Based on their opposite enantioselectivity for benzomorphans and different molecular masses, two subtypes are differentiated. We purified the sigma1-binding site as a single 30-kDa protein from guinea pig liver employing the benzomorphan(+)[3H]pentazocine and the arylazide (-)[3H]azidopamil as specific probes. The purified (+)[3H]pentazocine-binding protein retained its high affinity for haloperidol, pentazocine, and ditolylguanidine. Partial amino acid sequence obtained after trypsinolysis revealed no homology to known proteins. Radiation inactivation of the pentazocine-labeled sigma1-binding site yielded a molecular mass of 24 +/- 2 kDa. The corresponding cDNA was cloned using degenerate oligonucleotides and cDNA library screening. Its open reading frame encoded a 25.3-kDa protein with at least one putative transmembrane segment. The protein expressed in yeast cells transformed with the cDNA showed the pharmacological characteristics of the brain and liver sigma1-binding site. The deduced amino acid sequence was structurally unrelated to known mammalian proteins but it shared homology with fungal proteins involved in sterol synthesis. Northern blots showed high densities of the sigma1-binding site mRNA in sterol-producing tissues. This is also in agreement with the known ability of sigma1-binding sites to interact with steroids, such as progesterone.
Project description:Two groups of adolescents, one born preterm and one with a diagnosis of developmental amnesia, were compared with age-matched normal controls on measures of hippocampal volume and memory function. Relative to control values, the preterm group values showed a mean bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume of 8-9% (ranging to 23%), whereas the developmental amnesic group values showed a reduction of 40% (ranging from 27% to 56%). Despite equivalent IQ and immediate memory scores in the two study groups, there were marked differences between them on a wide variety of verbal and visual delayed memory tasks. Consistent with their diagnosis, the developmental amnesic group was impaired relative to both other groups on nearly all delayed memory measures. The preterm group, by contrast, was significantly impaired relative to the controls on only a few memory measures, i.e., route following and prospective memory. We suggest that early hippocampal pathology leads to the disabling memory impairments associated with developmental amnesia when the volume of this structure is reduced below normal by approximately 20-30% on each side. Whether this is a sufficient condition for the disorder or whether abnormality in other brain regions is also necessary remains to be determined.