Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, in a range of animal models.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blockade of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors is a good treatment option for a variety of central nervous system disorders. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, as a potential drug candidate. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: AMPA antagonist effects of EGIS-8332 were measured using patch-clamp techniques. Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332 were evaluated in various experimental models, relative to those of GYKI 53405. KEY RESULTS: EGIS-8332 inhibited AMPA currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibited the AMPA- and quisqualate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cultures of telencephalon neurons (IC(50)=5.1-9.0 microM), in vitro. Good anticonvulsant actions were obtained in maximal electroshock-, sound- and chemically-induced seizures (range of ED(50)=1.4-14.0 mg kg(-1) i.p.) in mice. Four days after transient global cerebral ischaemia, EGIS-8332 decreased neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 area in gerbils and rats. EGIS-8332 dose-dependently reduced cerebral infarct size after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice and rats (minimum effective dose=3 mg kg(-1) i.p.). Side effects of EGIS-8332 emerged much above its pharmacologically active doses. A tendency for better efficacy of GYKI 53405 than that of EGIS-8332 was observed in anticonvulsant tests that reached statistical significance in few cases, while the contrary was perceived in cerebral ischaemia tests. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: EGIS-8332 seems suitable for further development for the treatment of epilepsy, ischaemia and stroke based on its efficacy in a variety of experimental disease models, and on its low side effect potential.
Project description:1. The electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of the propsychotic agent phencyclidine (PCP), were studied in conscious rats using power spectra (0 - 30 Hz), from the prefrontal cortex or sensorimotor cortex. PCP (0.1 - 3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) caused a marked dose-dependent increase in EEG power in the frontal cortex at 1 - 3 Hz with decreases in power at higher frequencies (9 - 30 Hz). At high doses (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) the entire spectrum shifted to more positive values, indicating an increase in cortical synchronization. MK 801 (0.05 - 0.1 mg kg(-1) i.p.) caused similar effects but with lesser changes in power. 2. In contrast, the non-competitive AMPA antagonists GYKI 52466 and GYKI 53655 increased EEG power over the whole power spectrum (1 - 10 mg kg(-1) i.p.). The atypical antipsychotic clozapine (0.2 mg kg(-1) s.c.) synchronized the EEG (peak 8 Hz). The 5-HT(2A)-antagonist, M100907, specifically increased EEG power at 2 - 3 Hz at low doses (10 and 50 microg kg(-1) s.c.), whereas at higher doses (0.1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) the profile resembled that of clozapine. 3. Clozapine (0.2 mg kg(-1) s.c. ), GYKI 53655 (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), prazosin (0.05 and 0.1 mg kg(-1) i.p.), and M100907 (0.01 and 0.05 mg kg(-1) s.c.) antagonized the decrease in power between 5 and 30 Hz caused by PCP (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.), but not the increase in power at 1 - 3 Hz in prefrontal cortex.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Based on their proven ability, in animal models of stroke, to reduce damage to brain grey matter, many drugs have been tested in clinical trials but without success. Failure to save axons from injury and to protect functional outcome has been proposed as the major reason for this lack of success. We have previously demonstrated in two rodent models of cerebral ischaemia, that AS601245 (1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl (2-([2-(3-pyridinyl) ethyl] amino)-4 pyrimidinyl) acetonitrile), an inhibitor of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), has neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study was to further investigate if AS601245 in addition to its ability to protect neurons also could protect neurites and preserve memory after cerebral ischaemia, in gerbils. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using immunohistochemical techniques and a behavioural test, we studied the effect of the compound AS601245 on neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits after global cerebral ischaemia in gerbils. KEY RESULTS: At a dose of 80 mg kg(-1), i.p., AS601245 reduced damage to neurites by 67% (P<0.001 versus controls) and activation of astrocytes by 84% (P<0.001 versus controls). In addition, AS601245 (80 mg kg(-1), i.p.) prevented ischaemia-induced impairment of memory in the inhibitory avoidance task model. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The present results suggest that AS601245 reduced damage to neurites and decreased astrogliosis following global ischaemia and also improved long-term memory, supporting JNK inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy for ischaemic insults to the CNS.
Project description:The AMPA receptor GluA2 belongs to the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors, which are responsible for most of the fast excitatory neuronal signalling in the central nervous system. These receptors are important for memory and learning, but have also been associated with brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. Today, one drug is on the market for the treatment of epilepsy targeting AMPA receptors, i.e. a negative allosteric modulator of these receptors. Recently, crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of full-length GluA2 in the resting (apo), activated and desensitized states have been reported. Here, solution structures of full-length GluA2 are reported using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with a novel, fully matched-out detergent. The GluA2 solution structure was investigated in the resting state as well as in the presence of AMPA and of the negative allosteric modulator GYKI-53655. In solution and at neutral pH, the SANS data clearly indicate that GluA2 is in a compact form in the resting state. The solution structure resembles the crystal structure of GluA2 in the resting state, with an estimated maximum distance (D max) of 179 ± 11?Å and a radius of gyration (R g) of 61.9 ± 0.4?Å. An ab initio model of GluA2 in solution generated using DAMMIF clearly showed the individual domains, i.e. the extracellular N-terminal domains and ligand-binding domains as well as the transmembrane domain. Solution structures revealed that GluA2 remained in a compact form in the presence of AMPA or GYKI-53655. At acidic pH only, GluA2 in the presence of AMPA adopted a more open conformation of the extracellular part (estimated D max of 189 ± 5?Å and R g of 65.2 ± 0.5?Å), resembling the most open, desensitized class 3 cryo-EM structure of GluA2 in the presence of quisqualate. In conclusion, this methodological study may serve as an example for future SANS studies on membrane proteins.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sinomenine (SN), a bioactive alkaloid, has been utilized clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis in China. Our preliminary experiments indicated that it could protect PC12 cells from oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-R), we thus investigated the possible effects of SN on cerebral ischaemia and the related mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats was used as an animal model of ischaemic stroke in vivo. The mechanisms of the effects of SN were investigated in vitro using whole-cell patch-clamp recording, calcium imaging in PC12 cells and rat cortical neurons subjected to OGD-R. KEY RESULTS: Pretreatment with SN (10 and 30 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) significantly decreased brain infarction and the overactivation of calcium-mediated events in rats subjected to 2 h ischaemia followed by 24 h reperfusion. Extracellular application of SN inhibited the currents mediated by acid-sensing ion channel 1a and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, in the rat cultured neurons, in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects contribute to the neuroprotection of SN against OGD-R and extracellular acidosis-induced cytotoxicity. More importantly, administration of SN (30 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) at 1 and 2 h after cerebral ischaemia also decreased brain infarction and improved functional recovery. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: SN exerts potent protective effects against ischaemic brain injury when administered before ischaemia or even after the injury. The inhibitory effects of SN on acid-sensing ion channel 1a and L-type calcium channels are involved in this neuroprotection.
Project description:Cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury is a major challenge due to the lack of effective neuroprotective drugs. Hederagenin (HE) is the aglycone part of saponins extracted from Hedera helix Linné that has exhibited anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects; however, the role of HE in CI/R has not been elucidated. In this study, mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with HE (26.5, 53, or 106 ?mol/kg body weight) for 3 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neural function and brain infarct volume were evaluated. HE treatment attenuated CI/R-induced apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine expression within the infarcted areas. HE treatment also decreased the activation of the MLK3 signalling pathway, which potentiates CI/R damage via the MAPK and NF?B pathways. Due to HE's safety profile, it has potential to be used for the clinical treatment of ischaemic stroke.
Project description:Oleic acid (OA) is released from brain phospholipids after cerebral ischaemia; however, its role in ischaemic injury remains unknown. We hypothesised that OA has neuroprotective effects after cerebral ischaemia, which may be exerted through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) activation, since OA is an endogenous ligand of PPAR-γ. The effects of OA administration were evaluated in rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), photothrombosis, and four-vessel occlusion (4-VO). We determined the time window of therapeutic opportunity and examined the ability of the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 to reverse OA's protective effects after MCAO. We found that OA administration decreased the MCAO-induced infarct volume and functional deficits, photothrombosis-induced infarct volume, and 4-VO-induced hippocampal neuronal death. Additionally, OA was highly efficacious when administered up to 3 h after MCAO. Pre-treatment with GW9662 abolished the inhibitory effects of OA on the infarct volume and immunoreactivity of key inflammatory mediators in the ischaemic cortex. Our results indicate that OA has neuroprotective effects against transient and permanent focal cerebral ischaemia, as well as global cerebral ischaemia. It may have therapeutic value for the ischaemic stroke treatment with a clinically feasible therapeutic window. The OA-mediated neuroprotection might be attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions through PPAR-γ activation.
Project description:Cerebral ischemic injury has been the leading cause of death and long term disability in the world because of the lack of successful therapies to it, leading to neurological and behavioral deficits. The present study aims to investigate the effects of combined preconditioning (PC) with hypoxia and GYKI-52466 (GYKI) on cerebral ischemic injury and to explore the mechanism. The results showed that combined preconditioning with hypoxia and GYKI-52466 increased the survival rate of cerebral ischemia rats, alleviated the neurological deficit, increased the object recognition and social recognition memory of rats and suppressed the inflammatory reaction induced by cerebral ischemia. Further experiments found that preconditioning with hypoxia and GYKI-52466 significantly increased the HIF-1? and eNOS expression as well as eNOS activity, while inhibitors of HIF-1? and eNOS abolished the protective effects of hypoxia+GYKI PC on neurological deficit. Taken together, these results indicate that combined preconditioning with hypoxia and GYKI-52466 is effective to prevent cerebral ischemia injury, while HIF-1? and eNOS may be involved in the mechanism.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Andrographolide is a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional medicinal herb, Andrographis paniculata. It possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. The present study examined potential therapeutic effects of andrographolide on cerebral ischaemia using a rat model with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The MCA in rats was permanently occluded (by cautery), and 24?h later neurological effects were assessed with behavioural scores. Infarct volume and microglial activation were determined histologically. The p65 form of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), was measured by Western blot, and cytokines by immunoassay of brain extracts. KEY RESULTS: Andrographolide, given i.p. 1?h after pMCAO, reduced infarct volume with a maximum reduction of approximately 50% obtained at 0.1?mg·kg(-1). Neurological deficits were also reduced by andrographolide, reflecting a correlation between infarct volume and neurological deficits. pMCAO was found to induce activation of microglia and elevate tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and prostaglandin (PG)E(2) in the ischaemic brain areas. Andrographolide (0.1?mg·kg(-1)) significantly attenuated or abolished these effects. In addition, andrographolide suppressed the translocation of p65 from cytosol to nucleus, indicating reduced NF-?B activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Andrographolide exhibited neuroprotective effects, with accompanying suppression of NF-?B and microglial activation, and reduction in the production of cytokines including TNF-? and IL-1?, and pro-inflammatory factors such as PGE(2). Our findings suggest that andrographolide may have therapeutic value in the treatment of stroke.
Project description:Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in premature infants results in cerebral white matter lesions with prominent oligodendroglial injury and loss, a disorder termed periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We have previously shown that glutamate receptors mediate hypoxic-ischemic injury to oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) in a model of PVL in the developing rodent brain. We used primary OPC cultures to examine the mechanism of cellular toxicity induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to simulate brain ischemia. OPCs were more sensitive to OGD-induced toxicity than mature oligodendrocytes, and OPC toxicity was attenuated by nonselective [2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline (NBQX), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione], alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-preferring (GYKI 52466), kainate-preferring (gamma-d-glutamylaminomethanesulfonic acid), or Ca2+-permeable AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists (joro spider toxin, JSTx) administered either during or after OGD. Furthermore, NBQX or JSTx blocked OGD-induced Ca2+ influx. Relevant to recurrent hypoxic-ischemic insults in developing white matter, we examined the effects of sublethal OGD preconditioning. A prior exposure of OPCs to sublethal OGD resulted in enhanced vulnerability to subsequent excitotoxic or OGD-induced injury associated with an increased Ca2+ influx. AMPA/kainate receptor blockade with NBQX or JSTx either during or after sublethal OGD prevented its priming effect. Furthermore, OGD preconditioning resulted in a down-regulation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 on cell surface that increased Ca2+ permeability of the receptors. Overall, these data suggest that aberrantly enhanced activation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA/kainate receptors may be a major mechanism in acute and repeated hypoxic-ischemic injury to OPCs in disorders of developing cerebral white matter, such as PVL.
Project description:2,3-Benzodiazepine derivatives are AMPA receptor inhibitors, and they are potential drugs for treating some neurological diseases caused by excessive activity of AMPA receptors. Using a laser-pulse photolysis and rapid solution flow techniques, we characterized the mechanism of action of a 2,3-benzodiazepine derivative, termed BDZ-f, by measuring its inhibitory effect on the channel-opening and channel-closing rate constants as well as the whole-cell current amplitude of the homomeric GluA2Q AMPA receptor channels. We also investigated whether BDZ-f competes with GYKI 52466 for binding to the same site on GluA2Q(flip). GYKI 52466 is the prototypic 2,3-benzodiazepine compound, and BDZ-f is the N-3 methylcarbamoyl derivative. We found that BDZ-f is a noncompetitive inhibitor with a slight preference for the closed-channel state of both the flip and the flop variants of GluA2Q. Similar to other 2,3-benzodiazepine compounds that we have previously characterized, BDZ-f inhibits GluA2Q(flip) by forming an initial, loose intermediate that is partially conducting; however, this intermediate rapidly isomerizes into a tighter, fully inhibitory receptor-inhibitor complex. BDZ-f binds to the same noncompetitive site as GYKI 52466 does. Together, our results show that the addition of an N-3 methylcarbamoyl group to the diazepine ring with the azomethine feature (i.e., GYKI 52466) is what makes BDZ-f more potent and more selective toward the closed-channel conformation than the original GYKI 52466. Our results have useful implications for the structure-activity relationship of the 2,3-benzodiazepine series.