Live dynamic imaging of caveolae pumping targeted antibody rapidly and specifically across endothelium in the lung.
ABSTRACT: How effectively and quickly endothelial caveolae can transcytose in vivo is unknown, yet critical for understanding their function and potential clinical utility. Here we use quantitative proteomics to identify aminopeptidase P (APP) concentrated in caveolae of lung endothelium. Electron microscopy confirms this and shows that APP antibody targets nanoparticles to caveolae. Dynamic intravital fluorescence microscopy reveals that targeted caveolae operate effectively as pumps, moving antibody within seconds from blood across endothelium into lung tissue, even against a concentration gradient. This active transcytosis requires normal caveolin-1 expression. Whole body gamma-scintigraphic imaging shows rapid, specific delivery into lung well beyond that achieved by standard vascular targeting. This caveolar trafficking in vivo may underscore a key physiological mechanism for selective transvascular exchange and may provide an enhanced delivery system for imaging agents, drugs, gene-therapy vectors and nanomedicines. 'In vivo proteomic imaging' as described here integrates organellar proteomics with multiple imaging techniques to identify an accessible target space that includes the transvascular pumping space of the caveola.
Project description:Caveolin-1 and caveolae are differentially polarized in migrating cells in various models, and caveolin-1 expression has been shown to quantitatively modulate cell migration. PTRF/cavin-1 is a cytoplasmic protein now established to be also necessary for caveola formation. Here we tested the effect of PTRF expression on cell migration. Using fluorescence imaging, quantitative proteomics, and cell migration assays we show that PTRF/cavin-1 modulates cellular polarization, and the subcellular localization of Rac1 and caveolin-1 in migrating cells as well as PKC? caveola recruitment. PTRF/cavin-1 quantitatively reduced cell migration, and induced mesenchymal epithelial reversion. Similar to caveolin-1, the polarization of PTRF/cavin-1 was dependent on the migration mode. By selectively manipulating PTRF/cavin-1 and caveolin-1 expression (and therefore caveola formation) in multiple cell systems, we unveil caveola-independent functions for both proteins in cell migration.
Project description:Caveolae are organelles abundant in the plasma membrane of many specialized cells including endothelial cells (ECs), epithelial cells, and adipocytes, and in these cells, caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the major coat protein essential for the formation of caveolae. To identify proteins that require Cav-1 for stable incorporation into membrane raft domains, a quantitative proteomics analysis using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification was performed on rafts isolated from wild-type and Cav-1-deficient mice. In three independent experiments, 117 proteins were consistently identified in membrane rafts with the largest differences in the levels of Cav-2 and in the caveola regulatory proteins Cavin-1 and Cavin-2. Because the lung is highly enriched in ECs, we validated and characterized the role of the newly described protein Cavin-1 in several cardiovascular tissues and in ECs. Cavin-1 was highly expressed in ECs lining blood vessels and in cultured ECs. Knockdown of Cavin-1 reduced the levels of Cav-1 and -2 and weakly influenced the formation of high molecular weight oligomers containing Cav-1 and -2. Cavin-1 silencing enhanced basal nitric oxide release from ECs but blocked proangiogenic phenotypes such as EC proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis in vitro. Thus, these data support an important role of Cavin-1 as a regulator of caveola function in ECs.
Project description:Caveolae are abundant cell-surface organelles involved in lipid regulation and endocytosis. We used comparative proteomics to identify PTRF (also called Cav-p60, Cavin) as a putative caveolar coat protein. PTRF-Cavin selectively associates with mature caveolae at the plasma membrane but not Golgi-localized caveolin. In prostate cancer PC3 cells, and during development of zebrafish notochord, lack of PTRF-Cavin expression correlates with lack of caveolae, and caveolin resides on flat plasma membrane. Expression of PTRF-Cavin in PC3 cells is sufficient to cause formation of caveolae. Knockdown of PTRF-Cavin reduces caveolae density, both in mammalian cells and in the zebrafish. Caveolin remains on the plasma membrane in PTRF-Cavin knockdown cells but exhibits increased lateral mobility and accelerated lysosomal degradation. We conclude that PTRF-Cavin is required for caveola formation and sequestration of mobile caveolin into immobile caveolae.
Project description:Caveolae form a specialized platform within the plasma membrane that is crucial for an array of important biological functions, ranging from signaling to endocytosis. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and 3D fast spinning-disk confocal imaging to follow caveola dynamics for extended periods, and electron microscopy to obtain high resolution snapshots, we found that the vast majority of caveolae are dynamic with lifetimes ranging from a few seconds to several minutes. Use of these methods revealed a change in the dynamics and localization of caveolae during mitosis. During interphase, the equilibrium between the arrival and departure of caveolae from the cell surface maintains the steady-state distribution of caveolin-1 (Cav1) at the plasma membrane. During mitosis, increased dynamics coupled to an imbalance between the arrival and departure of caveolae from the cell surface induces a redistribution of Cav1 from the plasma membrane to intracellular compartments. These changes are reversed during cytokinesis. The observed redistribution of Cav1 was reproduced by treatment of interphase cells with nocodazole, suggesting that microtubule rearrangements during mitosis can mediate caveolin relocalization. This study provides new insights into the dynamics of caveolae and highlights precise regulation of caveola budding and recycling during mitosis.
Project description:Caveolae are flask-shaped plasma membrane subdomains abundant in most cell types that participate in endocytosis. Caveola formation and functions require membrane proteins of the caveolin family, and cytoplasmic proteins of the cavin family. Cationic peptide dendrimers are non-vesicular chemical carriers that can transport pharmacological agents or genetic material across the plasma membrane. We prepared a panel of cationic dendrimers and investigated whether they require caveolae to enter into cells. Cell-based studies were performed using wild type or caveola-deficient i.e. caveolin-1 or PTRF gene-disrupted cells. There was a statistically significant difference in entry of cationic dendrimers between wild type and caveola-deficient cells. We further unveiled differences between dendrimers with varying charge density and head groups. Our results show, using a molecular approach, that (i) expression of caveola-forming proteins promotes cellular entry of cationic dendrimers and (ii) dendrimer structure can be modified to promote endocytosis in caveola-forming cells.
Project description:Caveolae are abundant flask-shaped invaginations of plasma membranes that buffer membrane tension through their deformation. Few quantitative studies on the deformation of caveolae have been reported. Each caveola contains approximately 150 caveolin-1 proteins. In this study, we estimated the extent of caveolar deformation by measuring the density of caveolin-1 projected onto a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The caveolin-1 in a flattened caveola is assumed to have approximately one-quarter of the density of the caveolin-1 in a flask-shaped caveola. The proportion of one-quarter-density caveolin-1 increased after increasing the tension of the plasma membrane through hypo-osmotic treatment. The one-quarter-density caveolin-1 was soluble in detergent and formed a continuous population with the caveolin-1 in the caveolae of cells under isotonic culture. The distinct, dispersed lower-density caveolin-1 was soluble in detergent and increased after the application of tension, suggesting that the hypo-osmotic tension induced the dispersion of caveolin-1 from the caveolae, possibly through flattened caveolar intermediates.
Project description:The functions of caveolae, the characteristic plasma membrane invaginations, remain debated. Their abundance in cells experiencing mechanical stress led us to investigate their role in membrane-mediated mechanical response. Acute mechanical stress induced by osmotic swelling or by uniaxial stretching results in a rapid disappearance of caveolae, in a reduced caveolin/Cavin1 interaction, and in an increase of free caveolins at the plasma membrane. Tether-pulling force measurements in cells and in plasma membrane spheres demonstrate that caveola flattening and disassembly is the primary actin- and ATP-independent cell response that buffers membrane tension surges during mechanical stress. Conversely, stress release leads to complete caveola reassembly in an actin- and ATP-dependent process. The absence of a functional caveola reservoir in myotubes from muscular dystrophic patients enhanced membrane fragility under mechanical stress. Our findings support a new role for caveolae as a physiological membrane reservoir that quickly accommodates sudden and acute mechanical stresses.
Project description:In solid tumours, elevated interstitial fluid pressure (osmotic and hydrostatic pressure) is a barrier to drug delivery and correlates with poor prognosis. Glioblastoma (GBM) further experience compressive force when growing within a space limited by the skull. Caveolae are proposed to play mechanosensing roles, and caveola-forming proteins are overexpressed in GBM. We asked whether caveolae mediate the GBM response to osmotic pressure. We evaluated in vitro the influence of spontaneous or experimental down-regulation of caveola-forming proteins (caveolin-1, CAVIN1) on the proteolytic profile and invasiveness of GBM cells in response to osmotic pressure. In response to osmotic pressure, GBM cell lines expressing caveola-forming proteins up-regulated plasminogen activator (uPA) and/or matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), some EMT markers and increased their in vitro invasion potential. Down-regulation of caveola-forming proteins impaired this response and prevented hyperosmolarity-induced mRNA expression of the water channel aquaporin 1. CRISPR ablation of caveola-forming proteins further lowered expression of matrix proteases and EMT markers in response to hydrostatic pressure, as a model of mechanical force. GBM respond to pressure by increasing matrix-degrading enzyme production, mesenchymal phenotype and invasion. Caveola-forming proteins mediate, at least in part, the pro-invasive response of GBM to pressure. This may represent a novel target in GBM treatment.
Project description:Caveolae are bulb-shaped nanodomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. They have many physiological functions, including endocytic transport, mechanosensing, and regulation of membrane and lipid transport. Caveola formation relies on integral membrane proteins termed caveolins (Cavs) and the cavin family of peripheral proteins. Both protein families bind anionic phospholipids, but the precise roles of these lipids are unknown. Here, we studied the effects of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) on caveolar formation and dynamics. Using live-cell, single-particle tracking of GFP-labeled Cav1 and ultrastructural analyses, we compared the effect of PtdSer disruption or phosphoinositide depletion with caveola disassembly caused by cavin1 loss. We found that PtdSer plays a crucial role in both caveola formation and stability. Sequestration or depletion of PtdSer decreased the number of detectable Cav1-GFP puncta and the number of caveolae visualized by electron microscopy. Under PtdSer-limiting conditions, the co-localization of Cav1 and cavin1 was diminished, and cavin1 degradation was increased. Using rapamycin-recruitable phosphatases, we also found that the acute depletion of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 has minimal impact on caveola assembly but results in decreased lateral confinement. Finally, we show in a model of phospholipid scrambling, a feature of apoptotic cells, that caveola stability is acutely affected by the scrambling. We conclude that the predominant plasmalemmal anionic lipid PtdSer is essential for proper Cav clustering, caveola formation, and caveola dynamics and that membrane scrambling can perturb caveolar stability.
Project description:Caveolae are an abundant feature of the plasma membrane in many cells. Until recently, they were generally considered to be membrane invaginations whose formation primarily driven by integral membrane proteins called caveolins. However, the past decade has seen the emergence of the cavin family of peripheral membrane proteins as essential coat components and regulators of caveola biogenesis. In this Commentary, we summarise recent data on the role of cavins in caveola formation, highlighting structural studies that provide new insights into cavin coat assembly. In mammals, there are four cavin family members that associate through homo- and hetero-oligomerisation to form distinct subcomplexes on caveolae, which can be released into the cell in response to stimuli. Studies from several labs have provided a better understanding of cavin stoichiometry and the molecular basis for their oligomerisation, as well as identifying interactions with membrane phospholipids that may be important for caveola function. We propose a model in which coincident, low-affinity electrostatically controlled protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions allow the formation of caveolae, generating a meta-stable structure that can respond to plasma membrane stress by release of cavins.