Intestinal tumorigenesis is suppressed in mice lacking the metalloproteinase matrilysin.
ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) classically have been implicated in basement membrane destruction associated with late-stage tumor cell invasion and metastasis. However, recent studies have demonstrated that one MMP family member, matrilysin, is expressed in a high percentage of early-stage human colorectal tumors. We analyzed matrilysin expression in benign intestinal tumors from mice heterozygous for the ApcMin allele (Min/+) and found that the mRNA was induced in the majority (88%) of these adenomas. Protein was detected in the tumor cells, where, surprisingly, it was predominantly immunolocalized to the lumenal surface of dysplastic glands rather than the basement membrane or extracellular matrix. To address the role of matrilysin in Min intestinal tumorigenesis, we generated Min/+ mice deficient in this MMP by gene targeting and homologous recombination. The absence of matrilysin resulted in a reduction in mean tumor multiplicity in Min/+ animals of approximately 60% and a significant decrease in the average tumor diameter. Based on these findings, we conclude that matrilysin is a suppressor of the Min phenotype, possibly by functioning in a capacity independent of matrix degradation. These results argue for the use of MMP inhibitors in the treatment and prevention of early-stage colon cancer.
Project description:The matrix metalloproteinase matrilysin (MMP-7) is expressed in the tumor cells of a majority of mouse intestinal and human colonic adenomas. We showed previously that matrilysin is a target gene of beta-catenin-Tcf, the transcription factor complex whose activity is thought to play a crucial role in the initiation of intestinal tumorigenesis. Here we report that overexpression of a stable mutant form of beta-catenin alone was not sufficient to effect expression of luciferase from a matrilysin promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid. However, cotransfection of the reporter with an expression vector encoding the PEA3 Ets transcription factor, or its close relatives ER81 and ERM, increased luciferase expression and rendered the promoter responsive to beta-catenin-LEF-1 as well as to the AP-1 protein c-Jun. Other Ets proteins could not substitute for the PEA3 subfamily. Luciferase activity was induced up to 250-fold when PEA3, c-Jun, beta-catenin, and LEF-1 were coexpressed. This combination of transcription factors was also sufficient to induce expression of the endogenous matrilysin gene. Furthermore, all matrilysin-expressing benign intestinal tumors of the Min mouse expressed a member of the PEA3 subfamily, as did all human colon tumor cell lines examined. These data suggest that the expression of members of the PEA3 subfamily, in conjunction with the accumulation of beta-catenin in these tumors, leads to coordinate upregulation of matrilysin gene transcription, contributing to gastrointestinal tumorigenesis.
Project description:Interrupting the interplay between cancer cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) is a strategy to halt tumor progression and stromal invasion. Perlecan/heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) is an extracellular proteoglycan that orchestrates tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, differentiation and invasion. Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) cells degrade perlecan-rich tissue borders to reach bone, including the basement membrane, vasculature, reactive stromal matrix and bone marrow. Domain IV-3, perlecan's last 7 immunoglobulin repeats, mimics native proteoglycan by promoting tumoroid formation. This is reversed by matrilysin/matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) cleavage to favor cell dispersion and tumoroid dyscohesion. Both perlecan and Domain IV-3 induced a strong focal adhesion kinase (FAK) dephosphorylation/deactivation. MMP-7 cleavage of perlecan reversed this, with FAK in dispersed tumoroids becoming phosphorylated/activated with metastatic phenotype. We demonstrated Domain IV-3 interacts with the axon guidance protein semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) on PCa cells to deactivate pro-metastatic FAK. Sema3A antibody mimicked the Domain IV-3 clustering activity. Direct binding experiments showed Domain IV-3 binds Sema3A. Knockdown of Sema3A prevented Domain IV-3-induced tumoroid formation and Sema3A was sensitive to MMP-7 proteolysis. The perlecan-Sema3A complex abrogates FAK activity and stabilizes PCa cell interactions. MMP-7 expressing cells destroy the complex to initiate metastasis, destroy perlecan-rich borders, and favor invasion and progression to lethal bone disease.
Project description:Matrilysin, gelatinase A and gelatinase B are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) implicated in normal and pathological processes that require remodelling of the extracellular matrix. In human prostate tissue, matrilysin is synthesized in ducts surrounded by inflammatory cells, and focally in prostate carcinoma, but not in normal glands. Gelatinase B expression is restricted to inflammatory cells. Gelatinase A can be found in both benign and malignant prostate tissue. MMP activities are regulated by their transition from latent to activated forms, as well as by the presence of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We investigated whether matrilysin can activate progelatinases A and B in the presence of their bound inhibitors TIMP2 and TIMP1 respectively. Incubation of progelatinase B-TIMP1 complex with active matrilysin resulted in 78 and 68 kDa active forms, as measured by SDS-PAGE and enzyme activity assays. TIMP-free gelatinase B was also activated by matrilysin. In addition, activation of progelatinase B by matrilysin was demonstrated in the conditioned medium of phorbol ester-treated HT1080 cells, confirming the results obtained in the in vitro experiments. In contrast, matrilysin did not proteolytically cleave gelatinase A-TIMP2 complex, but led to a transient increase in gelatinolytic activity of the proenzyme. Matrilysin did not enhance the autocatalytic conversion of its own proform. The data presented here suggest that matrilysin participates in a proteolytic cascade and can activate gelatinases in the presence of TIMPs.
Project description:Perlecan/HSPG2, a large heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, normally is expressed in the basement membrane (BM) underlying epithelial and endothelial cells. During prostate cancer (PCa) cell invasion, a variety of proteolytic enzymes are expressed that digest BM components including perlecan. An enzyme upregulated in invasive PCa cells, matrilysin/matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), was examined as a candidate for perlecan proteolysis both in silico and in vitro. Purified perlecan showed high sensitivity to MMP-7 digestion even when fully decorated with HS or when presented in native context connected with other BM proteins. In both conditions, MMP-7 produced discrete perlecan fragments corresponding to an origin in immunoglobulin (Ig) repeat region domain IV. While not predicted by in silico analysis, MMP-7 cleaved every subpart of recombinantly generated perlecan domain IV. Other enzymes relevant to PCa that were tested had limited ability to cleave perlecan including prostate specific antigen, hepsin, or fibroblast activation protein ?. A long C-terminal portion of perlecan domain IV, Dm IV-3, induced a strong clustering phenotype in the metastatic PCa cell lines, PC-3 and C4-2. MMP-7 digestion of Dm IV-3 reverses the clustering effect into one favoring cell dispersion. In a C4-2 Transwell® invasion assay, perlecan-rich human BM extract that was pre-digested with MMP-7 showed loss of barrier function and permitted a greater level of cell penetration than untreated BM extract. We conclude that enzymatic processing of perlecan in the BM or territorial matrix by MMP-7 as occurs in the invasive tumor microenvironment acts as a molecular switch to alter PCa cell behavior and favor cell dispersion and invasiveness.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of hydrolytic enzymes that play significant roles in development, morphogenesis, inflammation, and cancer invasion. Endometase (matrilysin 2 or MMP-26) is a putative early biomarker for human carcinomas. The effects of the ionic and nonionic detergents on catalytic activity of endometase were investigated. The hydrolytic activity of endometase was detergent concentration dependent, exhibiting a bell-shaped curve with its maximum activity near the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of nonionic detergents tested. The effect of Brij-35 on human gelatinase B (MMP-9), matrilysin (MMP-7), and membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) was further explored. Their maximum catalysis was observed near the CMC of Brij-35 ( approximately 90muM). Their IC(50) values were above the CMC. The inhibition mechanism of MMP-7, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP by Brij-35 was a mixed type as determined by Dixon's plot; however, the inhibition mechanism of endometase was noncompetitive with a K(i) value of 240muM. The catalytic activities of MMPs are influenced by detergents. Monomer of detergents may activate and stabilize MMPs to enhance catalysis, but micelle of detergents may sequester enzyme and block the substrate binding site to impede catalysis. Under physiological conditions, a lipid or membrane microenvironment may regulate enzymatic activity.
Project description:Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and largely untreatable group of disorders that affects up to 100,000 people on any given day in the United States. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that lead to end-stage human pulmonary fibrosis we analyzed samples from patients with histologically proven pulmonary fibrosis (usual interstitial pneumonia) by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Gene expression patterns clearly distinguished normal from fibrotic lungs. Many of the genes that were significantly increased in fibrotic lungs encoded proteins associated with extracellular matrix formation and degradation and proteins expressed in smooth muscle. Using a combined set of scoring systems we determined that matrilysin (matrix metalloproteinase 7), a metalloprotease not previously associated with pulmonary fibrosis, was the most informative increased gene in our data set. Immunohistochemisry demonstrated increased expression of matrilysin protein in fibrotic lungs. Furthermore, matrilysin knockout mice were dramatically protected from pulmonary fibrosis in response to intratracheal bleomycin. Our results identify matrilysin as a mediator of pulmonary fibrosis and a potential therapeutic target. They also illustrate the power of global gene expression analysis of human tissue samples to identify molecular pathways involved in clinical disease.
Project description:Human matrix metalloproteinase-26 (MMP-26/endometase/matrilysin-2) is a putative biomarker for carcinomas of breast, prostate, and other cancers of epithelial origin. MMP-26 expression was silenced using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Immunological and proteomics approaches, including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, were employed to identify differential protein expression in MMP-26 knockdown cells. A comparison of the protein expression profiles of control and MMP-26 knockdown cells revealed nine differentially regulated proteins. Five of the proteins (heat shock protein 90, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), annexin V, tropomyosin, and peroxiredoxin II) were up-regulated, while alpha-tubulin, cystatin SA-III, breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) and beta-actin were down-regulated. This decrease of BRMS1 expression is concomitant with an increase of invasion through matrix-coated membranes. These results suggest an important role for MMP-26 in the regulation of proteins involved in invasive and metastatic breast cancers.
Project description:Matrilysin-1 (also called matrix metalloproteinase-7) is expressed in injured lung and in cancer but not in normal epithelia. Bronchiolization of the alveoli (BOA), a potential precursor of lung cancer, is a histologically distinct type of metaplasia that is composed of cells resembling airway epithelium in the alveolar compartment. We demonstrate that there is increased expression of matrilysin-1 in human lesions and BOA in the CC10-human achaete-scute homolog-1 transgenic mouse model. Forced expression of the matrilysin-1 gene in immortalized human normal airway epithelial BEAS-2B and HPLD1 cells, which do not normally express matrilysin-1, promoted cellular migration, suggesting a functional link for BOA formation via bronchiolar cell migration. In addition, matrilysin-1 stimulated proliferation and inhibited Fas-induced apoptosis, while a knockdown by RNA interference decreased cell growth, migration, and increased sensitivity to apoptosis. Western blotting demonstrated increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Erk1/2 kinases after matrilysin-1 expression. Gene expression analysis uncovered several genes that were related to cell growth, migration/movement, and death, which could potentially facilitate bronchiolization. In vivo, the formation of BOA lesions was reduced when CC10-human achaete-scute homolog-1 mice were crossed with matrilysin-1 null mice and was correlated with reduced matrilysin-1 expression in BOA. We conclude that matrilysin-1 may play an important role in the bronchiolization of alveoli by promoting proliferation, migration, and attenuation of apoptosis involving multiple genes in the MAP kinase pathway.
Project description:Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs)-induced altered proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins and basement membrane holds the key for tumor progression and metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinases-7 (Matrilysin), the smallest member of the MMP family also performs quite alike; thus serves as a potential candidate for anti-tumor immunotherapy. Conversely, being an endogenous tumor-associated antigen (TAA), targeting MMP-7 for immunization is challenging. But MMP-7-based xenovaccine can surmount the obstacle of poor immunogenicity and immunological tolerance, often encountered in TAA-based conventional vaccine for anti-tumor immunotherapy. This paves the way for investigating the potential of MMP-7-derived major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-binding peptides to elicit precise epitope-specific T-cell responses towards their possible inclusion in anti-tumor vaccine formulations. Perhaps it also ushers the path of achieving multiple epitope-based broad and universal cellular immunity. In current experiment, an immunoinformatics approach has been employed to identify the putative canine matrix matelloproteinases-7 (cMMP-7)-derived peptides with MHC class-I-binding motifs which can elicit potent antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice. Immunization with the cMMP-7 DNA vaccine induced a strong CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and Th1- type response, with high level of gamma interferon (IFN-?) production in BALB/c mice. The two identified putative MHC-I-binding nonameric peptides (Peptide32-40 and Peptide175-183) from cMMP-7 induced significant lymphocyte proliferation along with the production of IFN-? from CD8+ T-cells in mice immunized with cMMP-7 DNA vaccine. The current observation has depicted the immunogenic potential of the two cMMP-7-derived nonapeptides for their possible exploitation in xenovaccine-mediated anti-tumor immunotherapy in mouse model.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) cells use matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade tissue during invasion. Perlecan/HSPG2 is degraded at basement membranes, in reactive stroma and in bone marrow during metastasis. We previously showed MMP-7 efficiently degrades perlecan. We now analyzed PCa tissue and serum from 288 prostatectomy patients of various Gleason grades to decipher the relationship between perlecan and MMP-7 in invasive PCa. In 157 prostatectomy specimens examined by tissue microarray, perlecan levels were 18% higher than their normal counterparts. In Gleason grade 4 tissues, MMP-7 and perlecan immunostaining levels were highly correlated with each other (average correlation coefficient of 0.52) in PCa tissue, regardless of grade. Serial sections showed intense, but non-overlapping, immunostaining for MMP-7 and perlecan at adjacent borders, reflecting the protease-substrate relationship. Using a capture assay, analysis of 288 PCa sera collected at prostatectomy showed elevated levels of perlecan fragments, with most derived from domain IV. Perlecan fragments in PCa sera were associated with overall MMP-7 staining levels in PCa tissues. Domain IV perlecan fragments were present in stage IV, but absent in normal, sera, suggesting perlecan degradation during metastasis. Together, perlecan fragments in sera and MMP-7 in tissues of PCa patients are measures of invasive PCa.