Framingham Heart Study genome-wide association: results for pulmonary function measures.
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary function measures obtained by spirometry are used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and are highly heritable. We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses (Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip) for measures of lung function in the Framingham Heart Study.Ten spirometry phenotypes including percent of predicted measures, mean spirometry measures over two examinations, and rates of change based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow from the 25th to 75th percentile (FEF25-75), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and the FEF25-75/FVC ratio were examined. Percent predicted phenotypes were created using each participant's latest exam with spirometry. Predicted lung function was estimated using models defined in the set of healthy never-smokers, and standardized residuals of percent predicted measures were created adjusting for smoking status, pack-years, and body mass index (BMI). All modeling was performed stratified by sex and cohort. Mean spirometry phenotypes were created using data from two examinations and adjusting for age, BMI, height, smoking and pack-years. Change in pulmonary function over time was studied using two to four examinations with spirometry to calculate slopes, which were then adjusted for age, height, smoking and pack-years.Analyses were restricted to 70,987 autosomal SNPs with minor allele frequency > or = 10%, genotype call rate > or = 80%, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p-value > or = 0.001. A SNP in the interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) on chromosome 1 was among the best results for percent predicted FEF25-75. A non-synonymous coding SNP in glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (GSTO2) on chromosome 10 had top-ranked results studying the mean FEV1 and FVC measurements from two examinations. SNPs nearby the SOD3 and vitamin D binding protein genes, candidate genes for COPD, exhibited association to percent predicted phenotypes.GSTO2 and IL6R are credible candidate genes for association to pulmonary function identified by GWA. These and other observed associations warrant replication studies. This resource of GWA results for pulmonary function measures is publicly available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?id=phs000007 webcite.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>FEF25-75 is one of the standard results provided in spirometry reports; however, in adult asthmatics there is limited information on how this physiological measure relates to clinical or biological outcomes independently of the FEV1 or the FEV1/FVC ratio.<h4>Purpose</h4>To determine the association between Hankinson's percent-predicted FEF25-75 (FEF25-75%) levels with changes in healthcare utilization, respiratory symptom frequency, and biomarkers of distal airway inflammation.<h4>Methods</h4>In participants enrolled in the Severe Asthma Research Program 1-2, we compared outcomes across FEF25-75% quartiles. Multivariable analyses were done to avoid confounding by demographic characteristics, FEV1, and the FEV1/FVC ratio. In a sensitivity analysis, we also compared outcomes across participants with FEF25-75% below the lower limit of normal (LLN) and FEV1/FVC above LLN.<h4>Results</h4>Subjects in the lowest FEF25-75% quartile had greater rates of healthcare utilization and higher exhaled nitric oxide and sputum eosinophils. In multivariable analysis, being in the lowest FEF25-75% quartile remained significantly associated with nocturnal symptoms (OR 3.0 [95%CI 1.3-6.9]), persistent symptoms (OR 3.3 [95%CI 1-11], ICU admission for asthma (3.7 [1.3-10.8]) and blood eosinophil % (0.18 [0.07, 0.29]). In the sensitivity analysis, those with FEF25-75% <LLN had significantly more nocturnal and persistent symptoms, emergency room visits, higher serum eosinophil levels and increased methacholine responsiveness.<h4>Conclusions</h4>After controlling for demographic variables, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, a reduced FEF25-75% is independently associated with previous ICU admission, persistent symptoms, nocturnal symptoms, blood eosinophilia and bronchial hyperreactivity. This suggests that in some asthmatics, a reduced FEF25-75% is an independent biomarker for more severe asthma.
Project description:People generally spend more time indoors than outdoors resulting in a higher proportion of exposure to particulate matter (PM) occurring indoors. Consequently, indoor PM levels, in contrast to outdoor PM levels, may have a stronger relationship with lung function. To test this hypothesis, indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and fungal spore data were simultaneously collected from the homes of forty-four asthmatic children aged 10-16?years. An optical absorption technique was utilized on the collected PM2.5 mass to obtain concentrations of black carbon (BC) and ultraviolet light absorbing particulate matter, (UVPM; a marker of light absorbing PM2.5 emitted from smoldering organics). Enrolled children completed spirometry after environmental measurements were made. Given the high correlation between PM2.5, BC, and UVPM, principal component analysis was used to obtain uncorrelated summaries of the measured PM. Separate linear mixed-effect models were developed to estimate the association between principal components of the PM variables and spirometry values, as well as the uncorrelated original PM variables and spirometry values. A one-unit increase in the first principal component variable representing indoor PM (predominantly composed of UVPM and PM2.5) was associated with 4.1% decrease (99% CI?=?-6.9, -1.4) in FEV1/FVC ratio. 11.3??g/m3 increase in indoor UVPM was associated with 6.4% and 14.7% decrease (99% CI?=?-10.4, -2.4 and 99% CI?=?-26.3, -2.9, respectively) in percent predicted FEV1/FVC ratio and FEF25-75 respectively. Additionally, 17.7??g/m3 increase in indoor PM2.5 was associated with 6.1% and 12.9% decrease (99% CI?=?-10.2, -1.9 and 99% CI?=?-24.9, -1.0, respectively) in percent predicted FEV1/FVC ratio and FEF25-75, respectively. Outdoor PM, indoor BC, and indoor fungal spores were not significantly associated with lung function. The results indicate that indoor PM is more strongly associated with lung function in children with asthma as compared with outdoor PM.
Project description:Rationale: Molecular markers of disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are needed. Objective: Derive and validate a blood transcriptomic predictor of forced vital capacity (FVC) decline. Methods: A training cohort (n=74) of IPF patients was stratified according to the presence of progressive disease, defined as ≥10% relative decline in FVC over 12 months. Baseline to 4-month within-patient changes in gene expression were correlated with categorical FVC decline. Genes predictive of FVC decline were identified by two-group comparison with false discovery rate <5% followed by logistic LASSO regression and 10-Fold Cross-Validation for gene list prioritization. Independent validation cohorts with differing transcriptome assay platforms and blood transcriptome sampling times from UChicago (n=27), UPMC (n=35), and Imperial (n=24) underwent receiver operating characteristic with area under the curve (AUC) analyses for validation. Results: A longitudinally-derived FVC-gene predictor accurately discriminated most patients with stable and progressive IPF across four independent IPF cohorts with variable transcriptomic assay platforms and sampling times. The FVC-gene predictorand demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 74.3% and 82.4% in the combined replication cohort. The likelihood ratio, LR+ and LR- were 4.11 and 0.32, respectively. TGF-beta was the highest-ranking canonical pathway by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. An approach using longitudinal gene expression changes approach dramatically reduced within-group variation compared to cross-sectional expression for improved prediction modeling. Conclusions: This novel FVC-gene predictor developed from short-term longitudinal gene expression changes successfully discriminates most patients with high likelihood of one-year 10% FVC decline. This tool may better reflect disease activity and prove useful for predictive enrichment of clinical trial populations. Overall design: Study populations were collected from the University of Chicago Medical Center and was approved by the institutional review board (IRB#14163) and informed consent was provided by all study subjects. All patients with IPF met American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) diagnosis criteria. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, and pulmonary function tests were collected from all patients with IPF. Spirometry testing, including forced vital capacity percent predicted (FVC% predicted), diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide percent predicted (DLCO % predicted) as well as lung volumes by plethysmography were obtained per ATS guidelines. The prognosis of IPF subjects was dichotomously categorized as FVC stable (FVC-S) or FVC decline (FVC-D) defined by < or ≥10% reduction in FVC% predicted from the baseline to over 2 years of follow-up. PBMC samples were analyzed.
Project description:The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse produced a massive exposure to respirable particulates in New York City Fire Department (FDNY) rescue workers. This group had spirometry examinations pre-September 11, 2001, and post-September 11, 2001, demonstrating declines in lung function with parallel declines in FEV(1) and FVC. To date, the underlying pathophysiologic cause for this has been open to question.Of 13,234 participants in the FDNY-WTC Monitoring Program, 1,720 (13%) were referred for pulmonary subspecialty evaluation at a single institution. Evaluation included 919 full pulmonary function tests, 1,219 methacholine challenge tests, and 982 high-resolution chest CT scans.At pulmonary evaluation (median 34 months post-September 11, 2001), median values were FEV(1) 93% predicted (interquartile range [IQR], 83%-101%), FVC 98% predicted (IQR, 89%-106%), and FEV(1)/FVC 0.78 (IQR, 0.72-0.82). The residual volume (RV) was 123% predicted (IQR, 106%-147%) with nearly all participants having normal total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. Also, 1,051/1,720 (59%) had obstructive airways disease based on at least one of the following: FEV(1)/FVC, bronchodilator responsiveness, hyperreactivity, or elevated RV. After adjusting for age, gender, race, height and weight, and tobacco use, the decline in FEV(1) post-September 11, 2001, was significantly correlated with increased RV percent predicted (P < .0001), increased bronchodilator responsiveness (P < .0001), and increased hyperreactivity (P = .0056). CT scans demonstrated bronchial wall thickening that was significantly associated with the decline in FEV(1) post-September 11, 2001 (P = .024), increases in hyperreactivity (P < .0001), and increases in RV (P < .0001). Few had evidence for interstitial disease.Airways obstruction was the predominant physiologic finding underlying the reduction in lung function post-September 11, 2001, in FDNY WTC rescue workers presenting for pulmonary evaluation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The validation of the multi-ethnic GLI-2012 spirometric norms has been debated in several countries. However, its applicability in Algeria has not been verified. AIM:To ascertain how well the GLI-2012 norms fit contemporary adult Algerian spirometric data. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 300 healthy non-smoker adults (50% men, age range: 18-85 years) recruited from the Algiers region general population. All participants underwent a clinical examination and a plethysmography measurement. Z-scores for some spirometric data [FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC (FEF25-75%)] were calculated. If the average Z-score deviated by "< ± 0.5" from the overall mean, the GLI-2012 norms would be considered as reflective of contemporary Algerian spirometry. RESULTS:The means±SDs of age, height, weight, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75% of the participants were, respectively, 48±17 years, 1.65±0.10 m, 73±14 kg, 4.04±1.04 L, 3.18±0.82 L, 0.79±0.05 and 4.09±1.09 L/s. Almost the quarter of participants were obese. The total sample means±SDs Z-scores were 0.22±0.87 for FVC, 0.04±0.88 for FEV1, -0.34±0.67 for FEV1/FVC and 0.93±0.79 for FEF25-75%. For men and women, only the means±SDs of the FEF25-75% Z-scores exceeded the threshold of "± 0.5", respectively, 1.13±0.77 and 0.73±0.76. CONCLUSION:Results of the present study, performed in an Algerian population of healthy non-smoking adults, supported the applicability of the GLI-2012 norms to interpret FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC but not the FEF25-75%.
Project description:The characteristics that predict progression to overt chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers without spirometric airflow obstruction are not clearly defined.We conducted a post hoc analysis of 849 current and former smokers (?20 pack-years) with preserved spirometry from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort who had baseline computed tomography (CT) scans of lungs and serial spirometry. We examined whether CT-derived lung volumes representing air trapping could predict adverse respiratory outcomes and more rapid decline in spirometry to overt COPD using mixed-effect linear modelling.Among these subjects with normal forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, CT-measured residual volume (RVCT) to total lung capacity (TLCCT) ratio varied widely, from 21% to 59%. Over 2.5±0.7?years of follow-up, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT had a greater differential rate of decline in FEV1/FVC; those in the upper RVCT/TLCCT tertile had a 0.66% (95% CI 0.06%-1.27%) faster rate of decline per year compared with those in the lower tertile (p=0.015) regardless of demographics, baseline spirometry, respiratory symptoms score, smoking status (former versus current) or smoking burden (pack-years). Accordingly, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT were more likely to develop spirometric COPD (OR 5.7 (95% CI 2.4-13.2) in upper versus lower RVCT/TLCCT tertile; p<0.001). Other CT indices of air trapping showed similar patterns of association with lung function decline; however, when all CT indices of air trapping, emphysema, and airway disease were included in the same model, only RVCT/TLCCT retained its significance.Increased air trapping based on radiographic lung volumes predicts accelerated spirometry decline and progression to COPD in smokers without obstruction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Reduced lung function is associated with clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about its association with incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). STUDY DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:14,946 participants aged 45 to 64 years at baseline (1987-1989) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (45.0% men and 25.2% black), with follow-up through 2012. PREDICTORS:Race- and sex-specific quartiles of percent-predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) and the proportion of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of expiration to FVC (FEV1/FVC) at baseline determined with spirometry. OUTCOMES:Incident ESRD (defined here as renal replacement therapy or death due to CKD) as the primary outcome and incident CKD (defined here as ESRD, ?25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate to a level <60mL/min/1.73m2, or CKD-related hospitalizations/deaths) as the secondary outcome. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 23.6 years, 526 (3.5%) participants developed ESRD. After adjusting for potential confounders, the cause-specific HR of incident ESRD for the lowest (vs highest) quartile was 1.72 (95% CI, 1.31-2.26) for percent-predicted FVC and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03-1.73) for FEV1/FVC. Compared to a high-normal lung function pattern, a mixed pattern (ie, percent-predicted FVC<80% and FEV1/FVC<70%; 3.4% of participants) demonstrated the highest adjusted cause-specific HR of ESRD at 2.28 (95% CI, 1.50-3.45), followed by the restrictive pattern (ie, percent-predicted FVC<80% and FEV1/FVC?70%; 4.8% of participants) at 2.03 (95% CI, 1.47-2.81), obstructive pattern (ie, percent-predicted FVC?80% and FEV1/FVC<70%; 18.9% of participants) at 1.47 (95% CI, 1.09-1.99), and low-normal pattern (ie, percent-predicted FVC 80%-<100% and FEV1/FVC?70%, or percent-predicted FVC?80% and FEV1/FVC 70%-<75%; 44.3% of participants) at 1.21 (95% CI, 0.94-1.55). Similar associations were seen with incident CKD. LIMITATIONS:Limited number of participants with moderate/severe lung dysfunction and spirometry only at baseline. CONCLUSIONS:Reduced lung function, particularly lower percent-predicted FVC, is independently associated with CKD progression. Our findings suggest a potential pathophysiologic contribution of reduced lung function to the development of CKD and a need for monitoring kidney function in persons with reduced lung function.
Project description:To investigate the association between emphysema heterogeneity in spatial distribution, pulmonary function and disease severity.We ascertained a dataset of anonymized Computed Tomography (CT) examinations acquired on 565 participants in a COPD study. Subjects with chronic bronchitis (CB) and/or bronchodilator response were excluded resulting in 190 cases without COPD and 160 cases with COPD. Low attenuations areas (LAAs) (? 950 Hounsfield Unit (HU)) were identified and quantified at the level of individual lobes. Emphysema heterogeneity was defined in a manner that ranged in value from -100% to 100%. The association between emphysema heterogeneity and pulmonary function measures (e.g., FEV1% predicted, RV/TLC, and DLco% predicted) adjusted for age, sex, and smoking history (pack-years) was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis.The majority (128/160) of the subjects with COPD had a heterogeneity greater than zero. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, and extent of emphysema, heterogeneity in depicted disease in upper lobe dominant cases was positively associated with pulmonary function measures, such as FEV1 Predicted (p<.001) and FEV1/FVC (p<.001), as well as disease severity (p<0.05). We found a negative association between HI% , RV/TLC (p<0.001), and DLco% (albeit not a statistically significant one, p = 0.06) in this group of patients.Subjects with more homogeneous distribution of emphysema and/or lower lung dominant emphysema tend to have worse pulmonary function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The identification of smoking-related lung disease in current and former smokers with normal FEV1 is complex, leading to debate regarding using a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of less than 0.70 versus the predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) for diagnosis of airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that the discordant group of ever-smokers with FEV1/FVC between the LLN and 0.70 is heterogeneous, and aimed to characterize the burden of smoking-related lung disease in this group. METHODS:We compared spirometry, chest CT characteristics, and symptoms between 161 ever-smokers in the discordant group and 940 ever-smokers and 190 never-smokers with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC?>?0.70 in the SPIROMICS cohort. We also estimated sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing objective radiographic evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using different FEV1/FVC criteria thresholds. RESULTS:The discordant group had more CT defined emphysema and non-emphysematous gas trapping, lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FEF25-75, and higher respiratory medication use compared with the other two groups. Within the discordant group, 44% had radiographic CT evidence of either emphysema or non-emphysematous gas trapping; an FEV1/FVC threshold of 0.70 has greater sensitivity but lower specificity compared with LLN for identifying individuals with CT abnormality. CONCLUSIONS:Ever-smokers with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC?<? 0.70 but > LLN are a heterogeneous group that includes significant numbers of individuals with and without radiographic evidence of smoking-related lung disease. These findings emphasize the limitations of diagnosing COPD based on spirometric criteria alone.