Na(+) channel mutation that causes both Brugada and long-QT syndrome phenotypes: a simulation study of mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Complex physiological interactions determine the functional consequences of gene abnormalities and make mechanistic interpretation of phenotypes extremely difficult. A recent example is a single mutation in the C terminus of the cardiac Na(+) channel, 1795insD. The mutation causes two distinct clinical syndromes, long QT (LQT) and Brugada, leading to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Coexistence of these syndromes is seemingly paradoxical; LQT is associated with enhanced Na(+) channel function, and Brugada with reduced function.Using a computational approach, we demonstrate that the 1795insD mutation exerts variable effects depending on the myocardial substrate. We develop Markov models of the wild-type and 1795insD cardiac Na(+) channels. By incorporating the models into a virtual transgenic cell, we elucidate the mechanism by which 1795insD differentially disrupts cellular electrical behavior in epicardial and midmyocardial cell types. We provide a cellular mechanistic basis for the ECG abnormalities observed in patients carrying the 1795insD gene mutation.We demonstrate that the 1795insD mutation can cause both LQT and Brugada syndromes through interaction with the heterogeneous myocardium in a rate-dependent manner. The results highlight the complexity and multiplicity of genotype-phenotype relationships, and the usefulness of computational approaches in establishing a mechanistic link between genetic defects and functional abnormalities.
Project description:Two mechanisms are generally proposed to explain right precordial ST-segment elevation in Brugada syndrome: 1) right ventricular (RV) subepicardial action potential shortening and/or loss of dome causing transmural dispersion of repolarization; and 2) RV conduction delay. Here we report novel mechanistic insights into ST-segment elevation associated with a Na(+) current (I(Na)) loss-of-function mutation from studies in a Dutch kindred with the COOH-terminal SCN5A variant p.Phe2004Leu. The proband, a man, experienced syncope at age 22 yr and had coved-type ST-segment elevations in ECG leads V1 and V2 and negative T waves in V2. Peak and persistent mutant I(Na) were significantly decreased. I(Na) closed-state inactivation was increased, slow inactivation accelerated, and recovery from inactivation delayed. Computer-simulated I(Na)-dependent excitation was decremental from endo- to epicardium at cycle length 1,000 ms, not at cycle length 300 ms. Propagation was discontinuous across the midmyocardial to epicardial transition region, exhibiting a long local delay due to phase 0 block. Beyond this region, axial excitatory current was provided by phase 2 (dome) of the M-cell action potentials and depended on L-type Ca(2+) current ("phase 2 conduction"). These results explain right precordial ST-segment elevation on the basis of RV transmural gradients of membrane potentials during early repolarization caused by discontinuous conduction. The late slow-upstroke action potentials at the subepicardium produce T-wave inversion in the computed ECG waveform, in line with the clinical ECG.
Project description:AIMS:SCN5A mutations are associated with arrhythmia syndromes, including Brugada syndrome, long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3), and cardiac conduction disease. Long QT syndrome type 3 patients display atrio-ventricular (AV) conduction slowing which may contribute to arrhythmogenesis. We here investigated the as yet unknown underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS:We assessed electrophysiological and molecular alterations underlying AV-conduction abnormalities in mice carrying the Scn5a1798insD/+ mutation. Langendorff-perfused Scn5a1798insD/+ hearts showed prolonged AV-conduction compared to wild type (WT) without changes in atrial and His-ventricular (HV) conduction. The late sodium current (INa,L) inhibitor ranolazine (RAN) normalized AV-conduction in Scn5a1798insD/+ mice, likely by preventing the mutation-induced increase in intracellular sodium ([Na+]i) and calcium ([Ca2+]i) concentrations. Indeed, further enhancement of [Na+]i and [Ca2+]i by the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain caused excessive increase in AV-conduction time in Scn5a1798insD/+ hearts. Scn5a1798insD/+ mice from the 129P2 strain displayed more severe AV-conduction abnormalities than FVB/N-Scn5a1798insD/+ mice, in line with their larger mutation-induced INa,L. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) caused excessive prolongation of AV-conduction in FVB/N-Scn5a1798insD/+ mice (while HV-intervals remained unchanged), which was prevented by chronic RAN treatment. Scn5a1798insD/+-TAC hearts showed decreased mRNA levels of conduction genes in the AV-nodal region, but no structural changes in the AV-node or His bundle. In Scn5a1798insD/+-TAC mice deficient for the transcription factor Nfatc2 (effector of the calcium-calcineurin pathway), AV-conduction and conduction gene expression were restored to WT levels. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate a detrimental role for enhanced INa,L and consequent calcium dysregulation on AV-conduction in Scn5a1798insD/+ mice, providing evidence for a functional mechanism underlying AV-conduction disturbances secondary to gain-of-function SCN5A mutations.
Project description:Brugada syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant, male-predominant form of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation characterized by a right bundle-branch block and ST elevation in the right precordial leads of the surface ECG. Mutations in the cardiac Na+ channel SCN5A on chromosome 3p21 cause approximately 20% of the cases of Brugada syndrome; most mutations decrease inward Na+ current, some by preventing trafficking of the channels to the surface membrane. We previously used positional cloning to identify a new locus on chromosome 3p24 in a large family with Brugada syndrome and excluded SCN5A as a candidate gene.We used direct sequencing to identify a mutation (A280V) in a conserved amino acid of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like (GPD1-L) gene. The mutation was present in all affected individuals and absent in >500 control subjects. GPD1-L RNA and protein are abundant in the heart. Compared with wild-type GPD1-L, coexpression of A280V GPD1-L with SCN5A in HEK cells reduced inward Na+ currents by approximately 50% (P<0.005). Wild-type GPD1-L localized near the cell surface to a greater extent than A280V GPD1-L. Coexpression of A280V GPD1-L with SCN5A reduced SCN5A cell surface expression by 31+/-5% (P=0.01).GPD1-L is a novel gene that may affect trafficking of the cardiac Na+ channel to the cell surface. A GPD1-L mutation decreases SCN5A surface membrane expression, reduces inward Na+ current, and causes Brugada syndrome.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:SCN5A encodes the cardiac-specific Na(V)1.5 sodium channel, and Brugada syndrome is a cardiac conduction disorder associated with sodium channel ?-subunit (SCN5A) mutation. The SCN5A-encoded Na(V)1.5 channel is also found on gastrointestinal smooth muscle and interstitial cells of Cajal. We investigated the relationship between functional dyspepsia (FD) and SCN5A mutation to evaluate sodium channelopathy in FD. METHODS:Patients with Brugada syndrome or FD were examined using upper endoscopy, electrogastrography (EGG), FD symptom questionnaire based on Rome III criteria and genetic testing for SCN5A mutation. Symptom scores of FD and EGG findings were analyzed according to SCN5A mutation. RESULTS:A total of 17 patients (4 Brugada syndrome and 13 FD) participated in the study. An SCN5A mutation was noted in 75.0% of the patients with Brugada syndrome and in 1 (7.7%) of the patients with FD. Of 4 patients with SCN5A mutation, 2 (50%) had FD. Postprandial tachygastria and bradygastria were noted in 2 (50%) and 1 (25%) of the patients with SCN5A mutation, respectively. The EGG findings were not significantly different between positive and negative mutation in 17 patients. CONCLUSIONS:Although we did not find statistically significant results, we suggest that it is meaningful to attempt to identify differences in symptoms and gastric myoelectric activity according to the presence of an SCN5A mutation by EGG analysis. The relationship between FD and sodium channelopathy should be elucidated in the future by a large-scale study.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The SCN5A gene encodes for the ?-subunit of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5, which is responsible for the rapid upstroke of the cardiac action potential. Mutations in this gene may lead to multiple life-threatening disorders of cardiac rhythm or are linked to structural cardiac defects. Here, we characterized a large family with a mutation in SCN5A presenting with an atrioventricular conduction disease and absence of Brugada syndrome.<h4>Method and results</h4>In a large family with a high incidence of sudden cardiac deaths, a heterozygous SCN5A mutation (p.1493delK) with an autosomal dominant inheritance has been identified. Mutation carriers were devoid of any cardiac structural changes. Typical ECG findings were an increased P-wave duration, an AV-block I° and a prolonged QRS duration with an intraventricular conduction delay and no signs for Brugada syndrome. HEK293 cells transfected with 1493delK showed strongly (5-fold) reduced Na(+) currents with altered inactivation kinetics compared to wild-type channels. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated strongly decreased expression of SCN5A 1493delK in the sarcolemma consistent with an intracellular trafficking defect and thereby a loss-of-function. In addition, SCN5A 1493delK channels that reached cell membrane showed gain-of-function aspects (slowing of the fast inactivation, reduction in the relative fraction of channels that fast inactivate, hastening of the recovery from inactivation).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In a large family, congregation of a heterozygous SCN5A gene mutation (p.1493delK) predisposes for conduction slowing without evidence for Brugada syndrome due to a predominantly trafficking defect that reduces Na(+) current and depolarization force.
Project description:One quarter of deaths associated with Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, are sudden and unexpected. RTT is associated with prolonged QTc interval (LQT), and LQT-associated cardiac arrhythmias are a potential cause of unexpected death. The standard of care for LQT in RTT is treatment with ?-adrenergic antagonists; however, recent work indicates that acute treatment of mice with RTT with a ?-antagonist, propranolol, does not prevent lethal arrhythmias. In contrast, acute treatment with the Na(+) channel blocker phenytoin prevented arrhythmias. Chronic dosing of propranolol may be required for efficacy; therefore, we tested the efficacy of chronic treatment with either propranolol or phenytoin on RTT mice. Phenytoin completely abolished arrhythmias, whereas propranolol showed no benefit. Surprisingly, phenytoin also normalized weight and activity, but worsened breathing patterns. To explore the role of Na(+) channel blockers on QT in people with RTT, we performed a retrospective analysis of QT status before and after Na(+) channel blocker antiepileptic therapies. Individuals with RTT and LQT significantly improved their QT interval status after being started on Na(+) channel blocker antiepileptic therapies. Thus, Na(+) channel blockers should be considered for the clinical management of LQT in individuals with RTT.
Project description:The coordinated generation and propagation of action potentials within cardiomyocytes creates the intrinsic electrical stimuli that are responsible for maintaining the electromechanical pump function of the human heart. The synchronous opening and closing of cardiac Na(+), Ca(2+), and K(+) channels corresponds with the activation and inactivation of inward depolarizing (Na(+) and Ca(2+)) and outward repolarizing (K(+)) currents that underlie the various phases of the cardiac action potential (resting, depolarization, plateau, and repolarization). Inherited mutations in pore-forming ? subunits and accessory ? subunits of cardiac K(+) channels can perturb the atrial and ventricular action potential and cause various cardiac arrhythmia syndromes, including long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and familial atrial fibrillation. In this Review, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie K(+)-channel-mediated arrhythmia syndromes. We also describe translational advances that have led to the emerging role of genetic testing and genotype-specific therapy in the diagnosis and clinical management of individuals who harbor pathogenic mutations in genes that encode ? or ? subunits of cardiac K(+) channels.
Project description:1 We studied the effects of ranolazine, an antianginal agent with promise as an antiarrhythmic drug, on wild-type (WT) and long QT syndrome variant 3 (LQT-3) mutant Na(+) channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and knock-in mouse cardiomyocytes and used site-directed mutagenesis to probe the site of action of the drug. 2 We find preferential ranolazine block of sustained vs peak Na(+) channel current for LQT-3 mutant (DeltaKPQ and Y1795C) channels (IC(50)=15 vs 135 microM) with similar results obtained in HEK 293 cells and knock-in myocytes. 3 Ranolazine block of both peak and sustained Na(+) channel current is significantly reduced by mutation (F1760A) of a single residue previously shown to contribute critically to the binding site for local anesthetic (LA) molecules in the Na(+) channel. 4 Ranolazine significantly decreases action potential duration (APD) at 50 and 90% repolarization by 23+/-5 and 27+/-3%, respectively, in DeltaKPQ mouse ventricular myocytes but has little effect on APD of WT myocytes. 5 Computational modeling of human cardiac myocyte electrical activity that incorporates our voltage-clamp data predicts marked ranolazine-induced APD shortening in cells expressing LQT-3 mutant channels. 6 Our results demonstrate for the first time the utility of ranolazine as a blocker of sustained Na(+) channel activity induced by inherited mutations that cause human disease and further, that these effects are very likely due to interactions of ranolazine with the receptor site for LA molecules in the sodium channel.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The cardiac sodium channel (Na(v)1.5) controls cardiac excitability. Accordingly, SCN5A mutations that result in loss-of-function of Na(v)1.5 are associated with various inherited arrhythmia syndromes that revolve around reduced cardiac excitability, most notably Brugada syndrome (BrS). Experimental studies have indicated that Na(v)1.5 interacts with the cytoskeleton and may also be involved in maintaining structural integrity of the heart. We aimed to determine whether clinical evidence may be obtained that Na(v)1.5 is involved in maintaining cardiac structural integrity. METHODS: Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, we compared right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) dimensions and ejection fractions between 40 BrS patients with SCN5A mutations (SCN5a-mut-positive) and 98 BrS patients without SCN5A mutations (SCN5a-mut-negative). We also studied 18 age/sex-matched healthy volunteers. RESULTS: SCN5a-mut-positive patients had significantly larger end-diastolic and end-systolic RV and LV volumes, and lower LV ejection fractions, than SCN5a-mut-negative patients or volunteers. CONCLUSIONS: Loss-of-function SCN5A mutations are associated with dilatation and impairment in contractile function of both ventricles that can be detected by CMR analysis.
Project description:The congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heritable arrhythmia in which mutations in genes coding for ion channels or ion channel associated proteins delay ventricular repolarization and place mutation carriers at risk for serious or fatal arrhythmias. Triggers and therapeutic management of LQTS arrhythmias have been shown to differ in a manner that depends strikingly on the gene that is mutated. Additionally, beta-blockers, effective in the management of LQT-1, have been thought to be potentially proarrhythmic in the treatment of LQT-3 because of concomitant slowing of heart rate that accompanies decreased adrenergic activity. Here we report that the beta-blocker propranolol interacts with wild type (WT) and LQT-3 mutant Na(+) channels in a manner that resembles the actions of local anesthetic drugs. We demonstrate that propranolol blocks Na(+) channels in a use-dependent manner; that propranolol efficacy is dependent on the inactivated state of the channel; that propranolol blocks late non-inactivating current more effectively than peak sodium current; and that mutation of the local anesthetic binding site greatly reduces the efficacy of propranolol block of peak and late Na(+) channel current. Furthermore our results indicate that this activity, like that of local anesthetic drugs, differs both with drug structure and the biophysical changes in Na(+) channel function caused by specific LQT-3 mutations.