Cytohesin-1, a cytosolic guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factor.
ABSTRACT: Cytohesin-1, a protein abundant in cells of the immune system, has been proposed to be a human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec7 gene product, which is crucial in protein transport. More recently, the same protein has been reported to be a regulatory factor for the alphaLbeta2 integrin in lymphocytes. Overexpression of human or yeast ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) genes rescues yeast with Sec7 defects, restoring secretory pathway function. ARFs, 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins initially identified by their ability to stimulate cholera toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and now recognized as critical components in intracellular vesicular transport, exist in an inactive cytosolic form with GDP bound (ARF-GDP). Interaction with a guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) accelerates exchange of GDP for GTP, producing the active ARF-GTP. Both soluble and particulate GEPs have been described. To define better the interaction between ARF and Sec7-related proteins, effects of cytohesin-1, synthesized in Escherichia coli, on ARF activity were evaluated. Cytohesin-1 enhanced binding of 35S-labeled guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate [35S]GTP[gammaS] or [3H]GDP to ARF purified from bovine brain (i.e., it appeared to function as an ARF-GEP). Addition of cytohesin-1 to ARF3 with [35S]GTP[gammaS] bound, accelerated [35S]GTP[gammaS] release to a similar degree in the presence of unlabeled GDP or GTP[gammaS] and to a lesser degree with GDP[betaS]; release was negligible without added nucleotide. Cytohesin-1 also increased ARF1 binding to a Golgi fraction, but its effect was not inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA), a drug that reversibly inhibits Golgi function. In this regard, it differs from a recently reported BFA-sensitive ARF-GEP that contains a Sec7 domain.
Project description:A human cDNA encoding an 841-aa guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) for ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), named ARF-GEP(100), which contains a Sec7 domain, a pleckstrin homology (PH)-like domain, and an incomplete IQ-motif, was identified. On Northern blot analysis of human tissues, a approximately 8-kb mRNA that hybridized with an ARF-GEP(100) cDNA was abundant in peripheral blood leukocytes, brain, and spleen. ARF-GEP(100) accelerated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding to ARF1 (class I) and ARF5 (class II) 2- to 3-fold, and to ARF6 (class III) ca. 12-fold. The ARF-GEP(100) Sec7 domain contains Asp(543) and Met(555), corresponding to residues associated with sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the fungal metabolite brefeldin A (BFA) in yeast Sec7, but also Phe(535) and Ala(536), associated with BFA-insensitivity. The PH-like domain differs greatly from those of other ARF GEPs in regions involved in phospholipid binding. Consistent with its structure, ARF-GEP(100) activity was not affected by BFA or phospholipids. After subcellular fractionation of cultured T98G human glioblastoma cells, ARF6 was almost entirely in the crude membrane fraction, whereas ARF-GEP(100), a 100-kDa protein detected with antipeptide antibodies, was cytosolic. On immunofluorescence microscopy, both proteins had a punctate pattern of distribution throughout the cells, with apparent colocalization only in peripheral areas. The coarse punctate distribution of EEA-1 in regions nearer the nucleus appeared to coincide with that of ARF-GEP(100) in those areas. No similar coincidence of ARF-GEP(100) with AP-1, AP-2, catenin, LAMP-1, or 58K was observed. The new human BFA-insensitive GEP may function with ARF6 in specific endocytic processes.
Project description:Membrane dynamic processes require Arf GTPase activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) with a Sec7 domain. Cytohesin family Arf GEFs function in signaling and cell migration through Arf GTPase activation on the plasma membrane and endosomes. In this study, the structural organization of two cytohesins (Grp1 and ARNO) was investigated in solution by size exclusion-small angle X-ray scattering and negative stain-electron microscopy and on membranes by dynamic light scattering, hydrogen-deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange assays. The results suggest that cytohesins form elongated dimers with a central coiled coil and membrane-binding pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains at opposite ends. The dimers display significant conformational heterogeneity, with a preference for compact to intermediate conformations. Phosphoinositide-dependent membrane recruitment is mediated by one PH domain at a time and alters the conformational dynamics to prime allosteric activation by Arf-GTP. A structural model for membrane targeting and allosteric activation of full-length cytohesin dimers is discussed.
Project description:Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.
Project description:Previously, we reported an acidification-dependent interaction of the endosomal vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) with cytohesin-2, a GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF), suggesting that it functions as a pH-sensing receptor. Here, we have studied the molecular mechanism of signaling between the V-ATPase, cytohesin-2, and Arf GTP-binding proteins. We found that part of the N-terminal cytosolic tail of the V-ATPase a2-subunit (a2N), corresponding to its first 17 amino acids (a2N(1-17)), potently modulates the enzymatic GDP/GTP exchange activity of cytohesin-2. Moreover, this peptide strongly inhibits GEF activity via direct interaction with the Sec7 domain of cytohesin-2. The structure of a2N(1-17) and its amino acids Phe(5), Met(10), and Gln(14) involved in interaction with Sec7 domain were determined by NMR spectroscopy analysis. In silico docking experiments revealed that part of the V-ATPase formed by its a2N(1-17) epitope competes with the switch 2 region of Arf1 and Arf6 for binding to the Sec7 domain of cytohesin-2. The amino acid sequence alignment and GEF activity studies also uncovered the conserved character of signaling between all four (a1-a4) a-subunit isoforms of mammalian V-ATPase and cytohesin-2. Moreover, the conserved character of this phenomenon was also confirmed in experiments showing binding of mammalian cytohesin-2 to the intact yeast V-ATPase holo-complex. Thus, here we have uncovered an evolutionarily conserved function of the V-ATPase as a novel cytohesin-signaling receptor.
Project description:A 200-kDa guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (p200 or GEP) for ADP-ribosylation factors 1 and 3 (ARF1 and ARF3) that was inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA) was purified earlier from cytosol of bovine brain cortex. Amino acid sequences of four tryptic peptides were 47% identical to that of Sec7 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is involved in vesicular trafficking in the Golgi. By using a PCR-based procedure with two degenerate primers representing sequences of these peptides, a product similar in size to Sec7 that contained the peptide sequences was generated. Two oligonucleotides based on this product were used to screen a bovine brain library, which yielded one clone that was a partial cDNA for p200. The remainder of the cDNA was obtained by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The ORF of the cDNA encodes a protein of 1,849 amino acids (approximately 208 kDa) that is 33% identical to yeast Sec7 and 50% identical in the Sec7 domain region. On Northern blot analysis of bovine tissues, a approximately 7.4-kb mRNA was identified that hybridized with a p200 probe; it was abundant in kidney, somewhat less abundant in lung, spleen, and brain, and still less abundant in heart. A six-His-tagged fusion protein synthesized in baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells demonstrated BFA-inhibited GEP activity, confirming that BFA sensitivity is an intrinsic property of this ARF GEP and not conferred by another protein component of the complex from which p200 was originally purified.
Project description:Arf GTPases assemble protein complexes on membranes to carry out major functions in cellular traffic. An essential step is their activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), whose Sec7 domain stimulates GDP/GTP exchange. ArfGEFs form 2 major families: ArfGEFs with DCB, HUS and HDS domains (GBF1 and BIG1/BIG2 in humans), which act at the Golgi; and ArfGEFs with a C-terminal PH domain (cytohesin, EFA6 and BRAG), which function at the plasma membrane and endosomes. In addition, pathogenic bacteria encode an ArfGEF with a unique membrane-binding domain. Here we review the allosteric regulation of Arf GTPases and their GEFs at the membrane interface. Membranes contribute several regulatory layers: at the GTPase level, where activation by GTP is coupled to membrane recruitment by a built-in structural device; at the Sec7 domain, which manipulates this device to ensure that Arf-GTP is attached to membranes; and at the level of non-catalytic ArfGEF domains, which form direct or GTPase-mediated interactions with membranes that enable a spectacular diversity of regulatory regimes. Notably, we show here that membranes increase the efficiency of a large ArfGEF (human BIG1) by 32-fold by interacting directly with its N-terminal DCB and HUS domains. The diversity of allosteric regulatory regimes suggests that ArfGEFs can function in cascades and circuits to modulate the shape, amplitude and duration of Arf signals in cells. Because Arf-like GTPases feature autoinhibitory elements similar to those of Arf GTPases, we propose that their activation also requires allosteric interactions of these elements with membranes or other proteins.
Project description:Cytohesin-1 (B2-1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for human ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases, which are important for vesicular protein trafficking and coatamer assembly in the cell. Cytohesin-1 also has been reported to promote cellular adhesion via binding to the beta2 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The solution structure of the Sec7 domain of cytohesin-1, which is responsible for both the protein's guanine nucleotide exchange factor function and beta2 integrin binding, was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of 10 alpha-helices that form a unique tertiary fold. The binding between the Sec7 domain and a soluble, truncated version of human Arf-1 was investigated by examining 1H-15N and 1H-13C chemical shift changes between the native protein and the Sec7/Arf-1 complex. We show that the binding to Arf-1 occurs through a large surface on the C-terminal subdomain that is composed of both hydrophobic and polar residues. Structure-based mutational analysis of the cytohesin-1 Sec7 domain has been used to identify residues important for binding to Arf and for mediating nucleotide exchange. Investigations into the interaction between the Sec7 domain and the beta2 integrin cytoplasmic domain suggest that the two proteins do not interact in the solution phase.
Project description:Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA6), brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (BRAG), and cytohesin subfamilies activate small GTPases of the Arf family in endocytic events. These ArfGEFs carry a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in tandem with their catalytic Sec7 domain, which is autoinhibitory and supports a positive feedback loop in cytohesins but not in BRAGs, and has an as-yet unknown role in EFA6 regulation. In this study, we analyzed how EFA6A is regulated by its PH and C terminus (Ct) domains by reconstituting its GDP/GTP exchange activity on membranes. We found that EFA6 has a previously unappreciated high efficiency toward Arf1 on membranes and that, similar to BRAGs, its PH domain is not autoinhibitory and strongly potentiates nucleotide exchange on anionic liposomes. However, in striking contrast to both cytohesins and BRAGs, EFA6 is regulated by a negative feedback loop, which is mediated by an allosteric interaction of Arf6-GTP with the PH-Ct domain of EFA6 and monitors the activation of Arf1 and Arf6 differentially. These observations reveal that EFA6, BRAG, and cytohesins have unanticipated commonalities associated with divergent regulatory regimes. An important implication is that EFA6 and cytohesins may combine in a mixed negative-positive feedback loop. By allowing EFA6 to sustain a pool of dormant Arf6-GTP, such a circuit would fulfill the absolute requirement of cytohesins for activation by Arf-GTP before amplification of their GEF activity by their positive feedback loop.
Project description:Membrane recruitment of cytohesin family Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors depends on interactions with phosphoinositides and active Arf GTPases that, in turn, relieve autoinhibition of the catalytic Sec7 domain through an unknown structural mechanism. Here, we show that Arf6-GTP relieves autoinhibition by binding to an allosteric site that includes the autoinhibitory elements in addition to the PH domain. The crystal structure of a cytohesin-3 construct encompassing the allosteric site in complex with the head group of phosphatidyl inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and N-terminally truncated Arf6-GTP reveals a large conformational rearrangement, whereby autoinhibition can be relieved by competitive sequestration of the autoinhibitory elements in grooves at the Arf6/PH domain interface. Disposition of the known membrane targeting determinants on a common surface is compatible with multivalent membrane docking and subsequent activation of Arf substrates, suggesting a plausible model through which membrane recruitment and allosteric activation could be structurally integrated.
Project description:The GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange of Arf1 is catalyzed by nucleotide exchange factors (GEF), such as Arno, which act through their catalytic Sec7 domain. This exchange is a complex mechanism that undergoes conformational changes and intermediate complex species involving several allosteric partners such as nucleotides, Mg(2+), and Sec7 domains. Using a surface plasmon resonance approach, we characterized the kinetic binding parameters for various intermediate complexes. We first confirmed that both GDP and GTP counteract equivalently to the free-nucleotide binary Arf1-Arno complex stability and revealed that Mg(2+) potentiates by a factor of 2 the allosteric effect of GDP. Then we explored the uncompetitive inhibitory mechanism of brefeldin A (BFA) that conducts to an abortive pentameric Arf1-Mg(2+)-GDP-BFA-Sec7 complex. With BFA, the association rate of the abortive complex is drastically reduced by a factor of 42, and by contrast, the 15-fold decrease of the dissociation rate concurs to stabilize the pentameric complex. These specific kinetic signatures have allowed distinguishing the level and nature as well as the fate in real time of formed complexes according to experimental conditions. Thus, we showed that in the presence of GDP, the BFA-resistant Sec7 domain of Arno can also associate to form a pentameric complex, which suggests that the uncompetitive inhibition by BFA and the nucleotide allosteric effect combine to stabilize such abortive complex.